ST. PAUL UNIVERSITY HOMILETICS LIMURU CAMPUS Mode: Regular Date: 6-5-2020 Question One Ever preacher has their own way of communicating the gospel which is different by experience, social setting, human and cultural needs, the roles they play in the society, their exposure and more so their gender. Many women use different styles of preaching which is good to show their experience in society, their education level, and interaction with other cultural practices of the society. I will be looking at the difference between the preaching of women and men. To begin with women have been denied a place in the pulpit. The Orthodox Church and African instituted church and more strict churches have barred the women from accessing the pulpit. The voice of a woman is less heard in the pulpit. Many female scholar are fighting this view and ensuring that women are given leadership position on the altar. For example the Reformed Church of East Africa is ordaining women into priesthood the Anglican church too. The early religious restriction are loosening.. Women talk out of the experience they have on how churches and religious organizations have categorized them and assigned them in a lower position. This shared experience is seen in most churches which do not allow ordination of women into priesthood order. Other church which have allowed they still have restriction on which position a woman can hold. For example; the position of a bishop in most church is still reserved for men. Compared to men counterparts who have got a place of privilege in accessing a pulpit, and easy way through to ordination, the kind of preaching between men a women in the same religious setting is totally different. Then there is the culture. Many women are pushed back to the cave with the backward cultural practice and social duties like giving birth. When they are unable to do that she is insulted as a woman who got married to fill the lavatory. Her experience has shaped all her writing and even the for formation of a circle of concern theologian women. Society look about women has influence their preaching. Most societies especially in their world countries still view a woman as an inferior creation who concern should not be heard. In fact most Africa society socializes sons to assume responsibility to lead women from early life. The biased empowerment of boys and girls has influenced the approach of preaching between men and women. When men are preaching from a socio-cultural privileged platform, women are trying to preach from the socio-cultural oppressions hence difference in preaching. Study had shown that women preach form their personal experiences or experiences of their fellow women in the society. This approach uses story telling as an appropriate means to convey message. Such stories cannot be preach with the charisma of shouting preaching but with the soberness of a story telling approach. The tale of a woman who was robbed the chance to name her son is totally difference with the boastful tale of the man who was privileged to name his grandson hence the difference in preaching. The use of images. Women use image that shows their oppression under a man dominated society. Women are supposed to fight for their rightful places in the society. Men dominated pulpit does not express gender freeing expressions. Men preaching are full direct comparison which uses expression of direct comparison like similes. Finally When women are preaching they will like to ask questions. ‘what is your opinion about this’, ‘’what can we copy from this story’, what can we borrow from this story’. This women statement see the bible as a book with lots of biases hence applying it as one word can cause more harm than good. Women assume that the bible is not cast upon a stone hence to question, share and approach it with discussion. Men however have assumed to know the bible well hence not giving a good exegesis The thirst for education. Most women are now going to school hence getting exposed than earlier days. Education has shown a lot of impact in the sermons delivered by both men and women. Topics like feminism theology have empowered women and changed sermons. Exposure to knowledge has proved to be a powerful to that has changed the way the scriptures are read and interpreted and the ways sermons are delivered. In this view, the women and men sermons are definitely different. The above discussion we can see that the choice of the way to present the sermon has changed who woman and men approached issues as women approached it in a most personal manner the men approach in a general manner. This has contributed to the difference in the sermons delivered by women and men. Question ONE B In my preaching teach mostly and use stories and questions. This is because storytelling related to the people’s lives and experiences. This knowledge does not only give me an upper hand to make my sermon to fit the needs of the immediate people but more associated with them in their daily issues. Story telling also has helped me to relate with the people. For those who are of older age they love to listen to their cultural affiliation tales. They love to hear a young person show learning form their cherished culture. In Africa stories are society has accustomed itself to stories; hence the approach of telling those stories is a rich heritance as a media of passing forth values. It is easy to use stories than to use the complicated approaches like philosophies, the ones used by preachers like Apostle Paul in the New Testament. Story telling has also worked as a means to align all the thought in a manner that is not confusing. This approach ensures that I can chronologically follow the issues as they unravel in the story. The approach also ensures that the issues are not left behind or omitted. Since the story flow the points also flows with the story. Teaching is a convenient and rich tool which is handy. I choose to use teaching approach because it is effective to a people who are trying to understand. The fundamental of my preaching are always full of dogmas, hence when such concepts are shared they should be elaborated with ease and soberness for the congregation to understand. Teaching approach also ensures that the congregation retains as much as possible from the teaching. Teaching also has worked well with me since in Africa societies shouting is considered as raising voices to people hence rude. Shouting in a way to put yourself in an knowledgeable position is termed as pride. Shouting approach might trigger rebellion. On other hand dialogue approach is so effective when handling the Youth Ministry, Teens Ministry and the Sunday School Ministry whom I prefer to just sit in a circle and share the teaching in a question and answering model. This approach has enabled me to understand the needs and preferences of the young people’s congregation which has in a way enabled me to tailor the materials to fit the group. Question Two The preacher in the regular Sunday sermon emphasis on the importance of one being alive. They use the statement like you have a purpose in life. You have a meaning in this life and you must use every means to live fully your life in your flesh form. The clarity is Life is good and sacred and it should be protected and guarded. On other hand the funeral sermon is focused on the continuing concern of life. The preacher makes it clear that life does not end with the grave but goes on in a more advanced form. The prominent statement in funeral sermon is the view that life is eternal and no ending concern. The prevailing message in the every Sunday sermon is human being should strive to live in peace and harmony with one another so as we can make the world a better place. The daily life is directed by the conformation to the Christian ethics set in the bible. The message is be good and you will be rewarded with Good, be bad and you will be rewarded with punishment. This sermon puts the responsibility to the living man to meet the set standards of a God. The struggle is personal and requires commitment. While on the other hand, a funeral sermon has message of the amazing grace of God which is shown even to those who do not qualify. This is shown through good testimonies shared in the funeral services and sermons. The regular Sunday sermon in most cases communicated in an ordinary self-voice or if it is manipulated it is done so by either projecting the sound, emphasizing on issues like giving and living well with others. This sermon is full of self-testimonies and examples of other people experience. The congregation now and then responds with words of Hallelujah and Amen. However the funeral sermon is more of a calm consoling and comforting sermon. The preacher might not project his voice but code it to be sympathizing with the people who are suffering. The words are with somber mood and full of hope that help will come. The preacher retains their originality yet manipulating them a little to fit the context. Sunday sermon the preacher expresses their love towards God by the how they elevate God as a God of life. Statement like God is a life, and the living God are used to express that God is not just an ideology or object that is dead but a living being who influence daily living. The preacher will use phrases like, my God is able…this personalization of God shows the love of God. The preacher also expresses love towards the people. In most church where interaction in done, most preachers will interject their preaching with words like, ‘somebody say amen’, rhetoric questions like; ‘who is happy to be in the house of the Lord’. This statement and hymn like amazing grace or He touched me shows the love. However the funeral sermon has less, God is good sentiments. Preachers trade careful not to paint God as a God who enjoys the suffering of the people in lose. There is less rhetoric questions and less responses. Finally when doing expository of scripture on a regular Sunday, scripture takes a more application approach in relation to the life and ways to handle the daily occurrences in our daily Christian life. On the other hand, funeral sermon handles the try to relate death as part of human part that should be appreciated. Though the Sunday sermon gives a view of appreciating life more a funeral service encourage people to know that death in real and not a punishment but a way of life.