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ntional files is their flexibility and scalability.
Answer: False
Page: 519
LOD: Medium
Rationale: A significant disadvantage of conventional files is
their inflexibility and non-scalability.
12.
As legacy file-based systems and applications become
candidates for reengineering, the trend is overwhelmingly in favor of
replacing file-based systems and applications with database systems and
applications.
Answer: True
Page: 519
LOD: Easy
13.
As enterprise systems and applications are re-engineered, the
trend is overwhelmingly in favor of replacing database systems and
applications with legacy file-based systems and applications.
Answer: False
Page: 519
LOD: Medium
Rationale: As legacy file-based systems and applications
become candidates for reengineering, the trend is overwhelmingly in favor
of replacing file-based systems and applications with database systems
and applications.
14.
The principal advantage of database systems is the ability to
share the same data across multiple applications and systems.
Answer: True
Page: 520
LOD: Easy
15.
A principal advantage of the database approach is that you can
build a single super-database that contains all data items of interest to
an organization.
Answer: False
Page: 520
LOD: Medium
Rationale: A common misconception about the database approach
is that you can build a single super-database that contains all data
items of interest to an organization. This notion, however desirable, is
not currently practical.
16.
Most organizations build several databases, each one sharing
data with several information systems. Thus, there will be some
redundancy between databases.
Answer: True
Page: 520
LOD: Easy
17.
Most organizations build several databases leading to
significant and uncontrolled redundancy between databases.
Answer: False
Page: 520
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Most organizations build several databases, each
one sharing data with several information systems. Thus, there will be
some redundancy between databases. However, this redundancy is both
greatly reduced and ultimately, controlled.
18.
Database technology offers the advantage of storing data in
flexible formats.
Answer: True
Page: 520
LOD: Easy
19.
A disadvantage of database technology is the lack of
flexibility in data storage formats.
Answer: False
Page: 520
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Database technology offers the advantage of storing
data in flexible formats.
20.
Data independence refers to the fact that databases are
defined separately from the information systems and application programs
that will use them.
Answer: True
Page: 520
LOD: Medium
21.
Database technology provides superior scalability, meaning
that the database and the systems that use it can be grown or expanded to
meet the changing needs of an organization.
Answer: True
Page: 520
LOD: Easy
22.
Database technology provides better technology for
client/server and network computing architectures.
Answer: True
Page: 520
LOD: Easy
23.
You see a return to conventional file-based architectures
today because they are better technology for client/server and network
computing architectures.
Answer: False
Page: 520
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Database technology provides better technology for
client/server and network computing architectures.
24.
File technology is more complex than database technology.
Answer: False
Page: 520
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Database technology is more complex than file
technology.
25.
While a database management system (DBMS) is somewhat slower
than file technology, these performance limitations are rapidly
disappearing.
Answer: True
Page: 520
LOD: Easy
26.
The cost of developing databases is higher than the cost of
developing files.
Answer: True
Page: 520
LOD: Easy
27.
A field is the physical implementation of a data attribute.
Fields are the smallest unit of meaningful data to be stored in a file or
database.
Answer: True
Page: 521
LOD: Easy
28.
A file is the physical implementation of a data attribute.
Files are the smallest unit of meaningful data to be stored.
Answer: False
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
Rationale: A field is the physical implementation of a data
attribute. Fields are the smallest unit of meaningful data to be stored
in a file or database.
29.
A primary key is a field whose values identify one and only
one record in a file.
Answer: True
Page: 521
LOD: Easy
30.
A foreign key is a field whose values identify one and only
one record in the same file.
Answer: False
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
Rationale: A primary key is a field whose values identify one
and only one record in the same file. A foreign key is a pointer to the
records of a different file in a database.
31.
A secondary key is an alternate identifier for a database. Its
value may identify either a single record or a subset of all records.
Answer: True
Page: 521
LOD: Easy
32.
A primary key might be created by combining two or more
fields. In this situation, it is called a concatenated key.
Answer: True
33.
Page: 521
LOD: Easy
An index is frequently created for keys.
Answer: True
Page: 521
LOD: Easy
34.
Foreign keys are pointers to the records of a different file
in a database.
Answer: True
Page: 521
LOD: Easy
35.
A descriptive field is any other non-key field that stores
business data.
Answer: True
36.
format.
LOD: Easy
A record is a collection of fields arranged in a predefined
Answer: True
37.
format.
Page: 521
Page: 521
LOD: Easy
A field is a collection of records arranged in a predefined
Answer: False
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
Rationale: A record is a collection of fields arranged in a
predefined format.
38.
A blocking factor allows different records in the same file to
have different lengths.
Answer: False
Page: 521-522
LOD: Medium
Rationale: A blocking factor is the number of logical records
included in a single read or write operation.
39.
Most database technologies impose a fixed-length record
structure, meaning that each record instance has the same fields, same
number of fields and same logical size.
Answer: True
Page: 521
LOD: Easy
40.
Some database systems can compress unused fields and values to
conserve disk storage space.
Answer: True
Page: 551
LOD: Easy
41.
Variable-length record structures allow different records in
the same file to have different lengths.
Answer: True
Page: 521
LOD: Easy
42.
When a computer program "reads" a record from a database, it
actually retrieves a group or block (or page.) of records at a time. This
approach minimizes the number of actual disk accesses.
Answer: True
Page: 522
LOD: Easy
43.
A variable-length record structure means that each record
instance has the same fields, same number of fields and the same logical
size.
Answer: False
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
Rationale: This describes a fixed length record structure.
44.
A fixed-length record structure means that each record
instance can have different fields, a different number of fields, as long
as the length (size) of the record is always fixed at the same size.
Answer: False
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
Rationale: A fixed-length record structure means that each
record instance has the same fields, same number of fields and the same
logical size.
