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introducing major methods in foreign language teaching2020.3 (学生自学版)

Introducing Major Methods
In Foreign Language Teaching
Ying Lijun
Grammar-Translation Method
It is a method of foreign or second language teaching
which uses translation and grammar study as the main
teaching and learning activities.
At one time it was called classical method
since it was first used in the teaching of the classical
languages of Latin and Greek.
Grammar-Translation Method
 It began only in the late18th century.
 It was popular around 1840.
Theory of language ( 5)
 All languages originate from one language and are
ruled by a common grammar.
 The written form of the language is superior to the
spoken form.
 The students’first language is the reference system in
the learning of the target language
Grammar-Translation Method
Theory of language
 The mind of human beings has various faculties that can
be trained separately. Understanding and memorization
of complicated grammatical rules of languges help to
develop mentality.
 Latin grammar is the most logical and well-organized
grammar. The language was a body of knowledge to be
learned, with an emphasis on intellectual rigor.
Grammar-Translation Method
 To read and translate its literature
 To understand the target language
 Th help develop their minds
 To gain a better understanding of the first language
Grammar-Translation Method
The lesson of its standard teaching arrangement:
a. a statement of the rule
b. vocabulary
c. translation exercises
 reading /translation
 deductive teaching of grammar /analysis and
 memorization / written work
 reading comprehension questions
Grammar-Translation Method
Step one:
 The teacher reads and explains the new words and expressions in the
first language.
 The teacher teaches the new grammar with deductive method.
Step two:
 Students are asked to read a few sentences out aloud and translate them
into the first language.
 The teacher analyses some difficult sentence and translates them into
their native language first literally and then freely.
 Students read the studied part of the passage silently and ask the
teacher questions they can not answer by themselves.
Step three:
 Students are asked to write the answers to the questions about the
reading passage.
 Students are asked to do other written work that is meant to reinforce
the new grammar items and vocabulary.
Grammar-Translation Method
Main features
 Grammar is the core of language, and language
material are arranged according to the grammar system.
The main teaching activities are analysis, explanation
and translation.
The major practice is translating from them into the
target language.
The teaching focus is reading and writing.
First language is the main medium of instruction.
The sentence is the basic unit of language teaching and
Language accuracy is emphasized.
Grammar-Translation Method
Major merit
It was praised as active, simple, and effective.
 creating one form cross-lingual techniques, playing a
certain part in language teaching.
 improving FL teaching effect by means of grammar
and students’ understanding
 thinking about formal features of the second language
and translation as a practice technique .
 Relatively easy to apply in our language teaching
without many teaching aids and facilities.
Grammar-Translation Method
Major defect
 neglecting pronunciation and intonations, listening and
 overemphasising on the language as a mass of rules
using rote-learning, translation and grammar in an
isolated way;
 not meeting the communicative and practical needs of
the students in the dominance of the first language.
Direct Method (直接法)
 It is a method of foreign or second language teaching
which only the target language should be used in class
and its communication “directly” with actions, objects,
mime, gestures, and situation. A variety of names such as
“reform method”, “psychological method”, “phonetic
 It emphasizes the importance of spoken language and
reading and writing should be taught only after speaking.
 The Direct Method believes in the natural process of
language learning and in the inductive teaching of
Direct Method (直接法)
 The language reforms from 1850 to 1900
Theory of language
 Every language has its own structure.
 Spoken language comes before written language.
 Spoken language is a learnable system of sounds.
 Language and thought are closely linked and language and
the physical world are directly associated.
 The language learning was viewed as analogous to first
language acquisition. Language meaning is taught by using
learners’ sensory experience.
 Learners acquire rules of grammar inductively.
Direct Method (直接法)
 Objectives
 To foster the students’ ability to communicate in the target
 To enable the students to think in the target language
 To train the four skills
 To achieve correct pronunciation
Direct Method (直接法)
Main features
 Students learn to think in the target language.
 Meaning is presented by relating directly to the physical
 Target language is the language of instruction and
communication in the classroom.
 Grammar is learned inductively through listening and
speaking activities.
