# 8socialstudies

```E-NOTES OF SST (GEOGRAPHY
AND HISTORY)
CLASS 8TH
Week 1(1st April to 3 April)
Unit number 1
Geography
Maps and diagrams
e-notes
8th class.
Summary
In this unit we will learn about map and diagrams. following are the main points of this lesson.
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A representation of the feature of an area of the earth or whole of the earth on a flat surface
according to the scale is called a map.
There are several types of maps and diagrams.
First distribution maps and then take up making of some simple diagram.
The use of statistical data for diagrams.
Construct of line graph, bar graph and pie graph using statistical data.
Merits and demerits of the diagrams.
Distribution maps provide specific information about particular location.
They provide general information about spatial patterns.
They are suitable to compare patterns on two more maps of a given area.
Diagrams are pictorial representation of a data.
Diagrams are used for learning and analysis analysing fact and tendencies.
Line graph is the most commonly used diagram.
Exercise
Q.1: Define distribution maps and give their uses of any two purpose?
Distribution maps: A distribute map show distribution of a commodity, product or occurrence over
a specified area. The commodities include wheat, rice, cotton, gold, iron, tin etc. The products are
manufactured goods like cloth, yarn, yield per acre, utensils, machinery, medicines etc. Occurrences
include density of population, rainfall, temperature and much more.
Uses:
These maps are useful for general assessment of an area. Such maps sometime give comparison
between areas. More importantly distribution maps are useful for geographical studies like cause
and effect of an incidence. One simple example of area is distribution of rainfall in summer months
and occurrence of malaria in a district.
Q.2: Write about use of the dot method in making distribution maps?
Dot method
Dot method is a much simple method of showing distribution of commodities and product in a given
area. The outcome of this method gives us a dot map that displays distribution of a commodity or
product as per its geographical location. A map showing town and cities of a country is simply a dot
map here we look at the use of that method in maps.
Example: A dot map
1
Bahawalpur
Bahawalnagar
Rahim Yar Khan
2
2433091
2061447
3141053
3
98 persons per sq.km
232 persons per sq.km
264 persons per sq.km
Q.3: Write the procedure to draw a line graph.
Line graph
Line graph is the most commonly used diagram. A line graph is primarily used to indicate variation
over intervals of time-days-weeks-months or years. Indication of monthly variation in temperature
of a place is its most common use in geography.
Procedure of line graph
Here a line graph showing average monthly maximum temperature in minimum temperature of
Islamabad is drawn. These are the steps here.
1. We demarcate 12 months along X axis (horizontal line) at equal distance.
2. Now we have to fix a scale for monthly temperature (both maximum and minimum) along Y
axis in order to show the highest temperature, we need a provision of below 50 degrees
Celsius accordingly we choose a scale 1cm=5 degrees Celsius
3. As per this scale, we plot points of maximum temperature for each month individually
4. Joining the 12 points, we get a line that indicate rise and fall in average monthly maximum
5. Now for minimum temperature we repeat step 3 and 4 and get a line that indicates rise and
fall in monthly minimum temperature of Islamabad.
Q.4:
Briefly highlighted the use of choropleth method in making Maps.
Choropleth method:
Choropleth method is used to show distribution in general, over a specified area. In other words, its
data primarily relates to physical phenomena such as climate, or human characteristics such as
population density. The choropleth method is based on the use of different shades of the same
colour. In this method a range of data is assigned a shade or pattern in rising orders. Hence a low
range is giving a light shade, whereas a higher range gets dark shade. Sometimes in place of shades
varying patterns of lines are used to illustrate the differences.
A Choropleth Map
Here a set of 7 varying shades with an interval of 50 covers the whole sample as indicated below
1. Up to 50
2. 51 to 100
3. 101 to 150
4. 151 to 200
5. 201 to 250
6. 251 to 300
7. 301 to 350
The resultant map illustrates the wearing population percentage of the three district shade2 is for
Bahawalpur, shape 5 is to Bahawalnagar shade 6 is for Raheem Yar khan.
Q.5
Write merits and demerits of two types of graphs.
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Merits of bar graph
the total quantity of production of any item can be shown on the bar graph
We can also compare different quantities of the same items
The best feature of this graph is that we can easily show quantities on this graph
Demerits of bar graph
To show more than one item or quantity we have to draw multiple bars or a compound bar
It is possible to show value of only one item on the bar graph
Merits of pie graph
Pie graphs are most suitable for showing percentages, values and total quantities.
Pie graphs cover less spaces compared to line and bar graph. It presents a better comparison
between different quantities.
It shows the area of different countries in a better way which is not possible on line and bar
graphs. Pie graph is preferred to show production of power sources that is electricity and
gas.
 Demerits of pie graph
 Do you buy garage by graph is suitable to present population of countries, area in
production etc. It is not suitable to show weather data i.e. Distribution of temperature,
rainfall and wind pressure.