45.
A blocking factor is the number of physical records included
in a single read or write operation.
Answer: False
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
Rationale: A blocking factor is the number of logical records
included in a single read or write operation.
46.
The set of all occurrences of a given record structure in a
database system is frequently called a table.
Answer: True
Page: 522
LOD: Easy
47.
Master files or tables contain records that are relatively
permanent. Thus, once a record has been added to a master file, it
remains in the system indefinitely. The values of fields for the record
will change over its lifetime, but the individual records are retained
indefinitely.
Answer: True
Page: 522
LOD: Easy
48.
Transaction files or tables contain records that describe
business events. The data describing these events normally has a limited
useful lifetime.
Answer: True
Page: 522
LOD: Easy
49.
Document files and tables contain stored copies of historical
data for easy retrieval and review without the overhead of regenerating
the document.
Answer: True
Page: 522
LOD: Easy
50.
Archival files and tables contain master and transaction file
records that have been moved from on-line storage to off-line storage.
Answer: True
Page: 522
LOD: Easy
51.
Table look-up files contain relatively static data that can be
shared by applications to maintain consistency and improve performance.
Answer: True
Page: 522
LOD: Easy
52.
Audit files are special records of updates to other files,
especially master and transaction files. They are used in conjunction
with archival files to recover "lost" data. Audit trails are typically
built into better database technologies.
Answer: True
Page: 522
LOD: Easy
53.
In today's database environment, the database technology
itself usually predetermines and/or limits file organization for all
tables contained in the database.
Answer: True
Page: 522
LOD: Easy
54.
Many information systems shops hesitate to give end users
access to operational databases for queries and reports.
Answer: True
55.
LOD: Medium
Data are a resource that must be controlled and managed!
Answer: True
56.
Page: 523
Page: 523
LOD: Easy
Prototyping is an alternative to doing database design.
Answer: False
Page: 539
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Prototyping is not an alternative to carefully
thought-out database schemas.
57.
Once a database design and its corresponding schema have been
completed, a prototype database can usually be generated very quickly.
Answer: True
Page: 539
LOD: Easy
58.
Most modern database management systems (DBMS) include
powerful, menu-driven database generators that automatically create a DDL
and generate a prototype database from that DDL.
Answer: True
Page: 539
LOD: Medium
59.
The advantages and disadvantages of horizontal versus vertical
distribution of data are similar.
Answer: True
Page: 538
LOD: Easy
60.
Centralization of the database refers to the physical
distribution of entire tables to multiple locations on central processing
units.
Answer: False
Page: 533
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Centralization of a database means that it would be
implemented on a single server regardless of the number of physical
locations that may require access to it.
61.
maintain.
Centralization is the simplest and easiest solution to
Answer: True
Page: 538
LOD: Easy
62.
Centralization helps data administrators maintain an important
data management rule - data should be controlled and centralized as much
as possible to ensure data integrity.
Answer: False
Page: 538
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Centralization violates a data management rule that
has become important to many data administrators and users - data should
be located as closely as possible to its users.
63.
Central distribution of data refers to the physical
duplication of entire tables to multiple locations.
Answer: False
Page: 538
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Replication of data refers to the physical
duplication of entire tables to multiple locations.
64.
Operational databases are developed to support day-to-day
operations and business transaction processing for major information
systems.
Answer: True
Page: 523
LOD: Easy
65.
Few high-end, enterprise database management systems include
replication technology that coordinates updates to the duplicated tables
and records to maintain data integrity.
Answer: True
Page: 538
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Most high-end, enterprise database management
systems include replication technology that coordinates updates to the
duplicated tables and records to maintain data integrity.
66.
Replication of data offers performance and accessibility
advantages and reduces network traffic, but it also increases the
complexity of data integrity and requires more physical storage.
Answer: True
Page: 538
LOD: Easy
67.
Data warehouses store data extracted from the operational
databases and conventional files.
Answer: True
Page: 523
LOD: Easy
68.
Operational databases and conventional files store data
extracted from data warehouses.
Answer: False
Page: 523
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Data warehouses store data extracted from the
operational databases and conventional files.
69.
Data mining is the term used to describe the use query tools
and decision support tools that are used to generate reports and analyses
off of data warehouses.
Answer: True
Page: 523
LOD: Easy
70.
Metadata is the data about data, such as record and field
definitions, synonyms, data relationships, validation rules, help
messages, etc.
Answer: True
71.
Page: 526
LOD: Medium
DML commands may be "called" from programming languages.
Answer: True
Page: 526
LOD: Medium
72.
Contemporary data architecture allows for Internet-enabled
database technology.
Answer: True
Page: 524
LOD: Easy
73.
Examples of high-performance relational DBMSs include Oracle,
IBM's DB2, and Microsoft Access.
Answer: False
Page: 528
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Examples of high-performance relational DBMSs
include Oracle, IBM's DB2, and Microsoft's SQL Server.
74.
A data administrator is responsible for the data planning,
definition, architecture, and management.
Answer: True
Page: 524
LOD: Easy
75.
One or more database administrators (DBAs) are responsible for
the database technology, database design and construction consultation,
security, backup and recovery, and performance tuning.
Answer: True
Page: 524
LOD: Easy
76.
Database architecture refers to the database technology
including the database engine, database utilities, database CASE tools
for analysis and design, and database application development tools.
Answer: True
Page: 524
LOD: Easy
77.
A database management system (DBMS) is specialized computer
software available from computer vendors that is used to create, access,
control, and manage the database.
Answer: True
Page: 525
LOD: Easy
78.
A data definition language (DDL) is used by the DBMS to
physically establish record types, fields, and structural relationships.
Additionally, the DDL defines views of the database.
Answer: True
Page: 525
LOD: Easy
79.
