INTRODUCTION.. CONT.. CHART… CONT.. Arbitration: It is a process where a neutral third party hears to the parties in disputes, gather the information regarding the dispute, and then come to conclusion and decide the matter which is binding on both the parties. The difference between both the officers as, conciliator only assists the parties to conclude to a settlement, whereas the arbitrator hears to both the parties and then passed his judgment. Pros and cons of Arbitration in Industrial Disputes It is established by the parties and therefore both parties have conveyed their faith in the process of arbitration. Nature is a flexible and informal process. The concept is based on mutual consent of the parties and hence, therefore, it helps for healthy industrial functions and relations. Delay for settlement of disputes often occurs. The arbitration process is expensive and all the expenses are to be incurred by both labours and the management equally. When the arbitrator becomes biased and if he is incompetent then the Judgment becomes arbitrary. CONT.. SECTION 11A IN THE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT, 1947 Powers of Labour Courts, Tribunals and National Tribunals to give appropriate relief in case of discharge or dismissal of workmenWhere an industrial dispute relating to the discharge or dismissal of a workman has been referred to a Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal for adjudication, and, in the course of the adjudication proceedings, the Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal, as the case may be, is satisfied that the order of discharge or dismissal was not justified, it may, by its award, set aside the order of discharge or dismissal, and direct reinstatement of the workman on such terms and conditions, if any, as it thinks fit, or give such other relief to the workman including the award of any lesser punishment in lieu of discharge or dismissal as the circumstances of the case may require: Provided that in any proceeding under this section the Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal, as the case may be, shall rely only on the materials on record and shall not take any fresh evidence in relation to the matter. INTRODUCTION • The term "collective bargaining" was first used in 1891 by Beatrice Webb, a founder of the field of industrial relations in Britain.It refers to the sort of collective negotiations and agreements that had existed since the rise of trade unions during the 18th century. • Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers. • The collective agreements reached by these negotiations usually set out wage scales, working hours, training, health and safety, overtime, grievance mechanisms, and rights to participate in workplace or company affairs • Collective bargaining is a fundamental right. It is rooted in the ILO Constitution and reaffirmed as such in the 1998 ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work . • Collective agreements may also address the rights and responsibilities of the parties thus ensuring harmonious and productive industries and workplaces. Enhancing the inclusiveness of collective bargaining and collective agreements is a key means for reducing inequality and extending labour protection. • Definition of collective bargaining- negotiation between an employer and a labor union usually on wages, hours, and working conditions National Engineering Industries ... vs State Of Rajasthan And Ors, 1999 • Settlement of labour disputes by direct negotiation and collective bargaining is always to be preferred for ft is the best guarantee of industrial peace which is the aim of all legislations for settlement of labour disputes. In order to bring about such a settlement more easily and to make it more workable and effective it may not be always possible or necessary that such a settlement is arrived at in the course of conciliation proceeding which may be the first step towards resolving the industrial dispute which may be lingering between the employers and their workmen represented by their unions but even if at that stage such settlement does not take place and the industrial dispute gets referred for adjudication, even pending such disputes, the parties can arrive at amicable settlement which may be binding to the parties to the settlement unlike settlement arrived at during conciliation proceedings which may be binding not only to the parties to the settlement but even to the entire labour force working in the organisation concerned even though they may not be members of the Union which might have entered into settlement during conciliation proceedings". TRADE DISPUTE & INDIVIDUAL DISPUTE • • • • • • • industrial Dispute-Sec. 2 (k) Parties to the dispute who may be Employers and workmen Employers and Employers Workmen and workmen a) There should be a factum of dispute not merely a difference of opinion. b) It has to be espoused by the union in writing at the commencement of the dispute. Subsequent espousal will render the reference invalid. Therefore date when the dispute was espoused is very important. • c) It affects the interests of not merely an individual workman but several workmen as a class who are working in an industrial establishment. • d) The dispute may be in relation to any workman or workmen or any other person in whom they are interested as a body. • Chandrakant Tukaram Nikam and others vs. Municipal Corporation of Ahmedabad and another[i]: It was held by the Supreme Court that the Jurisdiction of the Civil Court was impliedly barred in cases of the dismissal or removal from service, The appropriate forum for such relief was one constituted under Industrial Disputes Act, 1947. • Jadhav J. H. vs. Forbes Gobak Ltd.[ii]: In this case, it was held that, a dispute relating to a single workman may be an industrial dispute if either it is espoused by the union or by a number of workmen irrespective of the reason the union espousing the cause of workman was not the majority of the union. Individual Dispute Becomes An Industrial Dispute? • Before insertion of Section 2-A of the Act an individual dispute could not per se be an industrial dispute, but it could become one if taken up by the Trade Union or a number of workmen. The Supreme Court and majority of Industrial Tribunals held that, a dispute raised by a dismissed employee would not be treated as an industrial dispute, unless it is supported by a trade union or by a body or Section of workman. • For an individual dispute to be declared as an Industrial Dispute, the following conditions are to be satisfied: • A body of workmen (trade Union ) or a considerable number of workmen, are found to have made common cause with the individual workman; • That the dispute (individual dispute) was taken up or sponsored by the workmen as a body (trade union) or by a considerable Section of them before the date of referenc Bombay Union of Journalists vs. The Hindu [iii] 1961, II LLJ 727 Bom • A person