 Correct pronunciation is emphasized.
 The syllabus is arranged semantically according to
situations or topics.
 The basic unit of language is the sentence.
Direct Method (直接法)
 Direct association
 Question and answer exercises
 Conversation practice
 Error correction
 Dictation
 Inductive teaching of grammar
 Listening comprehension tasks
 Graded composition
Direct Method (直接法)
Classroom procedures in the Direct Method can be
roughly divided into three phases:
-- presentation by direct association,
-- oral practice in the target language,
-- consolidation with written work.
Direct Method (直接法)
Major advantages
 The first attempt to make the language learning situation
used to train the learner to abandon the first language as
the frame of reference.
 The development of new non-translational techniques of
language instruction.
 The audioligual and audiovisaual methods in the fifties
and sixties adopted many of the techniques first developed
by direct method.
Direct Method (直接法)
Major problems
 How to convey meaning without translating, and how
to safeguard against misunderstanding without
reference to the first language.
 How to apply the direct method beyond elementary
stages of language learning and expand it to the
teaching of advanced learners.
Situational Language Teaching
It is a grammar-based method in which principles of
grammatical and lexical gradation are used and new
teaching points presented and practiced through
meaningful situation-based activities. It is also named the
Oral Approach.
It refers to an approach to language teaching developed by
British applied linguists from the 1930s to 1960s.
Situational Language Teaching
Theory of language
 Language is identified with speech.
 The basic elements in a language are rule-governed.
 Emphasis is on the close relationship between the
structure, context and situation that they are primary
importance .
 Language learning in real life differs from language
learning in the classroom which should follow naturalistic
principles of language learning.
 Focus is on the habit formation of foreign language
speech patterns by the behaviorist's habit-formation
Situational Language Teaching
 Get a practical command of the four basic skills of
 Obtain accuracy in pronunciation and grammar
Situational Language Teaching
Main feature
 Language teaching begins with the spoken language.
 The target language is the language of the classroom
 New language is introduced and practised in situations.
 Common core words are covered.
 Simple forms of grammar are taught before complex
ones,and inductively.
 Reading and writing are introduced later.
Situational Language Teaching
 New sentence patterns presented in situations
 Drill-based practice
 Guided repetition and substitution activities
 Dictation, imitation and controlled oral-based reading
and writing tasks
Situational Language Teaching
 Listening practice
 Choral imitation
 Isolation(突出难点)
 Building up to a new model
 Elicitation
 Substitution drill
 Question-answer drilling
 Correction
Situational Language Teaching
 The first attempt to establish theoretical
 Making up some shortcomings of the Direct
Method, emphasis on the function of situation.
Situational Language Teaching
 Not concerned with appropriateness or rules for
use in real discourse.
 The approach being largely a grammar-based one.
Popular Textbooks
About Oral Approach and Situational Approach
 ‘The Oral Method of Teaching Language’
by Harold E. Palmer
 ‘ New Concept English ’
《 新概念英语》
Audio-lingual Method
 The audiolingual Method is a method of foreign
language teaching which emphasizes the teaching of
listening and speaking before reading and writing. It is
named “The Army Method”.
 It uses dialogues as the main form of language
presentation and drills as the main training techniques.
 Mother tongue is discouraged in the classroom.
Audio-lingual Method
 It mainly came from the “Army Method” of American
wartime language programs in WWII ,which was
training foreign languages for military purposes in the
U.S army.
 the generous financial support for language programs.
 the new technology of the language laboratory.
Audio-lingual Method
Theory of language
 Elements in a language are produced in a rule-governed
Language samples could be exhaustively described at any
structural level of description.
Language is structured like a pyramid, that is , linguistic
levels are systems within systems.
Language is speech, not writing.
Language are different.
Audio-lingual Method
Theory of learning (6)
 Reflect the descriptive, structural, and contrastive
linguistics of the 1950s and 1960s.