The data manipulation language (DML) is used by the DBMS to
physically establish record types, fields, and structural relationships.
Additionally, the DML defines views of the database.
Answer: False
Page: 525-526
LOD: Medium
Rationale: A data definition language (DDL) is used by the
DBMS to physically record types, fields, and structural relationships. A
data manipulation language (DML) is used to create, read, update, and
delete records in the database and to navigate between different records
and types of records.
80.
The data definition language (DDL) is able to specify
different views of a database. Views restrict the portion of the database
that may be used or accessed by different users and programs.
Answer: True
Page: 525
LOD: Easy
81.
The data manipulation language (DML) is able to specify
different views of a database. Views restrict the portion of the database
that may be used or accessed by different users and programs.
Answer: False
Page: 525
LOD: Medium
Rationale: The data definition language (DDL) is able to
specify different views of a database. Views restrict the portion of the
database that may be used or accessed by different users and programs.
82.
metadata.
Most database management systems store both user data and
Answer: True
Page: 526
LOD: Easy
83.
Some metadata is stored in the actual database, while other
metadata is stored in the CASE tool repositories.
Answer: True
Page: 526
LOD: Medium
84.
A data manipulation language (DML) is used to create, read,
update, and delete records in the database and to navigate between
different records and types of records.
Answer: True
Page: 526
LOD: Easy
85.
The data definition language (DDL) is used to create, read,
update, and delete records in the database and to navigate between
different records and types of records.
Answer: False
Page: 525-526
LOD: Medium
Rationale: A data definition language (DDL) is used by the
DBMS to physically establish those record types, fields, and structural
relationships. Additionally, the DDL defines views of the database. A
data manipulation language (DML) is used to create, read, update, and
delete records in the database and to navigate between different records
and types of records.
86.
The database engine of a DBMS responds to commands to create,
read, update, and delete records in the database.
Answer: True
Page: 525
LOD: Easy
87.
In a relational database ach table (sometimes called a
relation) consists of named columns (which are fields or attributes) and
any number of unnamed rows (which correspond to records).
Answer: True
Page: 526
LOD: Easy
88.
A fundamental characteristic of SQL is that commands return a
set of records.
Answer: True
Page: 526
LOD: Medium
89.
Relational databases implement data in a series of twodimensional tables that are "related" to one another via foreign keys.
Answer: True
Page: 526
LOD: Easy
90.
The physical, relational database implementation of the data
model is known as the schema.
Answer: True
Page: 526
LOD: Easy
91.
The physical, relational database implementation of the data
model is known as the scenario.
Answer: False
Page: 526
LOD: Medium
Rationale: The physical, relational database implementation of
the data model is known as the schema.
92.
SQL is a language that supports complete database creation,
maintenance and usage, and is the DDL and DML of most relational
databases.
Answer: True
Page: 527
LOD: Easy
93.
SQL provides a SELECT command to select specific records from
a table based on specific criteria.
Answer: True
Page: 527
LOD: Easy
94.
SQL provides a JOIN command to join two or more tables across
a common field.
Answer: True
Page: 527
LOD: Easy
95.
Triggers are programs embedded within a table that are
automatically invoked by updates to another table.
Answer: True
Page: 528
LOD: Easy
96.
Stored procedures are programs embedded within a table that
can be called from an application program.
Answer: True
Page: 528
LOD: Easy
97.
Triggers are programs embedded within a table that can be
called from an application program.
Answer: False
Page: 528
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Triggers are programs embedded within a table that
are automatically invoked by updates to another table. Stored procedures
are programs embedded within a table that can be called from an
application program.
98.
Stored procedures are programs embedded within a table that
are automatically invoked by updates to another table.
Answer: False
Page: 528
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Triggers are programs embedded within a table that
are automatically invoked by updates to another table. Stored procedures
are programs embedded within a table that can be called from an
application program.
99.
Both triggers and stored procedures are reusable because they
are stored with the tables themselves (as metadata).
Answer: True
Page: 528
LOD: Easy
100. A good data model is simple.
Answer: True
Page: 529
LOD: Easy
101. A good data model is complex. As a general rule, the data
attributes that describe an entity should describe all possible
characteristics of that entity.
Answer: False
Page: 529
LOD: Medium
Rationale: A good data model is simple. As a general rule, the
data attributes that describe an entity should describe only that entity.
102. A good data model is essentially non-redundant. This means
that each data attribute, other than foreign keys, describes at most one
entity.
Answer: True
Page: 529
LOD: Easy
103. Database design should proceed only if the underlying logical
data model is in at least 2NF.
Answer: False
Page: 529
LOD: Easy
Rationale: Database design should proceed only if the
underlying logical data model is in at least 3NF.
104. A good data model should be flexible and adaptable to future
needs.
Answer: True
Page: 529
LOD: Easy
105. A role name is an alternate name for a foreign key that
clearly distinguishes the purpose that the foreign key serves in the
table.
Answer: True
Page: 538
LOD: Easy
106. Data distribution analysis establishes which business
locations need access to which logical data entities and attributes.
Answer: True
Page: 538
LOD: Easy
107. Centralization of a database means that it would be
implemented on a single server regardless of the number of physical
locations that may require access to it.
Answer: True
Page: 538
LOD: Easy
108. Horizontal distribution of the data means that each table or
entire rows in a table would be assigned to different database servers
and locations.
Answer: True
Page: 538
LOD: Easy
109. Vertical distribution of the data means that each table or
entire rows in a table would be assigned to different database servers
and locations.
Answer: False
Page: 538
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Horizontal distribution of the data means that each
table or entire rows in a table would be assigned to different database
servers and locations.
110. Vertical distribution of the data has specific columns of
tables assigned to specific databases and servers.
