ВАЗОРАТИ МАОРИФИ ОЛИЙ ВА ДАВЛАТИИ ЧУМҲУРИЙ ЎЗБЕКИСТОН ИНСТИТУТИ ДАВЛАТИИ ПЕДАГОГИЯИИ ВИЛОЯТИ ТОШКАНД ШАҲРИ ЧИРЧИҚ Political, social and cultural relations between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the United Kingdom of Great Britain British-Uzbek relations can be said to have started with the exchange of letters between the Emir Timur and King Henry IV of England in the first years of the 15th century. England at this time was a middle-ranking European power while Timur was the ruler of a might empire. Henry’s missive to Timur (c. 1404) opens with suitably flowery compliments: … magnifico et prepotenti Principi domino Themurbeo amico nostro … (‘… to the magnificent and mighty leader, chief Timur Bey, our friend …’). Henry also wrote in similarly amiable vein to ‘Mirassa’ (Miranshah, Tamerlane’s third son), to express gratitude for the protection the latter had given to Christian merchants. Despite this cordial beginning, however, the relationship did not progress. A trickle of British merchants, travelers and adventurers visited what is now the territory of Uzbekistan from the 16th century onwards, but formal contacts were not established until the end of the 20th century. A new chapter in British-Uzbek relations began on 31 December 1991 when, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom formally recognized the state independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Diplomatic relations were established on 18 February 1992. The first President of Uzbekistan, Islam Karimov, visited to the UK in November 1993. The agreements that were signed during this visit, together with documents previously signed in Tashkent by Douglas Hurd, the then British Foreign Secretary, laid the legal foundations for bilateral cooperation. This has been developed in various formats, including exchange visits between high-ranking officials. In recent years, there has been increasing emphasis on political dialogue in areas such as democratic development, judicial and penal system reforms, regional security and climate change. There is also active inter-parliamentary cooperation. Trade and economic cooperation between Uzbekistan and the United Kingdom is developing steadily. Uzbek exports to the UK include precious and semiprecious stones, textiles, yarn, nonferrous metals and agricultural products as well as various profession services. Imports from the UK include medical equipment, pharmaceuticals and advanced technical equipment. As of 2016, more than 160 companies with 100% British capital were registered in Uzbekistan; moreover, 567 companies with partial British capital were operating in various sections of the Uzbek economy; and more than 73 companies with 100% British capital were registered in Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan- The Gem of the East Uzbekistan Uzbekistan officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a Central Asia. It is a unitary, constitutional, presidential republic, comprising 12 provinces, 1 autonomous republic, and 1 independent city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five countries: Kazakhstan and the Aral Sea to the north; Tadjikistan to the southeast; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Afganistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest. Welcome to Uzbekistan It subsequently became the independent Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991 (officially, as of the following day). Most of Uzbekistan`s population today belong to the Uzbek ethnic group and speak Uzbek, a language belonging to the family of Turkic languages. Uzbekistan`s economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, gold, uranium, and natural gas. Geographical facts Uzbekistan has an area of 447,400 square kilometers (172,700 sq mi). It is the 56th largest country in the world by area abd the 42nd by population. Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country. It is one of two doubly landlocked countries in the world (that is, a country completely surrounded by landlocked countries), Less than 10% of its territory is intensively cultivated irrigated land in river valleys and oases. The rest is vast desert (Kyzyl Kum) and montains. Historical sites of Uzbekistan Historical and architectural monuments of Tashkent: Tashkent – is one of the most biggest city in Central Asia - the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Tashkent was called Chach. Chach was a crossroads on the way of cold export, precious stones, spices and splendid horses to another towns and states. Today Tashkent, in translation from uzbek standing for ’’Stone town’’ is a capital of modern Republic, keeping the evidence of feature, the memory of many history events of Uzbekistan. SAMARKAND BUKHARA The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland Where is the UK? The UK is situated on the British Isles, north- west of the European continent between the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. The official name of UK is the ’’United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland’’ London, the capital of the UK Buckingham Palace The official home of the British Royal family in London, containing more than 600 rooms. What countries make up the UK? The Scots live in Scotland The Irish live in Northern Ireland Scotland Northern Ireland England The Welsh live in Wales The English live in England Wales Why doesn't the Welsh dragon appear on the Union Flag? Northern Ireland Scotland England The Welsh dragon does not appear on the flag because when the first Union Flag was created in 1606, Wales was already united with England from the 13th century. What would the Union Flag look like if Wales was represented? Here you can see a version of the Union flag offered by a Welsh MP in 2007. Landmarks of the UK Carew Cross Castle, Northern Ireland Oxford, England London, the capital of England and the UK Wales Millennium Centre Cardiff, the capital of Cardiff, Wales the capital of Wales Edinburgh, the capital of Belfast, the capital of Scotland Northern Ireland National Holidays of the UK and Uzbekistan National Holidays of Uzbekistan National Holidays January 1 New Year March 8 International Women`s Day March 21 Navruz May 9 Day of Memory and Rememberance Sseptember 1 December 8 Independence Day Constitution Day Hait (Eid-Al-Fitr) Qurban-Hait (Eid-Al-Adha) Note: Muslim holidays are determined in accordance with a Lunar Calendar Official Holidays in Uzbekistan Each year Uzbekistan celebrates seven public holidays: 1st of January – New Year, 8th of March – International Women’s Day, 21st of March – Navruz, 9th of May – Memorial Day, 1st of September – Independence Day, 1st of October – Teacher’s Day, 8th of December – Constitution Day. Also Uzbekistan celebrates the Day of Defenders of Motherland on January 14 and the Day of Remembrance for the victims of political repressions, observed on August 31, though these holidays are not free days. Two major Muslim holidays in Uzbekistan, Ramadan Khait and Kurban Khait, are days off and are celebrated each year according to the lunar calendar. Uzbek Holidays Independence Day of Uzbekistan Independence gave to Uzbekistan new holidays, symbols of a new page in the history of the country: Independence Day, Constitution Day, Day of Defenders of the Motherland and others. The Independence Day is widely celebrated. On September 1 many great cultural events such as shows, concerts, festivals and other entertaining events to mark the birthday of independent Uzbekistan take place throughout the country. What do you know about National holidays of the UK? Imagine you have got an invitation from your friend who lives in the USA to take part in their national holidays. Tell what you know about the holiday traditions in this country. Look at Mind Map and make up as many sentences as possible. Christmas Day Independence Day emorial Day Mother's Day Holidays in the UK Father's Day St. Valentine's Day Halloween Easter Thanksgiving Day Christmas The most widely celebrated holiday of the Christian year, Christmas is observed as the anniversary of the birth of Jesus. Christmas customs are centuries old. Use of such plant as a holly comes from the ancient belief that such plants blossomed at Christmas. Comparatively recent is the Christmas tree, first set up in Germany in the 17th century, and the use of candles on trees developed from the belief that candles appeared by miracle on the trees at Christmas. Easter Sunday This holiday is observed in all Christian churches. Easter commemorates the Resurrection of Jesus. It is celebrated on the first Sunday after the full moon which occurs on the next day after March 21 and is celebrated between March 22 and April 25 inclusive. Halloween This holiday on October 31 is not an official one, it is a very special day. It is traditionally associated in some countries with old customs such as telling ghost stories, bonfires and so on. This is the way the Celts welcomed the beginning of winter.