(Bloomfield’s behaviorostic theory & Fries and Lado's
research on the contrastive linguistics )
 Based on behavioristic psychology by Skinner and also
influenced by neo-behaviorists such as Osgood, its
theory of “ stimulus and response”
 Not emphasize teaching grammatical knowledge as
grammar-translation method
Audio-lingual Method
 Not strictly restrict the use of the L1 in the language class
or in the learning materials as in the direct method.
 Emphasize active and simple practice, habitation and
conditioning rather than intellectual analysis.
 Make language learning by frequent repetition and
Audio-lingual Method
 To enable the target language communicatively (general )
 The development of mastery in all four language skill
--training in listening comprehension
--accurate pronunciation
--reading comprehension
--production of correct sentences in writting
Audio-lingual Method
Main features
 Separation of language skills into listening, speaking,
reading and writing, with emphasis on the teaching of
listening and speaking before reading and writing.
 Use of dialogues as the chief means of presenting the
 Emphasis on certain practice techniques: mimicry,
memorization and pattern drills.
 Discouraging the use of the mother tongue in the
 Use of language lab.
Audio-lingual Method
 Repetion drill
 Substitution drill
 Question-and-answer drill
 Expansion drill
 Clause combination drill
 Backward build-up drill
 Chain drill
 Completion
 Use of minimal pairs
Audio-lingual Method
 Recognition
 Imitation and repetition
 Pattern drills
 Follow-up activities
Audio-lingual Method
Major contributions
 The development of a language teaching theory on the
basis of linguistic and psychological principles.
 Attempt to make possible language teaching to large
numbers of ordinary learners outside the classroom.
 Stress on syntax while previous methods had only been
preoccupied with vocabulary and morphology.
 The development of simple teaching techniques.
 Separation the language skill for teaching purposes.
Audio-lingual Method
Major problems
 Not effective in the long run, not developing language
 Very dull to the learner, learners having little control
over their learning.
 Teacher’s domination of the class, teacher-oriented
Popular Textbooks About Audio-lingual Method
 ‘English Pattern Practice’
《 英语句型操练 》
 ‘An Intensive Course in English for Chinese Students’
《中国学生用英语速成教程 》
 ‘English 900’
《英语900句 》
 ‘Success with English’ 《英语成效 》
The cognitive Approach
 It (or called the cognitive-code method/learning) is an
approach to foreign language teaching which is based on
the belief that language learning is a process which
involves active method processes and not simply the
forming of habits.
 It lays emphasis on the conscious acquisition of
languages a meaningful system.
The cognitive Approach
 It came from America in 1960s repondance to the
limitations of Audio-lingual Method .
Theory of language
 The creative property of language
 Language as rule-governed
 Linguistic competence and linguistic performance
 The innate hypothesis
The cognitive Approach
Theory of learning
 Chomsky’s ideas about language acqusition
 Theory of cognitive psychology
 Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
 Schema theory
 Brunner and his discovery method
 Ausubel’s theory
 Kelly’s theory
 Diller’s four principles
The cognitive Approach
Main features
 Knowledge of language rules facilitate learning.
 Rules are taught deductively.
 Competence comes before performance.
 The learner is the centre of classroom teaching.
 Language practice is the main form of classroom teaching.
 Learning is based on understanding.
 The cognitive Approach gives equal importance to all the
four skills.
 Mistakes are unavoidable.
The cognitive Approach
 To develop in the students the native-like competence
 To develop intuitive thinking in learners
 To develop strategies of language use
 To enable the students to learn from errors
The cognitive Approach
 Rule learning
 Meaningful practice
 Creativity
The cognitive Approach
 Introducing and explaining new material
 Consolidating the understanding of the new material
 Application activities
The cognitive Approach
 Stress on creativity and meaning
 More active use of mental power
 Suitable for adult language learners
 Enjoyable and meaningful learning
 More effective learning by drawing on students’ experience
 Integrating all four skills
 Giving students’ opportunity to develop functional and
performance skills
 Drawing on the latest development of linguistics and
psychology and FLT theories
 More scientific
The cognitive Approach
 Difficult to select and prepare meaningful presentations
 Depending too much on analysis and understanding
 No complete and systematic practical activities and
 Needing further research and development
Communicative Approach(交际法)
 It is a teaching system based on the language function
project to cultivate the communicative ability of using
language in the specific social context.