Answer: True
Page: 538
LOD: Easy
111. Horizontal distribution of the data has specific columns of
tables assigned to specific databases and servers.
Answer: False
Page: 538
LOD: Easy
Rationale: Vertical distribution of the data has specific
columns of tables assigned to specific databases and servers.
112. With horizontal distribution of data, the data cannot always
be easily recombined for management analysis across sites.
Answer: True
Page: 538
LOD: Easy
113. Many CASE tools can generate SQL code for creating a database
from a CASE-based database schema.
Answer: True
Page: 539
LOD: Easy
114. In implementing a database schema, each fundamental,
associate, and weak entity is implemented as a separate table.
Answer: True
Page: 530
LOD: Medium
115. In implementing a database schema, an index should be created
for any nonkey attributes that were identified as subsetting criteria
requirements.
Answer: True
Page: 530
LOD: Medium
116. A database schema is the physical model or blueprint for a
database. It represents the technical implementation of the logical data
model.
Answer: True
Page: 530
LOD: Easy
117. In implementing a database schema, each supertype and subtype
entity must be implemented with a separate table.
Answer: False
Page: 532
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Implementing them as separate tables is one of
three options that can be employed.
118. Different DBMSs express precision of real numbers differently.
Answer: True
Page: 532
LOD: Medium
119. During the creation of database schemas, NULL means the field
does not have to have a value; whereas, NOT NULL means the field must
have a value.
Answer: True
Page: 532
LOD: Easy
120. During the creation of database schemas, NULL means the field
must have a value; whereas, NOT NULL means the field must not have a
value.
Answer: False
Page: 532
LOD: Medium
Rationale: During the creation of database schemas, NULL means
the field does not have to have a value; whereas, NOT NULL means the
field must have a value.
121. Key integrity for a database means that every table should
have a primary key.
Answer: True
Page: 535
LOD: Easy
122. In a database, primary key fields may be duplicated across
records.
Answer: False
Page: 535
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Key integrity for a database means that every table
should have a primary key (which may be concatenated) but is controlled
such that no two records in the table have the same primary key value.
123. The primary key for a record must never be allowed to have a
NULL value.
Answer: True
Page: 535
LOD: Medium
124. The primary key for a record can have a NULL value. This
defines a template record.
Answer: False
Page: 535
LOD: Medium
Rationale: The primary key for a record must never be allowed
to have a NULL value.
125. Domain integrity means that appropriate controls must be
designed to ensure that no field takes on a value that is outside the
range of legal values.
Answer: True
Page: 536
LOD: Easy
126. Domain integrity means that a primary key cannot take on the
NULL value.
Answer: False
Page: 535-536
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Key integrity means that the primary key for a
record must never be allowed to have a NULL value. Domain integrity means
that appropriate controls must be designed to ensure that no field takes
on a value that is outside the range of legal values.
127. Key integrity means that the primary key for a record must not
take on a value that is outside the range of legal values.
Answer: False
Page: 535-536
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Key integrity means that the primary key for a
record must never be allowed to have a NULL value. Domain integrity means
that appropriate controls must be designed to ensure that no field takes
on a value that is outside the range of legal values.
128. Referential integrity is the assurance that a foreign-key
value in one table has a matching primary-key value in a related table.
Answer: True
Page: 536
LOD: Easy
129. Referential integrity means that every table should have a
unique, primary key, whose value is NOT NULL.
Answer: False
Page: 535-536
LOD: Medium
Rationale: Key integrity means that every table should have a
primary key such that no two records in the table have the same primary
key value. Referential integrity is the assurance that a foreign-key
value in one table has a matching primary-key value in a related table.
130. A domain integrity error exists when a foreign key value in
one table has no matching primary key value in the related table.
Answer: False
Page: 536
LOD: Medium
Rationale: A referential integrity error exists when a foreign
key value in one table has no matching primary key value in the related
table.
131. A referential integrity error exists when a foreign key value
in one table has no matching primary key value in the related table.
Answer: True
Page: 536
LOD: Easy
132. Horizontal distribution of data results in efficient access
and security because each location has only those tables and rows
required for that location.
Answer: True
Page: 538
LOD: Easy
Multiple Choice Questions
133. A Gender field can hold only the values M or F. This is an
example of:
A)
key integrity
B)
domain integrity
C)
referential integrity
D)
logical integrity
E)
schema integrity
Answer: B
Page: 536
LOD: Medium
134. The EmployeeID field in an employee table cannot be left
blank. This is an example of:
A)
key integrity
B)
domain integrity
C)
referential integrity
D)
logical integrity
E)
schema integrity
Answer: A
Page: 535
LOD: Medium
135. The DeptID field in an employee table must match the DeptID of
an existing record in the department table. This is an example of:
A)
key integrity
B)
domain integrity
C)
referential integrity
D)
logical integrity
E)
schema integrity
Answer: C
Page: 536
LOD: Medium
136. Specialized computer software that is used to create, access,
control, and manage the database is called:
A)
network system
B)
database management system
C)
operating system
D)
network operating system
E)
none of these
Answer: B
Page: 525
LOD: Medium
137.
updates is
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: C
A program embedded within a table and invoked automatically by
called a(n):
DML
DDL
trigger
stored procedure
view
Page: 528
LOD: Medium
138. The person responsible for data planning, definition,
architecture, and management is known as a(n):
A)
data administrator
B)
database administrator
C)
system owner
D)
end-user
E)
none of these
Answer: A
Page: 524
LOD: Medium
139. The person responsible for the database technology, database
design and construction consultation, security, backup and recovery, and
performance tuning is known as a(n):
A)
data administrator
B)
database administrator
C)
system owner
D)
end-user
E)
none of these
Answer: B
140.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: A
Page: 524
LOD: Medium
To add a new record to a database table you would use:
DML
DDL
DBA
CASE
none of these
Page: 525
LOD: Medium
141. Which language is used by the DBMS to physically establish
those record types, fields, and structural relationships in a relational
database?