working in ‘The Hindu, Madras’ was terminated for claiming as full time employee. The Bombay Union of Journalist raised the dispute. It was found that, there were ten employees of which seven in administrative side and only three in journalism side. Of these three, only two were the members of the union. Therefore, the Supreme Court held that the Bombay Union of Journalists is not competent to raise this dispute. Even if it had raised, it could not have become an industrial dispute. Workmen of Indian Express Newspapers Ltd. vs. Management Indian Express Newspapers AIR 1970, SC 737 • A dispute relating to two workmen of Indian Express Newspapers Ltd, was espoused by the Delhi Union of Journalists which was an outside union. About 25 percent of the working journalists of the Indian Express were members of that union. But there was no union of the journalists of the Indian Express. It was held that the Delhi Union of Journalists could be said to have a representative character Qua the working journalists employed Indian Express and the dispute was thus transformed into an industrial dispute Section 2-A I.D ACT 1948 • provides that “where any employer discharges, dismisses, retrenches or otherwise terminated the services of any individual workman, any dispute or difference between that workman and his employer connected with, or arising out of such discharge, dismissal, retrenchment or termination shall be deemed to be an industrial dispute, notwithstanding that no other workman nor any union of workmen, is a party to the dispute.” • Any workman may make an application directly to the labour court or Industrial Tribunal for adjudication of such dispute after the expiry of 3 months when an application was made before the conciliation officer. This has been done to prevent inordinate delay. • The said application however should be made within 3 years of the date of dismissal, discharge, retrenchment or termination of service. • The court shall proceed to hear the matter as if it was referred to it U/S 10 of the ID Act. • when a dispute is connected with a discharged, dismissed retrenched or terminated workman that it shall be treated as an industrial dispute. If the dispute or difference is connected with some other matter e.g. payment of bonus/ gratuity etc. then it would have to satisfy the test laid down in judicial decisions. AWARD- Section 2(b) of the Industrial Dispute Act,1947 • According to Section 2(b) of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 ‘Award’ means an interim or a final determination of any Industrial Dispute or of any question relating thereto by any Labour Court, Industrial Tribunal or National Industrial Tribunal and includes an arbitration award made under section 10A. • The judgment of an arbitrator is called his Award. Award (Judgement) of Arbitrators under section 10A is an Award. Ingredients of Award • To constitute Award under Section 2(b) of the Industrial Dispute Act, 1947 the following ingredients are to be satisfied (a) An Award is an interim or final determination of an industrial dispute. (b) It is an Interim or final determination of any question relating to such dispute. (c) Such interim or final determination is made by any Labour Court, Industrial Tribunal or National Industrial Tribunal. (d) Award (Judgement) of Arbitrators under section 10A is an Award. What is Settlement According to Section 2 (p) of the Industrial Dispute Act, 1947 “Settlement” means a settlement arrived at in the course of conciliation proceeding and includes a written agreement between the employer and workmen arrived at otherwise than in the course of conciliation proceeding where such agreement has been signed by the parties thereto in such manner as may be prescribed and a copy thereof has been sent to an officer authorised in this behalf by the appropriate Government and the conciliation officer. CONT. Works Committee : • ection 3 of the Industrial Dispute Act,1947 provides for the constitution of Works Committees. The expression 'Works Committee' denotes "A committee comprising of representatives from both the parties (for example employer and their employees) to the Dispute. The appropriate government is empowered to prescribe that works committee should be constituted in every industrial establishment employing 100 or more workers. • The main purpose of creating the Works committee is to develop a sense of partnership between the employee and his workmen Constitution of Works Committee • (1) In the case of any industrial establishment in which one hundred or more workmen are employed or have been employed on any day in the preceding twelve months, the appropriate Government may by general or special order require the employer to constitute in the prescribed manner a Works Committee consisting of representatives of employers and workmen engaged in the establishment so however that the number of representatives of workmen on the Committee shall not be less than the number of representatives of the employer. The representatives of the workmen shall be chosen in the prescribed manner from among the workmen engaged in the establishment and in consultation with their trade union, if any, registered under the Indian Trade Unions Act, 1926 (16 of 1926). Duties and Functions of the Works Committee • It shall be the duty of the Works Committee to promote measures for securing and preserving amity and good relations between the employer and workmen and, to that end, to comment upon matters of their common interest or concern and endeavor to compose any material difference of opinion in respect of such matters. • Dealing with the scope of functioning of the Works committees, it was held in Kemp and Co. Ltd Vs. Their workmen ( 1955) L.L.J. 48 (L.A.T) that the Institution of works committee has been provided in the rules passed under the Industrial Dispute Act in order to look after the interest of the workmen. They are normally concerned with the problems arising in the day to day working of the grievance of the employees and to arrive at some agreement also. But the functions and the responsibility of the Works Committee as their very nomenclature indicates cannot go beyond the recommendations and as such, they are no more or less bodies who in the first instance endeavor to compose the Dissolution of the Works Committee • The Central Government or any officer authority to whom the power under Section 39 has been delegated, may, after making necessary enquiry, dissolve any works committee at any time, by an order in writing provided it or he is a satisfied the committee has not been constituted in the accordance with the rules or that not less than 2/3rd of the number of representatives of workmen have without any reasonable justification, failed to attend three consecutive meetings of the committee or that the committee has ceased to function for any other reason, thus defeating the very purpose for which this institution exists in the Industrial law.