 Littlewood (1981:1) states, “One of the most
characteristic features of the communicative language
teaching is that it pays systematic attention to functional
as well as structural aspects of language.”
 It is also called Communicative Method, Notional
Approach or Functional and Notional Approach.
Communicative Approach(交际法)
 Origin
 It was born in the early 1970s in the European
economic community countries, mainly in the United
 Studies in socio- linguistics, psycholinguistics,
semantics, speech act theory and Chomsky’
transformational-Generative Grammar
 Communicative competence by Hymes
 Functional linguistic by Halliday
Communicative Approach(交际法)
 Theory
 Stress on the importance of using the language rather than
learning the rules of usage.
The goal of communicative approach is to increase
learners’ communicative competence.
Much from the functional view of language
Stress on Language function as much as form.
Appropriate use of the language
Emphasis on fluency as important as accuracy.
Focus on both the language materials and the teaching and
learning activities.
Communicative Approach(交际法)
 Techniques (the communicative functions of language)
 Greeting, parting, inviting, accepting.
 Complimenting, congratulating, flattering, seducing,
charming, bragging.
Interrupting, requesting,demanding
Evading, lying, shifting blame, changing the subject
Criticizing, reprimanding, ridiculing, insulting,
threatening, warning
Complaining ,accusing, denying, agreeing, disagreeing,
Persuading, insisting, suggesting, reminding, asserting,
Reporting , evaluating, commenting,commanding,
Questioning, probing, sympathizing
Communicative Approach(交际法)
 Requirements
 Change of teacher’s role
 Change of learner’s role
 Change of materials
 Change of techniques
 Change of attitude
Communicative Approach(交际法)
 Merits
 1. Pay attention to the actual needs of students;
 2. Focus on the cultivation of communicative
competence for learners communicating with the target
language in a certain social environment.
Communicative Approach(交际法)
 Problems
 The language environment
 The difficulties in the classroom for learner-centered
 The difficulty in assessing the results of communicative
language teaching
 The dull and not effective method make Ss unlikely to be
Popular Textbooks
About Communicative Approach
 ‘Follow Me’
The Natural Approach
 The core of the natural Approach is language acquisition
which is considered a subconscious process, dependent on
two factors: the amount of comprehensible input the
students get, and the amount of input the students “allow
 It emphasizes natural communication rather than formal
grammar study and is tolerance of learners’ errors.
The Natural Approach
 Theory of language
 Communication as the primary function of language;
and emphasis on meaning
 Importance of vocabulary
 Not necessary to analyze grammatical structure; and
rules automatically provided in the input.
The Natural Approach
 Theory of learning
 Krashen’s Monitor Model of second language
 Two distinct processes: acqusition and learning
 The five hypotheses of Krashen’s Monitor model
The Natural Approach
 Objectives
 To develop basic communication skill
 To function adequately in the target situation
The Natural Approach
 Main features
 Language is best taught when it is being used to
transmit messages
Implications for classroom practice
Guidelines for classroom practice
Characteristics of classroom teaching
The role of learners
The role of a teacher
The role of testing
The Natural Approach
 Acquisition activities:
--Problem-solving activities
--Content activities
 Eg.
In the early stages of speech production, the natural
Approach uses random volunteered group responses, which
place little demand on the individual student but allow early
use of the target language. As for errors are allowed.
Community Language Learning Method
 It is also known as the humanist method, which treats
students as a whole person and care about their
emotional field, language knowledge and behavioral
 Developed by Charles Curran and his associates in 1970s
 The use of Counseling-Learning theory to teach
Community Language Learning Method
 Theory
 Based on the theoretical assumption that language as
social process is different from language as
 Interactions between learners are unpredictable in
content but typically involve exchanges of affect.
 Learner exchanges deepen in intimacy as the class
becomes a community of learners.
 The desire to be part of this growing intimacy pushes
learners to keep pace with the learning of their peers.