A)
DML
B)
DDL
C)
DBA
D)
CASE
E)
none of these
Answer: B
Page: 525
LOD: Medium
142. Which language is used by the DBMS to create, read, update,
and delete records in the database and to navigate between different
records and types of records?
A)
DML
B)
DDL
C)
CASE
D)
navigator
E)
none of these
Answer: A
Page: 526
LOD: Medium
143. The physical, relational database implementation of a data
model is known as a:
A)
scenario
B)
role model
C)
schema
D)
primary data model
E)
none of these
Answer: C
144.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: B
Page: 526
LOD: Medium
Which of the following is not a command in SQL?
SELECT
BLOCK
PROJECT
JOIN
all of these are commands in SQL
Page: 527
LOD: Medium
145. Which of the following is NOT a high-performance relational
DBMS?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: D
Oracle
IBM DB2
Microsoft SQL Server
Microsoft Access
Sybase
Page: 528
LOD: Medium
146. A program that is embedded within a relational database table
that can be called from an application program is known as a(n):
A)
embedded procedure
B)
stored procedure
C)
trigger procedure
D)
schema procedure
E)
none of these
Answer: B
Page: 528
LOD: Medium
147. Which of the following are not criteria for producing a
quality data model?
A)
A good data model is simple.
B)
A good data model is redundant.
C)
A good data model is flexible.
D)
A good data model is adaptable to future needs.
E)
all of these are criteria for producing a quality data model
Answer: B
Page: 529
LOD: Medium
148. No two records in an employee table can have the same value
for EmployeeID. This is an example of:
A)
key integrity
B)
domain integrity
C)
referential integrity
D)
logical integrity
E)
schema integrity
Answer: A
Page: 536
LOD: Medium
149.
takes on a
refers to:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: B
Appropriate controls must be designed to ensure that no field
value that is outside of the range of legal values. This
referential integrity
domain integrity
key integrity
data integrity
none of these
Page: 536
LOD: Medium
150. The foreign key value in one table must have a matching
primary key value in the related table. This refers to:
A)
referential integrity
B)
domain integrity
C)
key integrity
D)
data integrity
E)
none of these
Answer: A
Page: 536
LOD: Medium
151. The alternate name for a foreign key that clearly
distinguishes the purpose that foreign key serves in the table is known
as:
A)
role name
B)
attribute name
C)
service pointer
D)
domain name
E)
none of these
Answer: A
Page: 538
LOD: Medium
152. When a database is implemented on a single server regardless
of the number of physical locations that may require access to it is
known as:
A)
centralization
B)
horizontal distribution
C)
vertical distribution
D)
replication
E)
none of these
Answer: A
Page: 538
LOD: Medium
153. When a table or entire rows in a table are assigned to
different database servers and locations, it is known as:
A)
centralization
B)
horizontal distribution
C)
vertical distribution
D)
replication
E)
none of these
Answer: B
154.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: B
155.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: C
Page: 538
LOD: Medium
A collection of similar records is known as:
a field
a file
a database
an attribute
none of these
Page: 518
LOD: Medium
A collection of interrelated files is known as:
a field
a record
a database
a network
none of these
Page: 518
LOD: Medium
156. The physical implementation of a data attribute; it is the
smallest unit of meaningful data to be stored:
A)
a field
B)
a file
C)
a record
D)
a key
E)
none of these
Answer: A
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
157. The field whose values identify one and only one record in a
file is known as the:
A)
attribute
B)
associative field
C)
primary key
D)
secondary key
E)
none of these
Answer: C
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
158. An alternate identifier for a database, its value may identify
either a single record or a subset of all records is known as a(n):
A)
attribute
B)
associative field
C)
primary key
D)
secondary key
E)
none of these
Answer: D
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
159. Pointers to the records of a different file in a database,
they are used to link records of one type to those of another type:
A)
attributes
B)
referential pointers
C)
descriptive fields
D)
foreign keys
E)
none of these
Answer: D
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
160. A collection of fields arranged in a predefined format is
known as a(n):
A)
attribute
B)
file
C)
concatenated key
D)
record
E)
none of these
Answer: D
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
161. Record structures that require each record instance to have
the same fields, same number of fields, and same logical size is
classified as:
A)
a fixed length record structure
B)
a variable length record structure
C)
a table
D)
a transaction file structure
E)
none of these
Answer: A
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
162. Record structures that allow different records in the same
file to have different lengths is known as:
A)
a fixed length record structure
B)
a standard deviation record structure
C)
a variance record structure
D)
a variable length record structure
E)
none of these
Answer: D
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
163. The number of logical records included in a single read or
write operation from the computer's perspective is known as the:
A)
length factor
B)
transaction factor
C)
blocking factor
D)
referential factor
E)
none of these
Answer: C
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
164. The set of all occurrences of a record structure is known as
a(n):
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: B
field
file
object
database
none of these
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
165.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: D
The relational database equivalent of a file is known as a(n):
scenario
transaction
block
table
none of these
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
166. Files or tables that contain records that are relatively
permanent are known as:
A)
master
B)
transaction
C)
document
D)
archival
E)
none of these
Answer: A
167.
events are
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: B
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
Files or tables that contain records that describe business
known as:
master
transaction
document
archival
none of these
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
168. Files and tables that contain stored copies of historical data
for easy retrieval and review without the overhead of regeneration are
known as:
A)
master
B)
archival
C)
document
D)
table look-up
E)
none of these
Answer: C
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
169. Files and tables that contain master and transaction file
records that have been deleted from on-line storage are known as:
A)
document
B)
table look-up
C)
archival
D)
audit
E)
none of these
Answer: C
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
170. Files that contain relatively static data that can be shared
by applications to maintain consistency and improve performance are known
as:
A)
document
B)
table look-up
C)
archival
D)
audit
E)
none of these
Answer: B
171.
especially
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: B
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
Files that are special records of updates to other files,
master and transaction files, are known as:
document
audit
archival
block
none of these
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
172. A database that stores data extracted from operational
databases for the purpose of data mining is called a(n):
A)
transactional database
B)
personal database
C)
workgroup database
D)
data warehouse
E)
distributed database
Answer: D
Page: 523
LOD: Medium
173.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: D
174.
called a:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: B
Which of the following is the smallest unit of data stored?
file
logical record
block
field
none of these
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
A collection of fields arranged in a predefined format is
character
record
field
database
none of these.