 Calculation of percentages and divisions of circle into sectors is comparatively difficult and
time consuming.
Q.1: What method of making maps suit showing population density of an area?
A.1: The distribution map suits showing density of population
Q.2: What is the use of choropleth method in drawing maps?
A.2: Choropleth method is used to show distribution in general, over a specified area. In other
words, its data primarily relates to physical phenomena such as climate or human characteristics
such as population density. This method is based on the use of different shades of the same colour.
In this method a range of data is assigned a shade or pattern in rising order hence a low range gives
Q.3: Describe the first step of drawing a pie graph?
A.3: A pie graph consists of a circle (pie) with demarcational parts or sectors (pieces of the pie).
Step I: We know there are 360 degrees in a circle in order to show proportional divisions for each
continent we divide the total area among 360 degrees of the circle (150,000,000&divide;360=416,666,66 or
one degree representing 417,000 sq.km approximately)
Angle of continent= 360/total area &times; area of continents.
Q.4: What is the use of bar graph?
A.4: A bar graph is usually drawn to depict quantities over interval of time. In geography it is
commonly used for depicting rainfall's or at a place bar graph is equally useful to show comparison
between different items, all variations of the same item, over different interval of time.
Q.1
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
Questions for students
Define Maps?
Define line graph.
How line graph is prepared?
Write the types of graph.
Write the characteristics of bar graph.
Q.2 Activity
Draw a line graph to show maximum and minimum temperature of Islamabad.
Q.3 draw a pie graph showing the proportional areas of major administrative unit of Pakistan.
(Total area=796096 sq.km)
KPK=74521
FATA=27220
Punjab=205345
Sindh=140914
Baluchistan=347190
Q.4 Match column A with related phrase in column B.
Column A
Sarse population is shown by
Dense population is shown by
Proportional share of an item is shown in
Quantities are shown in
Q.5
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Q.6
Column B
A pie graph
A bar graph
A few dots
Select the appropriate option among the following:
A Distribution map shows
a. Relief Features
b. Rivers
c. Quantities
d. Qualities
With Dot Method we show distribution of
a. Rainfall
b. Mountain Peaks
c. Temperature
d. Population
A Line Graph shows quantities
a. Actual
b. Proportional
c. Variations
d. Absolute
Bar Graph is used to show
a. Proportional share
b. Square root
c. Divided number
d. Absolute number
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.
i. Distribution maps are __________ for a general assessment of an area
ii. Divisions of time/period are shown along _______ in a Line Graph.
iii. Quantity for each unit of __________ is shown in a Bar Graph.
iv. There are _______ degrees (of angle) in a circle.
Important definitions
i.
Define a distribution map.
A distribution map shows distribution of a commodity product or occurrence over a
specified area, the commodities include wheat, rice, cotton, gold, iron, tin etc it is used for
general assessment of an area.
ii.
Define dot method.
Dot method is a simple method of showing distribution of commodities and products in a
given area. A dot map shows towns and cities of a country is simply a dot map.
iii.
Define choropleth method
Choropleth method Is used to show distribution in general, over a specified area. In other
words tis data primarily relates to physical phenomena such as climate or human
characteristic as population density.
iv.
How distribution Maps are useful
It is useful for three purposes
i.
Distribution Maps provide specific information about particular locations
ii.
They provide general information about spatial patterns
iii.
They are suitable to compare pattern on two or more map of a given area
v.
Define bar graph
A bar graph is usually drawn to depict quantities over interval of time, it is commonly used
for depicting rainfall at a place, it also useful to show comparison between different items.
Week 2(6th April to 10th April)
Unit number 2
Geography
Agents of Landform Change
e-notes
8th class.
Summary
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Different types of landforms are found on its surface is not uniform.
Mountains plateaus and plains etc are the major landform created by internal force
forces of the earth.
Landforms made by River, glaciers, wind and see waves can be observed in different
areas of Pakistan.
Fancy water invades farther inland, it is called Bay.
The glaciers are found in high altitude.
In deserts the landforms are mostly found by the action of wind.
In coastal areas see waves are the important source of creation of landform.
Landform shaped by wind erosion, important in these are rock pedestal and
yardangs.
Landform shaped by wave deposition, beaches and spits bars.
Q.1: Identify two land features in coastal areas and tell how these are formed by waves?
A.1: Beach: In a shallow coastal area, deposition is main activity of the waves, here rock material
eroded from the landslide are deposited to form beach. Coarser material (like pebbles) is left on the
inner part of the beach light material (like sand) is carried back and deposited farther down in areas
where the coast is much gentle, long Sandy beaches appear
Split bars: In an area where the Sea coast has indents (inside cuttings) the wave pushes the eroded
material along for a while, as the wave force drops the raw material is ultimately dropped, here soon
emerges a sandspit. A sandspit is thus a low narrow bar of sand and gravel, joined with the land at
one end, the other end leads into the sea in certain cases a spit appears across the Bay here it is
known as a bar
Q.2: Write how an Ox-bow Lake is formed by a River?
