Uploaded by Nalianya Chesoli Emmanuel

Physiology WorkBook

The City College
55 East Road London, N1 6AH
cover image by Kevin Howdeshell
first publishes 2018
custom edition 1 copyright Daniel Scott 2018
Published by the City College
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without
prior written permission of the publisher. Copyright Licensing agency
A/601/1608 QCF LEVEL: 4 CREDIT
5 /4 / 2018
The successful completion of this workbook comprises 20% of
the assessment for this unit. The Unit can’t be passed without
completing the workbook. The assessments with in this book are
intended to consolidate and develop your learning of anatomy,
physiology and the language of these subjects. You are
encouraged to use whatever resources you have at your
disposal to enable you to complete this task effectively
Lectures. These will be held in the college and will cover
essential material. Regular attendance is essential in order to
achieve a sound understanding of physiological concepts.
Textbooks and linked electronic resources. Textbooks and webbased resources will help to embed your learning.
Formation of study groups. Students have often reported that
one of the most enriching learning activates is engaging with
others studying the same subject. This can be helpful in two
ways firstly a peer can be a good person to help you understand
a topic and secondly one of the best ways to really learn
something is to explain it to someone else.
Please note, even if you tackle the work in this book with other
students the work submitted in this book MUST be your own.
Make sure your answers are you’re own, and written in your own
words, please read the College's guidelines on plagiarism and
Direction and moment
Talking about anatomy
Major muscles
Chemistry introduction
Cardio systems
Gastrointestinal system
Immune system
Define the Planes and directions in anatomical language
1 superior 2 medial 3 proximal
5 inferior
6 lateral 7 distal
4 superficial
8 deep
Write a short definition for each term
Physiology: study of the functioning of living
organisms, animal or plant, and of the functioning of
their constituent tissues or cells
Anatomy: is the branch of biology concerned with the study
of the structure of organisms and their parts
Chemistry: Chemistry is a branch of science that involves
the study of the composition, structure and properties of
Biology: study of living things and their vital processes
Psychology: Psychology is the study of behavior and the
Haematology: is the branch of medicine concerned with the
study: of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention
of diseases related to blood.
homeostasis: Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to
auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a
stable state
Pathology: is a branch of medical science that involves the
study and diagnosis of disease
Embryology: is the branch of biology concerned with the
development of new organisms
Lable as many muscles as you can
1. temporalis
2 orbicularis oculi
3 zygomatis
4 buccinator
5 steernocleidomastoid
6 supraspinatus
7 deltoid
8 pectoralis major
9 external oblique
10 intercostals
11 transverse abdominis
12 internal oblique
13 rectus abdominis
14 rectus sheath
15 biceps femoris
16 flexor carpi ulnaris
17 extensor digitorum
18 extensor carpi ulnaris
19 adductors
20 satorius
21 vastus lateralis
22 rectus femoris
23 quadriceps
24 gastrocnemius
25 soleus
26 extensor digitorum longus
27 tibialis anterior
Label the main bones
1. sphenoid
16. mandible
2. cervical vertebra 17. clavicle
3.costal cartilage
18. sternum
4. anterior rib
19. humerus
5. thoracic vertebra 20. posterior rib
6. vertebral facet
21. radius
7. lumbar vertebra
22. ulnar
8. ilium
23. metacarpals
9. sacrum
24. phalanges
10. coccyx
25. femur
11. pubis
26. patella
12. pubic ramus
27. tibia
13. pubic symphysis 28. fibula
14. maxilla
29. talus
15. teeth
Label the main section of the Spine
1- cervical spine c1 to c7
2- thoracic spine t1 to t12
3- lumbar spine l1 to l5
6- atlas
7- axis
Chemistry of the body
Students of physiology need to have some understanding of basic biological
chemistry. these questions help to review your knoladge
1) Water is essential to life. List four main properties of water and explain
their role in the maintenance of living cells
1. cohesion which is the property of water to stick to other water
molecules to hydrogen bonds.
2. adhesion which is the tendency of water to stick to other substances.
3. high specific heat and high heat of vaporization allows it to moderate
4. low density of ice
2) Briefly describe the process of Osmosis
a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a
semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more
concentrated one.
3) What are Enzymes
are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate chemical
reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called
substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules
known as products
4) What are Proteins made of ?
Proteins are made up of smaller building blocks called amino acids,
joined together in chains.
Chemistry of the body
Define the function of the five type of Leucocytes
1) neutrophils
The primary function of neutrophils is phagocytosis
2) eosinophils
responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in
3) basophils
play a role in mast cells in the effector response to allergens and parasites
4) monocytes
Monocytes and their macrophage and dendritic-cell progeny serve three main
functions in the immune system. These are phagocytosis, antigen
presentation, and cytokine production.
5) lymphocytes
Effector lymphocytes function to eliminate the antigen, either by releasing
antibodies (in the case of B cells), cytotoxic granules (cytotoxic T cells) or by
signaling to other cells of the immune system (helper T cells).
