DRIVER OPERATOR AERIAL OPERATOR SECTION Introduction to Aerials • NFPA sets the minimum job requirements • Authority having jurisdiction may set a higher standard • Must be certified to NFPA 1001 Firefighter Level 1. • Must be licensed for all fire department apparatus that they will drive. Introduction to Aerials • Should be certified in Driver Operator Pumps and Emergency Vehicle Driving • Must meet the medical requirements of NFPA 1500 3 Major Aerial Apparatus Categories • Aerial Ladders IFSTA p.8 • Elevating Platforms IFSTA p.11 • Water Towers IFSTA p.15, 26 NFPA Standard • • • • • NFPA 1901 NFPA 1904 NFPA 1901 NFPA 1901 NFPA 1901 Prior to 1991 1991 edition 1997 edition 1999 edition 2003 edition 4 Main Subdivisions of Aerial Apparatus • • • • Aerial Ladders IFSTA p.8 Aerial Ladder Platforms IFSTA p.13 Telescoping Aerial Platforms IFSTA p.13-14 Articulating Aerial Platforms IFSTA p.14 Aerial Subdivisions Aerial Ladder • Aerial Ladders • Most common aerial fire apparatus in North America 4 Main Functions of an Aerial Ladder • • • • Rescue Ventilation Elevated Master Stream Access to Upper Levels Aerial Ladders • Rear Mounted • Midship Mounted • Tractor Trailer Combination Ladder • • • • Aluminum Steel All are truss construction because of weight Trusses are designed to be stronger when the ladder is unsupported. • Supporting a ladder reverses the tension and compression loads. Aerial Ladders • Truss Construction Parts of a Typical Aerial Ladder • • • • Truss Base / Bed section Fly section Tip • • • • • Base Rail Top Rail Rungs Folding Steps Turntable Lesson 1, IG 1-8 Aerial Ladder Measurement • An aerial ladder is measured from the tip of the last rung on the top fly section with the ladder fully extended and at maximum elevation to the ground. • Maximum angle of elevation is approximately 85 degrees. • Aerial Ladders range from 50 to 135 feet Aerial Ladder • Old: Ladder raised by the cable drum assembly Aerial Ladder • New: Hydraulic cylinder and cable Aerial Ladder • Ladder Aerial Ladder • Ladder Aerial Ladder • Ladder Aerial Subdivisions Elevating Platforms • Aerial Ladder Platform Aerial Platform Measurement • NFPA: From the ground to the top surface of highest platform handrail at maximum elevation and extension. • Outline: From the ground to the bottom of the platform with the booms at maximum elevation • Aerial platforms range from 85 to 110 feet. • A 4” kickplate is required. Aerial Ladder Platform • • • • • • A work platform attached to a ladder Rear and midship mounted models Leveling system is required for platform Minimum floor area is 14 sq. ft. A heat protective shield is required A protective water fog nozzle is usually installed under the platform for protection minimum 75 gpm Aerial Ladder Platform • Must have a rail completely enclosing the platform with no opening under the railing greater than 24” • Must provide drain openings • 2 operating control stations, ground overrides bucket • Back-up hydraulic system required Aerial Ladder Platform • Minimum load capacity 750 lbs. when fully extended, at any elevation within normal range of motion; with no water in piping • This requirement drops to 500lbs when waterway is charged • Must be capable of 1,000 GPM at any position • Communication system required between the 2 operating stations Aerial Ladder Platform • Platforms of 110’ or less are required to be raised from the bedded position to the maximum elevation and rotate 90 degrees in 150 seconds or less Aerial Ladder Platform • Platform Telescoping Aerial Platform • A large boom replaces the ladder – Small ladder attached to boom is used only for escape – Commonly 75’-100’ • Box beam or tubular truss beam construction • Hydraulic lines, air lines, electrical lines, or waterways can be inside the beam or outside the beam Aerial Platform Design • Telescoping Aerial Platforms Aerial Subdivisions • Telescoping Boom Aerial Subdivisions • Articulating Aerial Platforms Articulating