A.2: Ox-bow Lake
Sometimes a meander become much larger, the outside band of the bank is rapidly eroded making
the River to become almost a complete cider, soon after the river cuts through the narrow neck of
that loop, the River thus begins to flow straight again leaving the loop filled with shallow water, it is
call an Ox-bow Lake.
Q.3: Which agent of landform change makes moraines? Give example of an area where
moraines are spread over the surface?
A.3: Moraines
A glacier moving over mountain slopes carries much rock materials, called Moraines. Rock materials
that falls on the side of a glacier is called lateral moraines, where such material belongs to two
merging glaciers it is termed as medial Moraines on the end melting of a glacier, much rock material
is left widespread on the floor/surface of the Valley, it is termed as terminal Marines.
Q.4: How a barchan is shaped in a desert?
A.4: Barchan
sand dunes that are formed by constantly blowing over a shrub or tree, soon assume a crescent like
shape. Barchans are formed slanting to the direction of the blowing wind, the windward side is
convex and has a gentle slope, the side ends are lower and curved due to greater push of the winds
on the sides.
Q.5: Which features appeared as a result of wave action at the Sea coast made up of hard rocks?
A.5: When waves strike a rising piece of Hard Rock continuously its parts are torn down. The rock
piece does get a steeper face, this is simply a sea cliff, as rock pieces are broken mostly from the
base of the rock surface, the baes gradually become enlarge. The Cliff is gradually worn back leaving
behind a flat area, this is called wave-cut platform.
Cave-arches, stacks and stump made by waves at Sea coast.
Q.1
Describe the work of a river at three stages Mountain, Plain and Delta?
A.1 As water falls on the earth surface much of it runs off on the ground, soon it gathers as a
stream. With the joining in of smaller streams the flow increases to form a River.
From its source to the sea River has three stages.
 The upper or mountain stage
 The middle or plain stage
 The lower or delta stage
Landforms or mountain stage:
At the mountain stage a River is more active as an agent of erosion. hence a number of typical
features are carved out here
a) V-shaped Valley:
On the valley slopes, a rapidly flowing river cuts the bottom rock deeper than it cuts rocks at the two
banks. Soon the valley appears in shape like alphabet V.
b) Gorge:
In areas where a river flows over much harder rocks, it cuts a narrow channel with steep sides, in
areas of low rain there is less cutting along the slopes and the river cuts deep into the valley floor
making a gorge
c) Waterfalls:
in case a hard rock lies across a river course, the soft rock that lies immediately after it is swiftly
eroded away. A sudden edge of the hard rock appears. It causes the water to plunge down from
some height.
Landforms of plain stage:
At the plain stage the force of the flow is reduced because of lowering of the slope. A river’s ability
to erode the rocks of the bed is reduced. Here work of the river is mainly transportation, following
micro-relief features appear at the plain stage.
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Gently sloping valley.
The river course over the plain become wide with gentle slope. Heavier material like pebbles
and gravel are deposited soon on entering the plain stage.
Meanders
Ox-bow lake
Flood plain
levees
Landforms of the delta stage:
As a river reaches its final stage, nearer to the sea, its force comes almost to a halt. The materials still
carried by slow moving waters are deposited on the ground. The formal water course gradually
becomes obstructed. The water now flows out through small channels called distributaries with the
passage of time as more water carrying slit (fine materials) arises, obstructions lead to appearance of
further distributaries at the mouth. Thus, emerges a typical landform much in shape with Greek
letter called delta.
Q.2
Write about wind as an agent of landform change in a desert.
A.2
Wind is an agent which the landform in desert and how make dunes in desert.
In desert dunes appears commonly and is also seen along the seacoast. In drier areas, small
obstacles (like a plant a free or even a pebble) quickly traps the wind-blown sand. The sand grains
accumulate and soon a dune (small mound) appear at such a place.
The blowing wind starts to affect such newly formed sand dune. Uplifting sand particles
from the wind ward side. Soon this action causes the dune to move ahead. Pilling of more sand on
the moving dune leads to it growth in size it occurs in a variety of places and have peculiar shapes.
They have negative effects as they move nearer.
Following shapes are much prominent.
1. Barchan dunes.
2. Self-dunes
3. Loeses
Q.3
Give details of erosional and depositional landforms formed by a glacier?
A.3
A glacier, being a River of ice caries heavier land, cuts hard rocks, and leaves heaps of
materials. In carrying its work of erosion transportation and deposition a glacier gives rise to
impressive erosional features in the highland areas and depositional features in the lowland areas.