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
175. Fields whose values identify one and only one record in a file
are called:
A)
foreign keys
B)
primary keys
C)
alternative keys
D)
concatenated keys
E)
none of these
Answer: B
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
176. Which of the following is an acceptable technique for
implementing supertype/subtype entities?
A)
Each supertype and subtype can be implemented with a separate
table.
B)
The subtypes may be collapsed into the supertype to create a
single table.
C)
The supertype's attributes could be duplicated in a table for
each subtype.
D)
A and C
E)
all of these
Answer: E
Page: 532
LOD: Medium
177.
locations?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: D
178.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: C
179.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: A
Which form of distribution duplicates data in multiple
centralization
horizontal distribution
vertical distribution
replication
none of these
Page: 538
What is a
size of a
size of a
number of
number of
size of a
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
blocking factor?
physical record
block of logical records
logical records included in a single read
physical records in a physical record
logical record
LOD: Medium
The main reason why data is retrieved in "blocks" is to:
minimize the number of actual disk accesses
save space
make programming easier
increase the lifetime of hardware
all of these
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
180. The person responsible for the database technology, database
design and construction, security, backup and recovery, and performance
tuning is the:
A)
network administrator
B)
systems administrator
C)
systems analyst
D)
database administrator
E)
none of these
Answer: D
Page: 524
LOD: Medium
181.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: A
DDL stands for which of the following:
data definition language
data defined language
driven data language
driven data loop
data definition lookup
Page: 525
LOD: Medium
182. Which of the following languages is used to create, read,
update, and delete records in the database and to navigate between
different records and types of records?
A)
DML
B)
DDL
C)
DSS
D)
DDS
E)
none of these
Answer: A
183.
called:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: A
Page: 526
LOD: Medium
The database technology used to support data architecture is
database architecture
network architecture
systems architecture
data architecture
none of these
Page: 524
LOD: Medium
184. An employee and a customer file are both examples of which
type of file?
A)
master
B)
transaction
C)
scratch
D)
table
E)
archive
Answer: A
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
185. A file that contains records that describe business events is
what type of file?
A)
master
B)
transaction
C)
scratch
D)
table
E)
archive
Answer: B
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
186. A file that contains off-line records of master or transaction
files is what type of file?
A)
log
B)
scratch
C)
table
D)
archive
E)
none of these
Answer: D
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
187. When specific columns of tables are assigned to specific
databases or servers, it is known as:
A)
centralization
B)
horizontal distribution
C)
vertical distribution
D)
replication
E)
none of these
Answer: C
Page: 538
LOD: Medium
188. When entire tables are duplicated and stored in multiple
locations or file servers, it is known as:
A)
centralization
B)
horizontal duplication
C)
vertical duplication
D)
replication
E)
none of these
Answer: D
Page: 538
LOD: Medium
189.
planning?
A)
table.
B)
the number
C)
D)
E)
Which of the following is NOT a step of database capacity
Calculate the record size by summing the field sizes in each
Calculate the table size by multiplying the record size times
of records.
Sum the table sizes.
Optionally, add a slack capacity buffer.
none of these
Answer: E
190.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Answer: C
Page: 539
LOD: Medium
Every nonkey field is called a(n):
secondary key
foreign key
descriptive field
record
none of these
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
Fill in the Blank Questions
191. Database design should proceed only if the underlying logical
data model is in at least _____________________ normal form.
Answer: third
Page: 529
LOD: Hard
192. A(n) _____________________________ is the physical model or
blueprint for a database. It represents the technical implementation of
the logical data model.
Answer: database schema
Page: 530
LOD: Hard
193. During the creation of database schemas,
_________________________ means the field does not have to have a value;
whereas, __________________________ means the field must have a value.
Answer: NULL, NOT NULL
Page: 532
LOD: Hard
194. ____________________ integrity for a database means that every
table should have a primary key (which may be concatenated) but is
controlled such that no two records in the table have the same primary
key value.
Answer: Key
Page: 535
LOD: Hard
195. The ______________________ key for a record must never be
allowed to have a NULL value.
Answer: primary
Page: 535
LOD: Hard
196. ____________________________ integrity means that appropriate
controls must be designed to ensure that no field takes on a value that
is outside the range of legal values.
Answer: Domain
Page: 536
LOD: Hard
197. _______________________________ integrity means that the
architecture of relational databases implements the relationships between
the records in tables via foreign keys.
Answer: Referential
Page: 536
LOD: Hard
198. A(n) __________________________________ error exists when a
foreign key value in one table has no matching primary key value in the
related table.
Answer: referential integrity
Page: 536
LOD: Hard
199. A(n) ________________________________ is an alternate name for
a foreign key that clearly distinguishes the purpose that foreign key
serves in the table.
Answer: role name
Page: 538
LOD: Hard
200. _______________________________________ establishes which
business locations need access to which logical data entities and
attributes.
Answer: Data distribution analysis
Page: 538
LOD: Hard
201. ____________________________________ of a database means that
it would be implemented on a single server regardless of the number of
physical locations that may require access to it.
