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Tolebaeva Nurshat PMT 18-16-2
First pre -medical care for poisoning.
Poisoning is the fourth most common cause of tragedy in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Only
before injuries, burns, drowning. Poisoning is a type of pathology that develops under the influen
ce of a specific chemical substance that has toxic properties. Poisoning and poisoning are commo
n among children. To prevent your children from such a tragedy, take the following safety preca
utions: Never store kerosene, gasoline and other toxic substances and toxic liquids in bottles free
of Coca-Cola and soft drinks. Because children may drink it just to have a drink.
There are often cases of poisoning by highly toxic substances, which are dangerous because they
can cause mass poisoning. This group of poisons includes various toxic substances used in indus
try (chemical, oil and gas processing, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals), agriculture (toxic chemicals)
and other industries. A highly toxic substance is a chemical compound that, when concentrated i
n excess of the allowable limit, can cause a certain amount of harm to humans, livestock, and pla
nts to varying degrees. Today, more than 100 names of highly toxic substances are used in vario
us industries. Chemical industries that use or produce highly toxic substances, such as chlorine, a
mmonia, and phosgene, pose a risk to workers and employees in the event of an accident, and to
the public in the event of a major accident.
Routes of ingestion: oral (mostly poisoning, food or in some cases), inhalation,
percutaneously, through the mucous membranes, parenterally, through the placenta, through the
vagina, through the colon.
1. The route of oral poisoning. Toxins can be absorbed in the mouth, stomach and intestines.
When absorbed from the oral cavity, it does not enter the liver, but immediately enters the
general circulation (in this way
mainly the following substances - cyanides, nicotine, phenol, nitroglycerin, alcohol,
alcoholic solutions of some substances, etc.). The rate of absorption of toxins through the
stomach and intestines depends on the physicochemical properties of toxins, pH, composition of
the stomach and intestines. Acids and acidic substances (barbiturates) are not dissociated at low
pH of the stomach and are absorbed undissociated. Alkalis and alkaline substances (alkaloids
and their analogues, amines) are not absorbed in the stomach, because they are dissociable, they
are absorbed undissociated in the small intestine. Many lipophilic and non-dissociable
substances are absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract.
2. Poisoning by inhalation. Toxins come in the form of gases, vapors, and dusts. For
example, chlorinated derivatives of hydrocarbons, alcohols, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, volatile
compounds of arsenic, carbon disulfide, hydrocyanic acid, acetone, gasoline, diethyl ether,
formaldehyde, odorous gas, etc.
due to the thinness of the membrane and the intensive inflow of blood into the lungs.
3. Percutaneous poisoning. Develops lipophilic toxins. For example, nicotine, aconitine,
tetraethyl lead, chlorinated derivatives of hydrocarbons, chlorine-containing chemicals, aromatic
amines, hydrocarbons in the range of oils (C6-C10), thallium, mercury, etc. dusts of metal salts.
Mechanical and thermal damage to the skin increases the penetration of toxins into it.
Food poisoning is caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as streptococcus,
staphylococcus, salmonella, botulism bacteria. They multiply in poor quality food and produce
toxins that can lead to poisoning.
First, call an ambulance, and then try to determine what caused the poisoning. If you have
just seen it, look around: there may be an empty container of medicine near the victim, and
sometimes you may notice the type of vomit or feces and identify the toxin. This should be
observed if the person is unconscious or does not understand what is happening around him. If
the poisoned person's condition is not so bad, the main thing is to help him to rinse his stomach.
To do this, the poisoned person should drink 1-1.5 liters of water, and then vomit by pressing the
root of the tongue. The doctor
Repeat this cycle a couple of times until you arrive. At this time, the time between vomiting
should not be prolonged, if the stomach absorbs a lot of water, the patient's condition worsens
and he becomes poisoned. After rinsing the patient's stomach, put 10-20 g of activated charcoal
in 100 ml of water and give a glass of water. If the poisoned person is unconscious, he should
never drink water and may suffocate. To prevent this from vomiting, turn your head to one side
and call an ambulance.