Erosional landforms
As a glacier moves, its rate of movement is faster at the middle, as there is less abstraction here, ice
at its sides and bottom is held back by friction with the Valley sides and the Valley floor. The curve
appears at the front side of a glacier, it lowers parts are tongue shaped. Some important micro-relief
feature carved out by glacier erosion are as under:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Cirque
U-shaped valley
Hanging valley
Fiord
Depositional landforms
The glacier carries much heavier, and also lighter materials to greater distances. This material is
deposited as a glacial melt or recedes, there was wide areas of land in the northern hemisphere that
experienced advance of large ice sheets during the Ice Age. While identify such features we also
know some well-known areas of their occurrence.
1. Erratic
A massive ice sheet (glacier) advancing in the Ice Age carried much large lumps of rocks
known as boulders and left their scattered over wide areas while receding. The erratics are
large rounded and different from the surrounding materials.
2. Till
A mixed variety of glacier left materials is known as a til,l it is made up of clay and sand that
also contains large and small stones. In many areas of England still contains chalk and
granitic stones.
3. Moraines
A glacier moving over mountain slopes carries much rock materials called Moraines. Rock
materials that falls on the side of a glacier is called lateral Moraines where such materials
belong to two merging Moraines.
4. Drumlins
In some areas and ice-sheet leaves it material in is small heaps of sand clay mixture called
drumlins. These heaps are hardly a kilometre in length and some 60 to 70 metres high.
These are found in Northern Ireland, Midland Valley office Scotland and near Lancaster in
England
5. Icebergs
When a glacier flows right down to a sea. It drops its load of Moraines in the sea. Here it
ends piece breaks off from the main glacier forming an iceberg on reaching warmer waters
iceberg melt depositing their land on a sea floor.
Over mountain ranges of Karakorum, Himalayas and Hindu Kush there are more than 5000
glaciers on the mountain slopes and in the valley. Many of these are much small but some
are more than 70 km long. Beside glaciers there are round 2000 glacial lakes in this area.
Questions for students
Q.1:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
Q.2
What is erosional landforms?
What is depositional landforms?
Define V shaped Valley
What are the four major agents of landform change?
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
In case of heavy _____________ floods occur over vast areas.
Loess is a ___________ dust.
rock material eroded by _____________ are deposited to form a beach.
Wind _____________ tiny sand particles in suspension to a long distance.
A sand dune is a mound of sand piled up by the action of the ______________.
Q.3
Draw an outline of a Meander and an Ox-bow lake?
Q,4
Draw an outline of three features made by glaciers?
Q.5
Match the column A to B
A
River falls may cause formation of
Many large rivers form
A gorge in USA is called
A barchan is
1
2
3
4
Q.6
B
A delta
A canyon
A plunge pool
A typical sand dune
Mark the following statements as True or False:
i: A V-shaped valley is formed by fast blowing wind. (True / False)
ii. Agents of landform change cause formation of micro-relief features. (True / False)
iii. Glaciers spread over small areas are known as Continental Glaciers. (True / False)ma
iv. A Fiord is a continuation of a glacial valley cut on to the seabed. (True / False)
Q.7 Select the appropriate option among the followingi.
ii.
iii.
iv.
A Plunge-pool is formed by
a. a River
b. a Glacier
A Hanging Valley is formed on the
a. Plain.
b. High Mountains
Cirques are formed by
a. River action
b. Wave action
Barchans are found in
a. Low mountains
b. Narrow plains
c. Fast blowing Wind
d. high Waves.
c. Delta
d. Sea shore
c. Wind action
d. Glacial action
c. Sea cliff
d. Desert area
Important definitions
Q.1
What are Agents of landform change?
A.1
All landform, large or small, continuously change and get new shapes. There are four major
agents of landform change
i.
River
ii.
Glaciers
iii.
Winds
iv.
Waves
Q.2
Name some micro-relief features carved by glacial erosion?
A.2
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
some important micro-relief features carved out by glacier erosion are as under
Cirque
U-shaped valley
Hanging valley
Fiord
Q.3
Name micro-relief features appear at the plain stage.
A.3
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
Following micro-relief features appear at the plain stage
Gently sloping valley
Meanders
Ox-bow lake
Flood plain
Levees
Q.4
Name two broad types of glaciers.
A.4
1. Continental glaciers
2. Valley glaciers
Q.5
Landforms shaped by wind erosion?
A.5
are:
i.
ii.
iii.
Landforms shaped by wind erosion are commonly seen in dry areas. Important among these
Rock pedestals
Yardangs
Masses and buttes
Q.6
Landforms made by waves? Shaped by wave erosion?
A.6
i.
ii.
iii.
Sea cliff, wave cut plate form
Caves, arches and stacks.
Week 5(27th April to 30th April)
Unit number 3
Geography
Ocean and seas
e-notes
8th class.