Community Language Learning Method
 Translation
 Group work
 Recording
 Transcription
 Analysis
 Reflection and observation
 Listening
 Free conversation
Community Language Learning Method
Eg. A Typical Classroom
 A group of learners sit in a circle
 The teacher stands outside the circle answering Ss’ Qs
and translating the native language into the target
 A student whispers a message in his mother tongue.
 The teacher then translates it into the target language.
 The student repeats the message in the foreign language
with the help of the teacher.
 While some of the students convey messages, others are
encouraged to overhear these messages.
 Real communication begins occur among the learners.
Community Language Learning Method
 Major advantages
 An attempt to overcome some of the threatening affective
factors in L2 learning.
A warm, sympathetic and trusting relationship between
the teacher and learners .
A recognition that language learning is a sensitive process.
The learner to determine the type of conversation and to
analyze the foreign language inductively.
Extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation are
capitalized on by the learner-centered nature.
The cultural aspect of the target language learning is
Community Language Learning Method
Major problems
 The counselor-teacher can become too non-directive.
 Its reliance upon an inductive strategy of learning which
is not effective and less successful in the early stage of
language learning.
 The success of CLL depends largely on the translation
expertise of the counselor.
 Communication under way in class is constrained by the
number and knowledge of fellow learners.
 Much demand for language teachers who must be
proficient in the culture of the target language and have
knowledge in many other fields.
Total Physical Response
 Relate to the developmental psychology, learning theory
and humanistic pedagogy, also from the teaching
procedures by Harold and Dorothy Palmer in 1925
 Reduction of stress
 Classroom activities such as imperative drills , role-play
and slide presentations
 Listening attentively and responding physically to the
demand s given by the teacher.
Total Physical Response
 The Total Physical Response, also known as the Comprehension
Approach, is a language teaching method that links speech and
behavior. It involves learning language through the activities of various
parts of the body.
 It was proposed by James Asher of the United States in 1970s.
The theory holds that the more frequently and strongly the association is
tracked, the stronger the association and the easier it is to recall.
There are many ways to remember, from rote memorization to
action.According to the study, the likelihood of success is greatest for
associating memory with action.Ashu also absorbed the views of
humanitarian psychology and attached importance to the role of emotional
factors in language learning.He suggests activities that help students learn
Total Physical Response
The theory holds that the more frequently and strongly the association is
tracked, the stronger the association and the easier it is to recall.
Ashu also absorbed the views of humanitarian psychology and attached
importance to the role of emotional factors in language learning.
He suggests activities that help students learn by reducing tension and
creating an atmosphere of affirmation.
The Silent Way
 Definition
 Influenced by structural linguistics
 Grammar rules are systematically and inductively
 The sentence is the basic unit of teaching.
 The teacher focuses on propositional meaning rather
than communicative value.
The Silent Way
 Definition
 The Silent Way means that the teacher is as silent as
possible in class, thus encouraging students to use
language as much as possible by the use of colored
sticks to associate sounds with specific colors.
The Silent Way
 Origin
 The method was proposed by Caleb Cattegno (1972),
 Theory: Three hypotheses
 (1) learners discover or create what they are going to learn,
and learning will achieve good results.
 (2) When learning, such as pictures to assist, the effect will
be better.
 (3) Learning materials must be practical.
The Silent Way
1. The teacher first models a word, a phrase of a
2. The learners are encouraged to respond, relating old
knowledge to new knowledge
3. The teacher remains silent more than 90% of the time.
4. Let Ss in silent to have time to discover, analyze, test
and remember the language being taught.
5. The teacher’s help is necessary but minimal, using
only chart and a few wooden rods.
Suggestopedia Method
 Definition
 It refers to the method of using unconscious and irrational
factors for systematic teaching. Suggestion is the heart of
 Origin
 It was proposed by the Bulgarian psychiatrist-educator
Georgi Lozanoy who believed that most learning takes
place in a relaxed and focused state.
Suggestopedia Method
 Main features
 The Ss’ imagination will help their learning that is
achieved in a relaxed, comfortable environment.
 The features are the decor, furniture, and arrangement of
the classroom, the use of music and the authoritative
behavior of the teacher.