3) Heamoglobin (Red Blood Cells) are specialised for oxygen transport A)
What is Haemoglobin comprised of
It is composed of four protein chains, two alpha chains and two beta
chains, each with a ring-like heme group containing an iron atom.
B) How many molecules of Oxygen can haemoglobin carry
hemoglobin molecule can bind (carry) up to four oxygen molecules.
C) Why is this important to the function of Heamoglobin
The major role of hemoglobin is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the
tissues and return carbon dioxide (CO2) from the tissue to the lungs.
Oxygen binds to hemoglobin with high affinity in an oxygen-rich
environment and leaves hemoglobin in an environment where there is not
enough oxygen.this helps it to carry more oxygen.
Colour in sections
Colour in sections
Label A -to - F yourself
A)Left and right atria _____Chambers that receive blood returning from your
body through your veins
B)Left and right ventricles_____Chambers where blood is pumped to your body
through your arteries
C)Mitral valve ____The mitral valve controls the flow of oxygen-rich blood from
the left atrium to the left ventricle
D)Tricuspid valve ____The tricuspid valve controls the flow of oxygen-poor blood
from the right atrium to the right ventricle
E)Aortic valve_____The aortic valve controls flow of oxygen-rich blood from the
left ventricle to the body
F)Pulmonary valve____The pulmonary valve controls flow of oxygen-poor blood
from the right ventricle to the lungs
gall bladder
large intestine
Draw and lable the following areas of the digestive system and try to add
in the Accessory digestive organs:
• Oesophagus.
• Stomach.
• Small Intestine.
• Large Intestine.
• Rectum. Accessory digestive organs: liver, gallbladder, pancreas.
Chemistry of the body
1)Briefly describe the following kidney functions
A) Filtration Filtration is the mass movement of water and solutes from
plasma to the renal tubule that occurs in the renal glomerulus. the
glomuerulus is a semi permeable allowing for this sieving mechanism.
B) Osmoregulation is the maintenance of constant osmotic pressure in
the fluids of an organism by the control of water and salt
concentrations.salt and water are excreted or retained according the fluid
balance in the body.
2) What is the main force pushing water and solutes out of the
The force of hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus (the force of
pressure exerted from the pressure of the blood vessel itself) is the
driving force that pushes filtrate out of the capillaries and into the slits
in the nephron.
3) Briefly explain how Kidney filtration rate is maintained and regulated.
GFR is one of the many ways in which homeostasis of blood volume and
blood pressure may occur. In particular, low GFR is one of the variables that
will activate the renin–angiotensin feedback system, a complex process that
will increase blood volume, blood pressure, and GFR. This system is also
activated by low blood pressure itself, and sympathetic nervous stimulation,
in addition to low GFR.
4) Why is the tubular reabsorption so important to the function of the kidney
Tubular reabsorption is the process by which solutes and water are
removed from the tubular fluid and transported into the blood.
Reabsorption is a finely tuned process that is altered to maintain
homeostasis of blood volume, blood pressure, plasma osmolarity, and blood
pH. Reabsorbed fluids, ions, and molecules are returned to the
bloodstream through the peri-tubular capillaries, and are not excreted as
Write a short definition for each term
Oestrogen: oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone. It
is responsible for the development and regulation of the
Testostorone Testosterone is the key male sex hormone that
regulates fertility, muscle mass, fat distribution, and red blood
cell production and male sexual characteristics
Progesterone:It is secreted by the ovary during the second half
of the menstrual cycle. It plays important roles in the menstrual
cycle and in maintaining the early stages of pregnancy.
Exocrine Glands are glands that produce and secrete
substances onto an epithelial surface by way of a duct.
Endocrine Gland: secrete their products, hormones,
directly into the blood rather than through a duct
Steroid:biologically active organic compound with four rings
arranged in a specific molecular configuration have two principal
biological functions: as important components of cell membranes
which alter membrane fluidity; and as signaling molecules.
Histamine an important component of the immune and
neurologic systems and is involved in the process of
inflammation. Histamine causes a variety of symptoms
depending on where it is released and what receptors it binds to.
Lymph: fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system
containing interstitial fluid.
Plasma: is the liquid straw colored component of blood that
suspends the blood cells.
Chemistry of the body
Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins, are proteins manufactured
by the body that help fight against foreign substances.
Briefly how do Antibodies work in the body?
Neutralisation, in which neutralizing antibodies block parts of the
surface of a bacterial cell or virion to render its attack ineffective
Agglutination, in which antibodies "glue together" foreign cells into
clumps that are attractive targets for phagocytosis
Complement activation (fixation), in which antibodies that are
latched onto a foreign cell encourage complement to attack it with
a membrane attack complex,
Please give some examples of Antigens
Exogenous antigens are antigens that have entered the body from
the outside, for example, by inhalation, ingestion or injection for
example drugs, foods, pollen, dander.
Endogenous antigens are generated within normal cells as a
result of normal cell metabolism, or because of viral or intracellular
bacterial infection.
Briefly describe Autoimmune diseases.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an
organism against its own healthy cells and tissues. Any disease
that results from such an aberrant immune response is termed
an "autoimmune disease". such include rheumatoid arthritis
wherby the immune system attacks joints of the person.