Summary
The main points of the unit
 Definition of ocean and seas
 Main characteristics of major oceans and seas
 Configuration of ocean floor
 Features related ocean and seas
 Movement of ocean water
 Nature and causes of various oceanic movement
 Difference between waves current and tides
 Definition of the following features
 Sea
 Gulf
 Bay
 Bight
 Strait
 Peninsula
 Island
 Isthmus
Q.1
A.1
Q.2
What are the causes of the ocean currents?
Following are the major causes of current circulation movement.
1. Wind
2. Variation in temperature of ocean
3. Variation in salt concentration in ocean water
4. Rotation of earth
5. Continental margins
What is the nature of the ocean currents?
A.2 On the basis of nature, currents can be divided into cold and warm currents. currents moving
along the western course of the continent are termed as cold currents. they flow from polar region
towards the equator. majority of the currents moving along the eastern margins of the continents
are warm currents. warm currents move from warm Equatorial regions to the cold polar area.
Q.3
What cause the tides?
A.3 Tides are the rise and fall of the sea levels. moon and sun exert gravitational pull on the earth.
this gravitational pull is easily recognizable by the rising of sea levels. moon being a closer today to
earth has a stronger affect then the sun.
Q.4
What are the spring and neap tides?
A.4
Spring tides:
Spring tides are produced by the combined force of sun and moon at the time of full and new
moon. spring tides have the highest of the high tide and the lowest of the low tide.
The difference between high and low tide is maximum.
Neap tide:
Neap tides are produced when sun and moon are at right angles to each other example at first and
last quarter of the moon neap tides have lowest of the high tide and the highest of the low tide
differences between high and low tides is slightest.
Q.5
Differentiate among the waves, current and tides.
A.5
WAVES
This are the sea surface
disturbance moving in the
form of ridges
CURRENTS
currents are the regular
channels of flowing water on
the surface of ocean
TIDES
tides are the rise and fall of
sea levels
Q.1 Describe the main characteristics of the major oceans?
A.1 Main Characteristics of Major Oceans:
According to the location, size, and average depth each ocean has its own distinct characteristics.
1. Pacific Ocean: Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean of the world. It covers an area of 156 million
square kilometers. It is bordered by North and South America, Asia and Australia and
Southern Ocean. Its average depth is approximately 4000 meters. Its deepest part is located
near Mariana Islands, which is named as Mariana trench. Mariana trench is 10,924 meters
deep. Thousands of islands of different sizes are located in Pacific Ocean.
2. Atlantic Ocean: Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean of the world. It covers an area of
about 77 million square kilometers. It is bounded by Europe and Africa in the east and by
North and South America in the west, in the south it is bordered by the Southern Ocean. Its
average depth is 4000 meters. Its deepest point is Puerto Rico trench. It is 8600 meters
deep.
3. Indian Ocean: It is the third largest ocean of the world. It covers an area of about 69 million
square kilometers. It is situated between Africa, Asia, Australia and the Southern Ocean. Its
average depth is 3900 meters, and its deepest point is Java Trench about 300 km off the
coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. It is 7258 meters deep.
4. Southern Ocean: The Southern Ocean is the fourth largest ocean of the world. It occupies
the area between 60-degree southern latitude and the coast of Antarctica. Its total surface
area is 20 million square kilometers. Its average depth is 4500 meters its deepest point is
5. Arctic Ocean: Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world oceans. It is covering an area of 14
million square kilometers. It is situated around the North Pole and is bounded by Europe,
Asia and North America. It has an average depth of 1200 meters and its deepest point is
named as Fram Basin, which is 4665 meters deep.
Q.2
What is a sea? state some important characteristics of five major seas.
A.2 Definition of sea:
Seas are partially enclosed margins of the ocean, a large landlocked lake can also be termed as a sea.
Almost all the oceans have a number of seas along their coastlines. yet there are large water bodies
found in the interior of the continents which are termed as seas.
Main Characteristics of Major Seas:
Major seas are important because they provide easy passages for trade, some of them are important
because they gave birth to rich civilizations, and some gain their significance due to their enormous
size. Main characteristics of major seas are as under.
1. Mediterranean Sea: Mediterranean Sea is located between Europe, Africa and Asia. It is
attached to Atlantic Ocean in the west. It covers an area of 2.5 million square kilometers. It
has an average depth of 1500 meters. Mediterranean Sea has the distinction of flourishing
the civilizations in Greece, Rome and Egypt.
2. Caribbean Sea: Caribbean Sea is bounded by West Indies Islands in the North and East, its
Southern and Western margins embrace the coasts of South America and Central America
respectively. Its extent is about 2.7 million square kilometres and it has an average depth of
2,647 meters.