Suggestopedia Method
 Problems
 The teacher must be proficient in both the learners’
mother tongue and the target language, have the right
temperament and philosophical outlook.
 It makes Ss commonly use inaccurate grammar and
have poor pronunciation.
教学步骤 1:
 学生首先听一段含有作为本课要点的结构的对话(教师
 学生个别或齐声跟读,教师注意其发音, 语调, 和流利程
度, 发现错误, 立即纠正.
 对话后让学生慢慢地, 一行一行地背诵.
 如果有必要,可把每句分成几个短语. 齐声朗读 对话时,
不得看书 .
 通过改变某些主要单词和短语,将对话改编成适合学生
 从对话中选择某些重要结构进行各种各样的句型操练.
先集体后个别. 这个阶段虽可作些语法解释,但应严格
 学生可以打开书本,进行与对话有关的阅读, 写作和词汇
练习. 基础阶段的写作主要是模仿, 即写出刚刚操练过
的句子等.随着程度提高, 可对所学结构作些适当的改变,
 在语言实验室进行一些其它形式的补充练习.
 提供一段简短的对话或几段小对话. 在此之前, 提供与对
话有关, 学习者可能会经历的交际场景并讨论功能和情景
----人物, 角色, 语境, 话题, 以及与情景相符的语言正式程
 口头练习当天要教的对话片断( 教师示范, 全班复诵, 半
班, 小组和个别学生复诵).
 根据对话和语境进行问答练习.
 学习对话中的某一个基本的交际用语或表达该功能的某
一结构. 教师可用学生熟悉的词汇对该用语或结构进行操
 学习者发现该功能表达法或结构中的规则,包括四个方
面, 其口头和书面形式, 在句中的位置以及在句中的正式
程度, 如果是结构, 那么再加上其功能和意义.
 口头辨认, 理解活动
 口头表达活动----从有指导的到自由的交际活动
 如果对话不在教材中, 抄写该对话
 书面家庭作业示范
 学习效果评估( 只限口头),如: HOW WOULD YOU ASK
ASK ME TO ____?( Finochiaro and Brumfit, 1987: 107-8)
教学步骤 3
 一开始, 所有的谈话停止一二分钟, 教师听录音机里放
 慢慢地, 听了几段宾进入状态以后, 他开始朗读或背诵
课文, 声音随着音乐的起伏而变化.
 学生边听边看教材中配有译文的课文.
 第一场和第二场音乐会期间,待有几分钟的沉默.有时间
 第二次音乐播放前, 又是几分钟的静默.听了几段音乐
后, 教师开始朗读课文.这一次, 学生合上书听教师读.
 最后, 学生悄悄地离开教室.
 他们被知可做任何与所学课问有关的家庭作业, 但是晚
遍.( Loznov, 1978: 272)
教学步骤 4
 教师将彩色棒放在讲台上
 教师拿起其中两到三根不同色彩的的彩色棒,每拿一根就
 教师拿起任何一种彩色棒, 示意某一学生回应. 学生回答:
STICK. 如果学生答错, 教师请另一学生为其纠正:
 教师然后拿起一根红色棒说: THIS IS A RED STICK.
 教师拿起一根绿色棒说:THIS IS A GREEN STICK.
 教师拿起红色或绿色棒, 示意学生回应, 如学生答错, 重
 教师用同样方法介绍二三种其他颜色的彩色棒.
 教师向学生展示刚教过的颜色棒中的任何一种, 让学生
回应. 如学生讲错, 可由其他学生纠正或教师纠正.
 学生掌握后, 教师将一根红色棒举起 说: THIS IS A
 教师然后举起两根红色棒说: THESE ARE TWO RED
 教师举起两根绿色棒并说: THESE ARE TWO GREEN
 .
 教师举起两根不同颜色的彩色棒要求学生回应.
 教师根据学生实际情况介绍其他的数字或颜色.
 将彩色棒堆在一起. 教师通过动作示意将彩色棒捡起并
说出相应的语句. 所有的学生都要完成这一任务. 鼓励学
 教师示意某一学生递给他所要的彩色棒, 并要求其他学
生递给他他所要的彩色棒. 所有这一切都通过教师的毫
 教师要求学生互相传递彩色棒.