Aerial Platform • Booms are connected by a hinge and fold like an elbow • Commonly range from 55’-85’ • Some may telescope and articulate, which may range from 90’ -174’ Articulating Aerial Platform • Air, Water, and Electric lines are generally connected to the outside of the booms • Platform leveling device is required • Arm construction limits the ability to get near a building without placing the apparatus too close Aerial Platform Design • Articulating Telescoping Booms Aerial Platform Design • Articulating Telescoping Boom Turntable • The primary function of the turntable is to provide continuous rotation of the aerial device on a horizontal plane IFSTA p.21 Turntable • Must be able to rotate 360 degrees • Lower control position must be able to override the upper bucket control position • Operate on large ball bearings • Gear teeth are mounted on the outside • Gear Teeth are turned by hydraulic, mechanical drive or electric motor Turntable Rotation • Rotation motor Rotation Motor Rotation Motor Pierce Quantum Turntable Control Pedestal IFSTA 21-22 • Usually Waist High • NFPA 1901 Required in platform if equipped • Turntable control must over-ride platform • Some water towers, and smaller Quints have controls at pump panel or rear of truck Control Pedestal • Most use three separate levers – Elevate – Rotate – Extend • Some Use a Joystick Control Pedestal • Other controls include: – – – – – – – High Idle Hydraulic oil pressure Light Rung Alignment Inclinometer Stop and lock controls Communication system Control Pedestal Control Pedestal Control Pedestal Equipped with chart of safe working heights and angles Communication • Hands free for user at the tip • Hard wire or radio • Required on all after 1996 per NFPA 1901 Fixed Breathing Air Systems • Allow for use without donning standard SCBA • Supply hose and mask, Cylinder at base • NOT REQUIRED BY 1901 • If equipped, must supply enough for 2 firefighters • Piping system and components designed for 3x working pressure Fixed Breathing Air Systems IFSTA 27-28 • Low air alarm required at both control stations when capacity drops below 20% • Must conform to Government regulations for compressed air cylinders and be maintained per NFPA 1500 Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment • Nozzles Firefighting Equipment • Lighting • Forcible entry tools – Axe – Pike pole • Ladders • SCBA • Standpipe and/or hand line Fixed Equipment and Systems Power Distribution Systems • Power Inverters – Convert the vehicle’s 12 or 24 volt DC to 110 or 220 volt AC – Used when little power is required – Fuel efficient, compact – Limited mobility – May be tied to Shoreline system Fixed Equipment and Systems Power Distribution Systems • Electric generators – Most common power source – Gasoline, Diesel, Hydraulic PTO, Propane – Wiring through circuit breakers – 110-220 Volt; 7-12KW – Flood lights, cord reels IFSTA 28-30 Fixed Equipment and Systems Power Distribution Systems • • • • Flood Lights: range 500-1,500 watts Most are telescoping May be hydraulic or pneumatic light tower Must match lighting with power available Fixed Equipment and Systems Power Distribution Systems • Electric Cables, cord Reels, Extension Cords • Often used to power portable equipment or remote lighing • Usually 12 guage, 3 wire • UL Listed, Twist-Lock • Must be insulated and grounded Fixed Equipment and Systems Power Distribution Systems • Hydraulic tool pumps – Limitations when hose exceeds 100’ – Gas, Diesel, Hydraulic PTO • Pneumatic tools and On-Board Air systems – Separate from breathing air storage – May have on-board compressor – Hose reels Portable Power Equipment • Portable electric generators often powered by gas or diesel • Mounted in the compartment or deployable • Usually up to 5 KW • Portable lighting 500-1,000 watt Portable Firefighting Equipment • • • • • Ground Ladders Forcible Entry Ventilation Salvage and Overhaul NFPA vs ISO requirements Ground Ladders • NFPA 1904 required • NFPA 1901 now requires: – – – – – Minimum of 115 feet to include One attic ladder Two roof ladders Two extension ladders Quint only requires 1 of each totaling 85’ Forcible Entry Equipment • NFPA 1901 Minimum Requirements: – (2) Flat-head axes – (3) pick-head axes – (2) 3-4’ D-handle pike poles – (2) 6’ Pike poles – (2) 8’ Pike Poles – (2) 12’ Pike Poles • • • • • (2) crow bars (2) claw tools (2) 12 lb sledge hammers 1 24” or longer bolt cutter Assorted hand tools in a tool box Ventilation Equipment • • • • Various saws Smoke Ejectors Door Jacks Positive Pressure Fans Salvage and Overhaul Equipment • NFPA 1901: – (6) salvage covers at least 12 x 18’ – 2 scoop shovels • Additional Equipment: – – – – – – – – Thermal Imagers Heat detectors Plastic Sheeting Dewatering devices Sprinkler wedges Floor runners Squeegees Mops and buckets Other Equipment Required by NFPA 1901 • (1) 80 B:C extinguisher • (1) 2 ½ gallon water can • (1) SCBA and (1) spare cylinder for each assigned seating position- minimum 4 • First aid kit • (4) spanner wrenches • (1) hose roller or hoist • (4) Class I safety harnesses (1983) • (1) 150’ 1-person Life Safety rope • (1) 150’ 2-person Life Safety rope • (2) 150’ Utility rope • (4) wheel chocks ISO REQUIREMENTS Chassis Stabilizer Assembly • Outriggers Stabilizer Assembly • Torque Box Stabilizer Assembly Stabilizer Types • • • • Manual Box Beam A-Frame Fulcrum Stabilizers • Manual Stabilizers • Box Beam Stabilizers • Box Beam Stabilizers • A-Frame Stabilizers • A Frame Stabilizers • Fulcrum Stabilizers • Fulcrum Stabilizers • Sutphen E-0ne Outriggers • E-One new Ground Plates Outrigger Safety • Pins Stabilizer Control • Sky-Arm Stabilizer Control • Snorkle Stabilizer Control • LTI Stabilizer Control • Seagrave Stabilizer Control • American LaFrance Stabilizer Control • E-One Stabilizer Control • E-One Stabilizer Control Chock Blocks Front Brake Lock Hydraulic Systems IFSTA p.17 • Use hydraulic fluid to transmit force because it is practically incompressible • Allows force to be transmitted over a relatively long distance with little loss of power • Pressures of up to 3,500psi, sometimes greater Hydraulic Systems • Never use any part of your body to cover a leak • Can develop pinhole leaks that cut through tissue • Hydraulic pump powered by PTO • Either rotary vane or rotary gear positive displacement pump Hydraulic Systems • Fluid is moved from a reservoir that holds enough fluid to operate the system and condition displaced stored fluid • Fluid is supplied through a series of steel tubing and aircraft-type steel braided hoses – Burst pressure must be 4x stronger than normal operating pressure • High Pressure swivel assembly Hydraulic Valves • Check Valves- prevent fluid from flowing backwards, act as a safety feature if a leak occurs • Relief Valves- Limit pressure build-up, prevents damage from over -pressure • Counterbalance Valves- Prevent unintentional or unwanted movement of the device from position Hydraulic Valves • Selector Valves (Diverter Valve) – Direct fluid to either the stabilizer control valves or the aerial control valves; acting as an interlock to prevent dual operation Transferring Power • Snorkle Selector Valve Seagrave Transferring Power • LTI Selector Valve Pierce Hydraulic Valves • Actuator, Monitor, Stack, and Proportional Directional Control Valves- four or five way valves that direct and control the power in the selected system (aerial or stabilizer). – These valves supply the fluid to the actuators in the system, which convert it to mechanical force. In Aerials, the actuator is the hydraulic cylinder Hydraulic Systems • Emergency Power Unit (EPU) – An auxiliary hydraulic pump for use incase of main pump failure – Typically 12v, some have 110v capability – Required by NFPA 1901 • Use is limited to bedding the aerial device • Operate at intervals of 1 minute with equal rest periods • Some models have hand cranks Emergency Power