3. Black sea: Black sea is a land locked sea, located in the North of Turkey. It is also linked to
the Mediterranean Sea. Its total surface area is 436,400 square kilometers. Its average depth
is 1253 meters.
4. Arabian Sea: Arabian Sea is the north western part of the Indian ocean. Saudi Arabia, Iran,
Pakistan and India are its bordering regions. Its surface area is 3,862,000 square kilometres.
Its average depth is 2734 meters.
5. Caspian Sea: It is the largest water body found in the interior of the continents. Total surface
area of Caspian Sea is 371,000 square kilometres. It is surrounded by Russia, Azerbaijan,
Iran, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. Its average depth is 211 meters.
Q.3
Write in detail about the relief of ocean floor?
A.3
Relief of ocean floor:
Surface under the oceans is not flat like plains, yet it is uneven and has
variety of features. These features include the following
1. Continental Shelf
2. Continental Slope
3. Continental Rise
4. Abyssal Plain
5. Mid Oceanic Ridge
6. Oceanic Trenches
1. Continental Shelf: Continental shelf is seaward extension of the plains and is shallow region
of the ocean. It is gently sloping towards the ocean. Its width varies in different regions.
Along the hilly coastal region it is narrow and along plain coastal region it is wide.
Continental shelves possess vast deposits of sand, mud and gravels and it is also a major
petroleum and fishery resource of the world. The edge of continental shelf occurs at an
average depth of about 135 meters.
2. Continental Slope: Towards the margin of the Continental shelf, slope begins to descend
quickly this is the beginning of continental slope. The base of this steep continental slope
occurs at a depth of 2000 meters. Continental slope is about 20 to 100 kilometres wide.
3. Continental Rise: Continental rises are gently sloping, smooth surfaced features along the
bottom end of the continental slope.
4. Abyssal Plain: Beyond the end of the continental rise, lies the underwater plain known as
abyssal plain. It is usually found at the depth of 3000 to 6000 meters.
5. Mid Oceanic Ridge: Mid oceanic ridges are the underwater mountain chains formed along
which are filled by the materials from the asthenosphere (a semi molten layer of the mantle)
to form mid oceanic ridges.
6. Oceanic Trenches: Oceanic trenches are elongated depressions found on the ocean floors.
They are the deepest parts of the oceans. Under the oceans they are formed along the
convergent plate boundaries. Mariana Trench is the deepest oceanic trench with a depth of
10,911 meters.
Questions for students
Q.1
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
Define oceans and seas.
Write the features related to ocean and seas.
Write in detail the movement of ocean water.
Difference between wave current and tides.
Write the definition of strait, peninsula, island, isthmus and bay.
Draw the world oceans.
Q.2 Select most appropriate option among the following:
i.
Total area of the surface of the earth covered by the water
a. 72%
b. 71%
c. 74%
d. 73%
ii.
The largest ocean of the world is named as:
a. Pacific Ocean
b. Atlantic Ocean
c. Indian Ocean
d. Southern Ocean
i.
The smallest ocean of the world is named as.
a. Pacific Ocean
b. Atlantic Ocean
c. Arctic Ocean
d. Indian Ocean
iii.
Which part of the Indian Ocean is termed as Arabian sea.
a. South East
b. North West
c. South West
d. North East
iv.
A piece of land surrounded by water on all sides is called
a. A Bay.
b. An Island.
c. A Gulf.
d. A Peninsula.
Q.3
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
Fill in the blanks with proper words.
The deepest part of the Pacific Ocean is named as ____________
Average depth of Arctic Ocean is _______________
Black sea is located in North of ________________
Continental shelf is the seaward extension of ___________
Mariana Trench is the deepest oceanic trench with a depth of _________ meters.
Q.4 Mark the following statements as True or False:
Continental shelf is broad along the plain coastal regions.
Underwater plain is termed as Abyssal Plain.
Mid Oceanic ridges are formed along colliding plate boundaries.
Isthmus is a wide strip of land connecting two land masses.
Spring Tides are produced by the combined force of the Sun and the Moon.
Activities:
Prepare a chart to show world oceans and major seas.
(True / False)
(True / False)
(True / False
(True / False)
(True / False)
HISTORY
Week 3rd and 4th (13th April to 24th April)
Class: 8th
UNIT # 1 CONSOLIDATION OF BRITISH RULE
SUMMARY:
Main points of this lesson are
1. The transfer of British power in India from East India Company to the crown and salient
features of Queen Victoria’s proclamation.
2. About the structure of British administration in India and early efforts to co-opt Indians in
the British setup.
3. Objectives and results of the British education policy with special reference to Lord
Macallay’s Mixute (1836-37) and Wood’s Despatch (1854).
4. The salient features of Colonial economic Policy in India
5. The advantages and implications of communication networks introduces by the British.
6. Discussion the quantum of devolution of power to Indians introduces in the acts of 1861,
1892, 1909, 1919.