 鼓励学生进行试验, 只有学生无法自我纠正错误时教师
教学步骤 5
 打招呼. 自我介绍.
 教师介绍该课的目标和指导原则;
 外语交流开始:
1) 学生围成一个能看见并使用麦克风的圆圈
2) 一学生向另一个学生传达了一条信息
3) 站在身后的教师用外语重复该 生的话
4) 该生然后用外语对听话者重复这句话, 并录音
5) 每个学生都给机会说出和录下几条信息
6) 隔一段时间重放一次录音
7) 每个同学用母语重复自己用外语讲过的话, 以帮助其他同学回
 学生进入一段反思期, 教师要求其非常坦率地报告自己对刚才的经
 从刚录下的材料中,教师选择一些包含语法,拼写等要点的句子写在
 教师鼓励学生对以上的内容提问;
 教师鼓励学生把黑板上的句子抄下来, 注明其意义和用法, 作为家
教学步骤 6
 听力练习. 教师清晰地连续几次重复某一结构或词, 至
少一次慢速, 如 WHERE …IS … THE …PEN?
 学生全班或小组齐声模仿教师所说的内容. 教师可通
过“REPEAT” 或“EVERYBODY” 之类的命令或手
 个别模仿.教师让几个学生复述例句以检查他们的发音.
 教师将有困难的学生的音,词或词组根据地-3步骤单独
 引进新句型. 教师让学生运用已知的句型进行问答联
 教师利用手手势或提示词等让学生回答问题,发表陈述,
 教师利用提示词让学生练习新句型.
 问答练习.教师让学生一问一答直到大部分学生都轮到.
 纠正.教师通过摇头, 重复错误之处等指出错误,让学生
本人或对其进行纠正. 只要有可能, 教师尽量自己纠正
错误, 因为让学生纠正错误可以鼓励他们认真听他人
讲话.(DAVIS ET AL 1975:6-7)
教学步骤 7
 复习. 学生对下列命令进行快速反应:
Pablo, drive your car around Miako and honk your horn.
Jeffe, throw your flowers to Maria.
Maria, screma.
Rita, pick up the knife and spoon and put them in the cup.
Eduardo, take a drink of water and give the cup to Elaine.
 新内容(新命令句). 以下动词为要学的动词:
Wash your hands/ your face/ your hair / the cup;
Look for a towel/ the soap/ a comb;
Hold the book/the cup/ the soap;
Comb your hair/ Maria’s hair/ Shirou’s hair;
Brush your teeth / your pants/ the table.
 Rectangle:
Draw a rectangle on the chalkboard.
Pick up a rectangle from the table and give it to
Put up the rectangle next to the square.
 Triangle:
Pick up the triangle from the table and give it to me.
Catch the triangle and put it next to the rectangle.
 Quickly:
Walk quickly to the door and hit it.
Quickly, run to the table and touch the square.
Sit down quickly and laugh.
 Toothpaste:
Take out your toothbrush.
Brush your teeth.
Put your toothbrush in your book..
 Teeth:
Touch your teeth.
Show your teeth to Dolores.
Dolores, point to Eduardo’s teeth.
 Soap:
Look for the soap.
Give the soap to Elaine.
Elaine, put the soap in Ramiro’s ear.
 Towel:
Put the towel on Juan’s arm.
Juan, put the towel on your head and laugh.
Maria, wipe your hands on the towel.
 然后, 教师问学生一些能用手势回答的问题,如:
 Where is the towel? (Eduardo, point to the towel!)
Where is the toothbrush? (Miako, point to the
Where is Dolores?
 角色交换: 学生发出命令, 教师和其他学生对此作出反
 阅读和写作: 教师在黑板上写下每一生词并用一个句子
示例. 然后教师读出每一句话并用动作示范一
 教学步骤 1
 教学步骤 2
 教学步骤 3
 教学步骤 4
 教学步骤 5
 教学步骤 6
 教学步骤 7