Answer: Centralization
Page: 538
LOD: Hard
202. ______________________________ distribution of the data means
that each table or entire rows in a table would be assigned to different
database servers and locations. This option results in efficient access
and security because each location has only those tables and rows
required for that location.
Answer: Horizontal
Page: 538
LOD: Hard
203. _________________________________ distribution of the data has
the unfortunate side effect that data cannot always be easily recombined
for management analysis across sites.
Answer: Horizontal or Vertical
Page: 538
LOD: Hard
204. ________________________________ distribution of the data has
specific columns of tables assigned to specific databases and servers.
Answer: Vertical
Page: 538
LOD: Hard
205. ___________________________________ of data refers to the
physical duplication of entire tables to multiple locations.
Answer: Replication
Page: 538
LOD: Hard
206. _________________________________ of data offers performance
and accessibility advantages and reduces network traffic, but it also
increases the complexity of data integrity and requires more physical
storage.
Answer: Replication
Page: 538
LOD: Hard
207. _______________________________ is the simplest and easiest
solution to maintain; however, it violates a data management rule that
has become important to many data administrators and users - data should
be located as closely as possible to its users.
Answer: Centralization
Page: 538
LOD: Hard
208. A(n) _____________________________ is a collection of similar
records.
Answer: file or table
Page: 518
LOD: Medium
209. A(n) ______________________________ is a collection of
interrelated files.
Answer: database
Page: 518
LOD: Medium
210. A historical ___________________________ (advantage or
disadvantage) of using conventional files has been processing speed. They
can be optimized for the access of the application.
Answer: advantage
Page: 519
LOD: Medium
211. Duplication of data items in multiple files is normally cited
as the principal disadvantage of (file-based or database) systems.
Answer: file-based
Page: 519
LOD: Medium
212. _________________________________ is a three-step technique
that places the data model into first normal form, second normal form and
third normal form.
Answer: Normalization
Page: 529
LOD: Hard
213. Once a database design and its corresponding schema have been
completed, a _________________________ database can usually be generated
very quickly.
Answer: prototype
Page: 539
LOD: Hard
214. Conventional files are relatively __________________ (easy or
hard) to design and implement because they are normally designed for use
with a single application or information system.
Answer: easy
Page: 518
LOD: Medium
215. The trend is overwhelmingly in favor of replacing file-based
systems and applications with ______________ systems and applications.
Answer: database
Page: 519
LOD: Easy
216. A significant disadvantage of ___________________
(conventional files or databases) is their inflexibility and nonscalability.
Answer: conventional files
Page: 519
LOD: Medium
217. The principal sadvantage of ___________________ (conventional
files or databases) is the ability to share the same data across multiple
applications and systems.
Answer: databases
Page: 520
LOD: Medium
218. Database technology provides superior ____________________,
meaning that the database and the systems that use it can be grown or
expanded to meet the changing needs of an organization.
Answer: scalability
Page: 520
LOD: Medium
219. Realistically, most organizations build several databases,
each one sharing data with several information systems. Thus, there will
be some _____________ between databases.
Answer: redundancy
Page: 520
LOD: Medium
220. A(n) __________________________ is the physical implementation
of a data attribute.
Answer: field
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
221. Database technology offers the advantage of storing data in
flexible formats. This is made possible because databases are defined
separately from the information systems and application programs that
will use them. Theoretically, this allows us to use the data in ways not
originally specified by end-users. This is known as
________________________________ (data dependence or data independence).
Answer: data independence
Page: 520
LOD: Medium
222. Database technology is ______________________ (simpler or more
complex) than file technology.
Answer: more complex
Page: 520
LOD: Medium
223. A database management system (DBMS) is somewhat _____________
(slower or faster) than file technology.
Answer: slower
Page: 520
LOD: Medium
224. A(n) __________________________ is the smallest unit of
meaningful data to be stored in a file or database.
Answer: field
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
225. A(n) _________________________ key is a field whose values
identify one and only one record in a file.
Answer: primary
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
226. A(n) ____________________________ key is an alternate
identifier for a database. Its value may identify either a single record
or a subset of all records.
Answer: secondary
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
227. A primary key might be created by combining two or more
fields. In this situation it is called a ___________________________ key.
Answer: concatenated
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
228. A single file in a database may only have one
_______________________ key, but it may have several
____________________________keys.
Answer: primary, secondary
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
229. _________________________ keys are pointers to the records of
a different file in a database. These keys are how the database links the
records of one type to those of another type.
Answer: Foreign
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
230. A(n) _______________________ is a collection of fields
arranged in a predefined format.
Answer: record
Page: 521
LOD: Medium
231. Most database technologies impose a(n)
________________________ record structure, meaning that each record
instance has the same fields, same number of fields and same logical
size.
Answer: fixed-length
Page: 521
LOD: Hard
232. _________________________________ record structures allow
different records in the same file to have different lengths.
Answer: Variable-length
Page: 521
LOD: Hard
233. When a computer program "reads" a record from a database, it
actually retrieves a group or ________________________ of records at a
time.
Answer: block or page.
Page: 522
LOD: Hard
234. A(n) _______________________ factor is the number of logical
records included in a single read or write operation (from the computer's
perspective).
Answer: blocking
Page: 522
LOD: Hard
235. A(n) ______________________ is the set of all occurrences of a
given record structure. In database systems, it is frequently called a
table.
Answer: file
Page: 522
LOD: Medium
236. _________________________ files or tables contain records that
are relatively permanent. Thus, once a record has been added, it remains
in the system indefinitely. The values of fields for the record will
change over its lifetime, but the individual records are retained
indefinitely.
