SINKHOLES A sinkhole is a cavern or empty space beneath the topsoil that collapses during an earthquake or heavy rain. Sinkholes may pose threats to people when structures are built over them. A MAJORITY OF THE COUNTRY’S MUNICIPALITIES – 1,171 OUT OF THE TOTAL 1,490 – SIT ON SOLUBLE ROCKS. THE MGB PROGRAM USES A GROUND PENETRATING RADAR (GPR) TO DETECT SINKHOLES AND GROUND SUBSIDENCE WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY. THE THREE COMMON ROCKS THAT DISSOLVE ARE ROCKSALT, GYPSUM AND LIMES TONE (INCLUDING CHALK). DISSOLUTION OF THESE ROCKS PRODUCES CAVES, SINKHOLES, SINKING STREAMS AND LARGE SPRINGS, CREATING A LANDSCAPE KNOWN AS KARST. 5 places in the Philippines with known sinkholes (Photos and videos courtesy of respective owners): 1. Sinkhole in Bantayan Island and Badian, Cebu 2. Sinkhole in Kabankalan City, Negros Occidental 3. Baguio City sinkholes 4. Sinkhole in Bohol 5. Mysterious Underwater sinkhole of Dadiangas, GenSan 1. SINKHOLE IN BANTAYAN ISLAND AND BADIAN, CEBU A new sinkhole in Sta. Fe town in Bantayan island was found in July last year that forced families in sitio Dapdap, Barangay Langub to relocate. Initially, the hole is two to three feet wide but grew wider according to residents. The sinkhole was about 40 feet wide and 4 feet deep. 2. SINKHOLE IN KABANKALAN CITY, NEGROS OCCIDENTAL Six people have reportedly fallen into a 12 feet deep sinkhole that suddenly appeared in the middle of a basketball court in Purok Jalandoni, Barangay Oringao in Kabankalan City, Negros Occidental in July last year. MGB said the hole may have been created by water flowing underground. They considered this as a geological hazard. 3. BAGUIO CITY SINKHOLES Sinkholes are quite common in Baguio City, which also has at least seven known faults and numerous areas vulnerable to landslides. Landslides could be triggered by an earthquake or continuous rainfall, which can also cause sinkholes to wreak havoc. Because Baguio has one of the 10 highest daily rainfall records in the world and is visited by an average of five cyclones in a three-year period, landslides and sinkhole-related mishaps are expected. 4. SINKHOLE IN BOHOL The deep hole found in Barangay Cambilan, Catigbian, Bohol according to Harlans Multimedia Production who has posted the video in Youtube said it was due to the 7.2 magnitude earthquake that struck the province in October 2013. 5. MYSTERIOUS UNDERWATER SINKHOLE OF DADIANGAS, GENSAN Disaster officials are still puzzled on a deep hole suspected sinkhole at Purok Tinago, a community of informal settlers in Barangay South Dadiangas, General Santos City. Local TV stations have reported that it suddenly appeared in February this year. Local reports said the underwater hole continues to eat into the shores and gobble their homes. When they tried to measure the depth of the hole using a pumpboat anchor, only 20 dipa (fathoms) were left of the 350 fathoms of rope. SOURCE: https://www.thesummitexpress.com/2015/04/in-photos-5-places-philippines-with-mysterioussinkholes.html In the Article No 1. Sinkholes: The Philippine Experience, answer the following 1. Discuss how sinkholes are formed. 2. Discuss the relationships between limestones and sinkholes. 3. Enumerate the sinkhole-prone areas in the Philippines. What could be the reasons? 4. How to determine/probe potential sinkholes? In the Article No 2. Sinkholes: 1. Based from this article, define sinkholes. 2. What are the causes of sinkholes? 3. Discuss the three types of sinkholes. 4. Discuss the effects of sinkholes. In the Article No. 3: What are Sinkholes? 1. Define sinkholes as contextualized in this article. 2. What is the most dangerous type of sinkhole? Why? 3. What are the warning signs of sinkholes? Explain. 4. What are Blue Holes?