Unit Pierce Quantum Hydraulic Cylanders • Stabilizer Cylinders • Elevating / Hoisting Cylinders Hydraulic Cylinders Stabilizer Cylinders • Force stabilizer arms out and down to take much of the weight off the apparatus suspension system Hydraulic Cylinders • Elevating Cylinders Hydraulic Cylinders • Elevating Cylinders Elevating / Hoisting Cylinders • • • • Also called Elevating Cylinders Chrome plated to resist wear Pressures of 850 to 3,000 psi Piston rod fitted with a trunion that holds it in contact with the aerial and turntable • Hydraulic fluid force dependant on the system pressure and the piston surface area Elevating / Hoisting Cylinders • Integral safety valves that lock and hold oil in the cylinder in the event of a blowout to prevent damage and injury • Double-Acting cylinders: receive oil under pressure from both sides of the piston so force can be created in either direction • Elevating / Telescoping control Extension Cylinders • Dual cylinders fitted on the base section, used to extend the second section. • Third, Fourth, and Fifth sections are usually extended by cables. Cables, Slides, and Rollers IFSTA 20-21 • Extension and retraction cylinders are usually galvanized aircraft type made of steel and resistant to abrasion • Over-engineered, built-in safety factor • Dual- chain drive may also be used • Most use a combination of slide pads and rollers to prevent excessive wear Triple Combination Pumper • Fire Pump • Hose Bed • Water Tank Quad • • • • Fire Pump Hose Bed Water Tank Ground Ladders Quint • • • • • Fire Pump 1,000 GPM or greater Hose Bed – 800’ of supply, 400’ of attack Water Tank of at least 300 gallons Ground Ladders- 85’ Aerial Device with permanent waterway Fire Pump • Class A Pump – – – – 100 % capacity @ 150 psi 70 % capacity @ 200 psi 50% capacity @ 250 psi From draft thru 20’ of hard suction hose with no more than 10’ of lift Pump Panels Pump Panels Pump Panel American LaFrance Pump Panel-Foam System Pump Panel- Foam System Water Tank • Minimum 150 gallons per NFPA 1901 Water • Intake to Pump Intake to Waterway • Aerial Intake, Pump discharge • No Pump Intake into Waterway Water Delivery Systems 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bed ladder piped waterways Telescoping piped waterways Detachable ladder pipe systems Elevating Platform waterways Water Towers 3. Detachable Ladder Pipe System 4. Elevating Platform Waterways 4. Elevating PlatformWaterways • Platform Articulating 5. Water Tower Waterways • Relief valve on waterway pre-set at 225 psi per NFPA 1901 Waterway Drain • E-One Hose Bed • Can carry attack hose such as 1 ½”, 1 3/4”, 2” or 2 ½” • Can carry Water Supply Hose such as Large Diameter Hose Electrical Systems • Over-rides Road Transmission • Automatic Road Transmission • Manual Pump Transmission • Air Shift Pump Shift • Engaging the pump shift will override the fast idle • Engaging the pump shift early could damage the pump? • Discuss Engine to Pump gear ratio Power Take Off • Aerial operates on a power take off Engaging the Aerial • Aerial Master • PTO Unsafe Operating Conditions • Sloped terrain – 5-6 percent grade maximum, – 20 degrees or rise of 5’ per 100’ • Soft ground, thin pavement, or ice • Power lines – Electric – Telephone – Cable Unsafe Operating Conditions • Wind conditions – 35 to 40 mph varies with manufacturer • Cold – Ice Build-up on ladder • Exceeding load – Don’t exceed manufacturers recommendations • Water Hammer---Nozzle Reaction Unsafe Operating Conditions • Long extension at low angles • An operator must always be on the pedestal during and operation • Do not move an apparatus until boom, ladder, and stabilizers are in the transport position • Proper use of the dead man switch Unsafe Operating Conditions • Heat – Placement of ladder too close to building – Ladder damage – Danger to personnel on ladder or platform Collapse Zone • Equals the height of the building • Some books teach the building height plus ½.