Answer: Master
Page: 522
LOD: Hard
237. _________________________ files or tables contain records that
describe business events. The data describing these events normally has a
limited useful lifetime. Subsequent to their useful lifetime, they are
archived off-line.
Answer: Transaction
Page: 522
LOD: Hard
238. ________________________________ files and tables contain
stored copies of historical data for easy retrieval and review without
the overhead of regeneration.
Answer: Document
Page: 522
LOD: Hard
239. ___________________________ files and tables contain master
and transaction file records that have been deleted from on-line storage.
Thus, records are rarely deleted; they are merely moved from on-line
storage to off-line storage. Their requirements are dictated by
government regulation and the need for subsequent audit or analysis.
Answer: Archival
Page: 522
LOD: Hard
240. ______________________________________ files contain
relatively static data that can be shared by applications to maintain
consistency and improve performance.
Answer: Table look-up
Page: 522
LOD: Hard
241. _______________________ files are special records of updates
to other files, especially master and transaction files. They are used in
conjunction with archival files to recover "lost" data.
Answer: Audit
Page: 522
LOD: Hard
242. To facilitate searching and sorting, a(n) _________ is
frequently created for keys.
Answer: index
Page: 521
LOD: Hard
243. _________________________ is a resource that must be
controlled and managed!
Answer: Data
Page: 523
LOD: Hard
244. _______________________ tools are frequently capable of
generating SQL code for the database from a CASE-based database schema
Answer: CASE
Page: 539
LOD: Hard
245. A good data model should be _________________________ and
adaptable to future needs.
Answer: flexible
Page: 529
LOD: Hard
246. A business's ____________________ architecture defines how
that business will develop and use both files and databases to store all
of the organization's data, the file and database technology to be used,
and the administrative structure set up to manage the data resource.
Answer: data
Page: 523
LOD: Hard
247. __________________________________ databases are developed to
support day-to-day operations and business transaction processing for
major information systems.
Answer: Operational or Transactional
Page: 523
LOD: Hard
248. Many information systems shops hesitate to give end-users
access to operational databases for queries and reports. The volume of
unscheduled reports and queries could overload the computers and hamper
business operations that the databases were intended to support. That is
why ___________________________________ are developed, possibly on
separate computers to provide for end-users reports and queries.
Answer: data warehouses
Page: 523
LOD: Hard
249. ___________________________ is the term used to describe the
use of query tools and decision support tools used to generate reports
and analyses off of data warehouses.
Answer: Data mining
Page: 523
LOD: Hard
250. A(n) _______________________________________ is responsible
for the data planning, definition, architecture, and management.
Answer: data administrator
Page: 524
LOD: Hard
251. One or more ____________________________________ are
responsible for the database technology, database design and construction
consultation, security, backup and recovery, and performance tuning.
Answer: database administrators (DBAs)
Page: 524
LOD: Hard
252. ____________________________________________ refers to the
database technology including the database engine, database utilities,
database CASE tools for analysis and design, and database application
development tools.
Answer: Database architecture
Page: 524
LOD: Hard
253. A(n) ______________________________________________________ is
specialized computer software available from computer vendors that is
used to create, access, control, and manage the database.
Answer: database management system (DBMS)
Page: 525
LOD: Hard
254. A(n) _____________________________ is used by the DBMS to
physically establish those record types, fields, and structural
relationships. Additionally, the DDL defines views of the database.
Answer: data definition language (DDL)
Page: 525
LOD: Hard
255. The ______________________________ is able to specify
different views of a database.
Answer: data definition language (DDL)
Page: 525
LOD: Hard
256. _________________________________ is the data about the data,
such as record and field definitions, synonyms, data relationships,
validation rules, help messages, etc.
Answer: Metadata
Page: 526
LOD: Hard
257. A(n) __________________________________ is used to create,
read, update, and delete records in the database and to navigate between
different records and types of records.
Answer: data manipulation language (DML)
Page: 526
LOD: Hard
258. In general, the data manipulation language (DML) is very
flexible in that it may be used by itself to create, read, update, and
delete records; or its commands may be "called" from a separate host
___________________________.
Answer:
programming language
Page: 526
LOD: Hard
259. _________________________________ implement data in a series
of two-dimensional tables that are "related" to one another via foreign
keys. Each table consists of named columns (which are fields or
attributes) and any number of unnamed rows (which correspond to records).
Answer: Relational databases
Page: 526
LOD: Hard
260. The physical, relational database implementation of the data
model is known as the __________________________________ .
Answer: schema
Page: 526
LOD: Hard
261. ___________________ is a language, which supports complete
database creation, maintenance and usage, and is the DDL and DML of most
relational databases.
Answer: SQL
Page: 527
LOD: Hard
262. SQL allows you to __________________ two or more tables
across a common field (a primary and a foreign key).
Answer: JOIN
Page: 527
LOD: Hard
263. ________________________________ are programs embedded within
a table that are automatically invoked by updates to another table.
Answer: Triggers
Page: 528
LOD: Hard
264. ________________________________ are programs embedded within
a table that can be called from an application program.
Answer: Stored procedures
Page: 528
LOD: Hard
265. Both triggers and stored procedures are reusable because they
are stored with the tables themselves as_____________________.
Answer: metadata
Page: 528
LOD: Hard
266. A good data model is_______________________. As a general
rule, the data attributes that describe an entity should describe only
that entity.
Answer: simple
Page: 529
LOD: Hard
267. A good data model is essentially___________________________.
This means that each data attribute, other than foreign keys, describes
at most one entity.
Answer: non-redundant
Page: 529
LOD: Hard
268. ___________ restrict the portion of the database that may be
used or accessed by different users and programs.
Answer: Views
Page: 525
Chapter 14
Database Design
Chapter 14
Database Design
PAGE 308
Seventh Edition
LOD: Hard
Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods,
Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition
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