Uploaded by Roxanne Parkes


Developmental Psychology
(age 0-1)
(age 4-6)
Stage 4
(age 7-12)
Stage 5
(age 13-19)
Stage 6
(age 20-34)
Stage 7
(age 35-65)
Stage 8
Cognitive Development (Piaget)
(age 65+)
Crisis to be resolved:
Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt
Virtue to be attained:
Crisis to be resolved:
Initiative vs Guilt
Virtue to be attained:
Crisis to be resolved:
Industry vs Inferiority
As toddlers, children begin to develop independence and start to learn
that they can do some things on their own (such as going to the toilet). If a
child is not encouraged properly at this age, he or she might develop
shame and doubt about their abilities.
As preschoolers, children continue to develop more independence and
start to do things of their own initiative. If a child is not able to take
initiative and succeed at appropriate tasks, he or she might develop guilt
over their needs and desires.
Throughout their school years, children continue to develop selfconfidence through learning new things. If they are not encouraged and
praised properly at this age, they may develop an inferiority complex.
Virtue to be attained:
Crisis to be resolved:
Identity vs Role Confusion
Virtue to be attained:
Crisis to be resolved:
Intimacy vs Isolation
Virtue to be attained:
Crisis to be resolved:
Generativity vs Stagnation
Virtue to be attained:
Crisis to be resolved:
Integrity vs Despair
Virtue to be attained:
When they reach the teenage years, children start to care about how they
look to others. They start forming their own identity by experimenting with
who they are. If a teenager is unable to properly develop an identity at this
age, his or her role confusion will probably continue on into adulthood.
During early adulthood most people fall in love, get married and start
building their own family. If a person is unable to develop intimacy with
others at this age (whether through marriage or close friendships), they
will probably develop feelings of isolation.
This is the longest period of a human's life. It is the stage in which people
are usually working and contributing to society in some way and perhaps
raising their children. If a person does not find proper ways to be
productive during this period, they will probably develop feelings of
As senior citizens, people tend to look back on their lives and think about
what they have or have not accomplished. If a person has led a
productive life, they will develop a feeling of integrity. If not, they might fall
into despair.
During this first stage, children learn entirely through the movements they make and the
sensations that result. They learn that: 1. they exist separately from the objects and
people around them, 2. they can cause things to happen, and 3. things continue to exist
even when they can't see them
Once children acquire language, they are able to use symbols (such as words or
pictures) to represent objects. Their thinking is still very egocentric though - they assume
that everyone else sees things from the same viewpoint as they do. They are able to
understand concepts like counting, classifying according to similarity, and past-presentfuture but generally are still focused primarily on the present and on the concrete, rather
than the abstract.
At this stage, children are able to see things from different points of view and to imagine
events that occur outside their own lives. Some organized, logical thought processes are
now evident and they are able to order objects by size and color gradient and understand
that if 3+4=7 then 7-4=3, that a red square can belong to both the 'red' category and the
'square' category, and that a short wide cup can hold the same amount of liquid as a tall
thin cup. However, thinking still tends to be tied to concrete reality
Around the onset of puberty, young people are able to reason in much more abstract
ways and to test hypotheses using systematic logic. There is a much greater focus on
possibilities and on ideological issues.
(age 0-2)
(age 2-7)
Concrete Operational
(age 7-11)
Formal Operational
(age 11+)
Freud's Genital Stage
Psychosocial Development (Erikson)
Stage 3
Virtue to be attained:
Phallic Stage Latent Stage
(age 2-3)
At this stage babies learn to trust that their parents will meet their basic
needs. If a child's basic needs aren't properly met at this age, he or she
might grow up with a general mistrust of the world.
Anal Stage
Stage 2
Crisis to be resolved:
Trust vs Mistrust
Oral Stage
Stage 1
Obedience or
Stage 2
Stage 3
Social Conformity
Moral Development (Kohlberg)
Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow)
Stage 1
Stage 5
Stage 4
Law and Order
Social Contract
Stage 6
Universal Ethics
Self-Actualization Needs
Love & Belonging Needs
As children grow older, they begin to see that other people have their own goals
and preferences and that often there is room for negotiation. Decisions are made
based on the principle of "What's in it for me?" For example, an older child might
reason: "If I do what mom or dad wants me to do, they will reward me. Therefore I
will do it."
By adolescence, most individuals have developed to this stage. There is a sense
of what "good boys" and "nice girls" do and the emphasis is on living up to social
expectations and norms because of how they impact day-to-day relationships.
By the time individuals reach adulthood, they usually consider society as a whole
when making judgements The focus is on maintaining law and order by following
the rules, doing one's duty and respecting authority.
At this stage, people understand that there are differing opinions out there on
what is right and wrong and that laws are really just a social contract based on
majority decision and inevitable compromise. People at this stage sometimes
disobey rules if they find them to be inconsistent with their personal values and
will also argue for certain laws to be changed if they are no longer "working". Our
modern democracies are based on the reasoning of Stage 5.
Few people operate at this stage all the time. It is based on abstract reasoning
and the ability to put oneself in other people's shoes. At this stage, people have a
principled conscience and will follow universal ethical principles regardless of
what the official laws and rules are.
one's full
confidence, respect
recognition, status
Esteem Needs
Safety Needs
This is the stage that all young children start at (and a few adults remain in).
Rules are seen as being fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important
because it means avoiding punishment.
friendship, family, Intimacy
job security, financial resources, good health
air, water, food, warmth, sleep
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