7. Under Act of 1919 communal franchise was extended to Sikh.
SHORT QUESTIONS
1. Write two sentences about Queen Victoria?
Ans: Queen Alexandrina Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward. She was born on 24 May 1819.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and
the longest female monarch in history.
2. Specify the advantages of communication networks introduces by the British?
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
The industrial revolution in the middle of the 19th century brought unique changes all over
the world.
They carried out productive investment in different systems of communication by land.
They introduce modern railway system. It gave thousands of jobs and industry support to
The construction of new roads gave the facility to urban and rural areas.
The irrigation system of India constituted on large and small dams, barrages, link canals and
main canals.
3. What was the purpose of Acts of 1861 and 1892?
Ans: Purpose of Acts of 1861: The Indian councils Act 1861 was an act of the parliament of the
United Kingdom that transformed the viceroy of India’s executive council in to a cabinet with
important portfolios. This cabinet had six appointed members who each took charge of a separate
department in Calcultta government home, revenue, military law, finance and public works.
Act of Parliament 1892 AD: the Indian councils Act 1892 was an Act of the parliament of the United
Kingdom that authorized an increase in the size of the various legislative councils in British Inida.
4. Who were Minto and Morley?
Ans: the Indian Councils Act 1909 was commonly known as the Morley-Minto reforms. It was an act
of the parliament that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the
government of British India. John Morley, secretary of state for India and Governor General of India.
The east of Minto believed that it was necessary to stop the revolt in Bengal after its partition in
1905.
5. Who was Macaulay?
Ans: In June 1834, Lord Macaulay was given the task to prepare and launch an educational system in
India. Such a system would aim to prepare an Indian class of people who would interpret British
order to the Indians. Macaulay wrote in his minute: “We must at present do our best to form a class
of persons Indian in blood and colour and English in taste.”
EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS
1. How did the British come into power in the sub-continent?
Ans: Since 1600, East India Company (EIC) had been established and the British had been given
permission to trade in the sub-continent. However, after 1757, the company not only succeeded
trade but also emerged as a political power to defeat Indian rulers in Bengal. In return, the company
large sections of land along with millions of rupees to finance further expansions. EIC functioned as a
military authority along with trading cotton, silk, tea and opium etc. The battle of Buxar 1764 and
treaty of Allahbad in 1765 restricted the political power of Sultans and the Mughal kings to their
courts only. They became the pension holders and the British became the actual rulers. By 1770, the
British had overpowered Bengal and through heavy company taxes pushed the people to hunger and
death. Within three years millions of people died of famine in Bengal. This enabled British traders to
grow with all the political and financial successes resulting into a force to control and rule India in
the manner which suited them.
Such a situation created a lot of hostility leading on to frustration among the Indians.
They decided to fight for their rights and free the land from the foreign rule. To this was added the
fear of type of rifle cartridge which had been greased with pig and cow fat. Both the groups of
Muslims and Hindus refused to use them as their religions prohibited the touch of these animals.
Thus on May, 1857, the Bengali soldiers revolted and marched to Delhi to pledge their support to
the Mughal King, Bahadar Shah Zafar. The war of independence lasted for more than one year and
ended on June 20, 1858, with the exile of the Mughal king of Burma.
2. Elaborate proclamation Act 1858 in detail?
Ans: the proclamation Act was delivered on November 1, 1858. According to this, Lord Viscount
Canning was appointed as the first Viceroy and Governor General of India to administer the
government in the name of the Queen. The other important features were:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
The policy of acquiring land of the native Princes of the India was abolished.
It was declared that there would be no interference with the belief or worship of any
religious group of the people. Furthermore, jobs and opportunities would be offered to the
people of whatever race or creed according to their qualification.
Due regard would be paid to the ancient rights and customs of the India according to merit.
Indians will abide by all obligations of the treaty of Allahbad.
v.
After restoring internal peace in India, the works of public utility and administration would
be promoted.
3. Discuss Wood’s Despatch (1854) and its importance in the British education policy?
The First formal Educational Charter of India was sent by Charles Wood, the President of the Board
of Control of the East India Company to Lord Dalhousie, the then Governor- General of India. The
following recommendations were made according to this Charter:
British Parliament, through this Despatch showed acceptance of its responsibility for educating
Indians. It recognized the importance of Indian literature, culture and knowledge. Even Indian
language were accepted as medium of instruction along with English. In accordance with Wood’s
Despatch, education departments were established in the universities of Calcutta, Bombay, Madras,
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
An education department was to be established in every province.
Universities on the model of the London University were to be established in big cities such
At least one government school was to be opened in every district.
The Indian natives should be given training in their mother tongue also.
Some provisions were made for a systematic method of education from primary level to the
university level.
4. Discuss the important points of British Social Policy in India?
Ans: British Social Policy: India was never a country. It had always been divided into tribes, cultural
groups and princely states. They all followed different religions, cultures, traditions and festivals. The
British changed the court life-style of the Mughals along with its titled Nawabs, Zamindars etc. with
bureaucracy and military establishment. This gave them a very efficient system in maintaining law
and order. New towns and urban residential areas with facilities were developed specific to the
British way of living. Their habits were copied by the new professional elite of lawyers, doctors,
teachers, journalists and businessmen. Within this group, old caste barriers were eased and social
mobility increased. For the British, some of the following customs were totally against humanity
therefore they passed laws to make adjustments. These are the main points:
i.
ii.
iii.
Abolition of Satti: In Hindu culture, if the husband died, the wife also had to burn herself
alive with the body of the husband. This was called satti. In 1829, Lord William Bentinck
banned it in all the lands under Bengal Presidency. Later on, it was banned in other parts of
India as well.
Early-age Marriage: The British passed the Child Marriage restraint law in 1929 on Colonial
India. It forbade the marriage of a male younger than 21 or a female younger than 18 for
Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and most people of India. For the Muslims, the prescribed agelimit for the girl and boy is as per shariah. However, due to poverty, illiteracy, culture, dowry
and social pressures, the marriages at an early age are still popular.
Religious Tolerence: In India, different groups of people followed different religions. These
people lived separately as per their religion and culture. However, due to urbanization and
politics many tribes and religious groups started living closer to each other, where
differences became threats. It was the major task of the British government to keep Hindus,
Muslims, Sikhs and Christians under a secular form of government. The rulers built colonies
with separate rows of houses and areas of different groups of people working in the
government. This pattern was accepted in big cities where people developed tolerance for
each other.
5. Mention different Acts passed by the British Government and give one important
point of each?
Ans: Act of Parliament 1861 AD: The Indian Councils Act 1861 was an Act of the parliament of the
United Kingdom that transformed the Viceroy of India’s executive council into a cabinet with
important portfolios. This cabinet had six appointed members who each took charge of a separate
department in Calcutta’s government: home, revenue, military, law, finance, and public works.
Act of Parliament 1892 AD: The political climate of the subcontinent underwent a big change with
the passage of time. Many Indians got the western education and came to know how to ask for their
rights. They made groups, organizations and committees to start campaigns for their rights in public
meetings. By 1885, with the support of the British, Indian National Congress was founded. The bill
was introduced in the upper house of the British Parliament called the House of Lords in 1890 and
after a delay of two years, it was passed in 1892.
The Indian Councils Act 1892 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that
authorized an increase in the size of the various legislative councils in British India. Due to the
demand of the Indian National Congress to expand legislative council, the number of non-official
elected members was increases both in central and provincial legislative councils. It relaxed
restrictions, thus allowing the councils to discuss each year’s annual financial budget. They could
also put questions within certain limits to the government on the matter of public interest. Thus, it
prepared the base of Indian Democracy.
Act of Parliament 1909 AD: The Indian Councils Act 1909 was commonly known as the MorleyMinto Reforms. It was Act of the Parliament that brought about a limited increase in the
involvement of Indians in the governance of British India.
Question for students
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
When was the east India company established?
What do you know about the social policy?
What was the papers of act of 1861 and 1892?
Write in detail the development of communication networks?
Discuss the act of parliament 1892 A.D.
Select most appropriate option among the following: i.
ii.
The British declared India as their colony through the Act of ___________________
a) 1818
b) 1827
c) 1857
d) 1858
The Act of ________________created a new era of Indian history which lasted till the
partition.
a) 1855
b) 1856
iii.
iv.
v.
c) 1857
d) 1858
The Queen inherited the throne at the age of __________________
a) 16
b) 18
c) 21
d) 23
The railway system of India was the ___________ largest in the world.
a) Third
b) Fourth
c) Fifth
d) Sixth
The Act of ___________ was passed to expand participation of Indians in the government.
a) 1861
b) 1892
c) 1909
d) 1919
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
The industrial revolution in ____________ century brought unique changes all over the
world. (19th )
The task to prepare an education system in India was given to _______________ in 1834
(Lord Macaulay)
The capital of British India was ______________in 1861. (Calcutta).
The Indian Councils Act of _________was known as the Minto-Morley Reforms. (1909)
The Act of 1919 provided ________form of government for the country. (
)
Mark the following statements as TRUE or FALSE.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
East India Company had become quite strong by overpowering the local Sultans and Rajas.
TRUE/FALSE.
For the measurement of distance, furlong is the unit in the British system. TRUE/FALSE.
Lord Curzon announced the partition of Bengal in 1911. TRUE/FALSE.
The king of India Bahadar Shah Zafar, was defeated and exiled to England. TRUE/FALSE.
Many canals were constructed for the purpose of easy navigation. TRUE/FALSE.
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