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Economic history of ancient China 下午4.47.49

Ancient economic history of China
Name: Yaxin xin
《Ancient economic history of China 》is published by Shandong University Press by Qi Tao.
1,The formation of agricultural production
Farming economy in
2,Changes in land system
3,Regional economy and the South
shift of the center of gravity
Important department
history of
Handicraft industry in
the era of farming
Management form
development history
Commerce and city in the
era of farming
government policy
The origin of
Planting economy
Rice in the South and millet in the North
Transformation of farm tools and irrigation tools
The formation of agricultural
production mode
Improvement of water conservancy facilities
Changes in farming practices
Characteristics of ancient agriculture
Farming economy in
ancient times
Primitive society
Changes in land system
slave society
feudal society
The formation of four economic zones
Regional economy and the South
shift of the center of gravity
The South shift of economic center of gravity
Primitive society and Shang Zhou period: Mainly use Lei
During the Shang and Zhou Dynasties
Transformation of farm tools
A small amount of bronze agricultural tools
Spring and Autumn period and Warring States Period
The Western Han Dynasty
the tang dynasty:
:(material: wood, stone, bone, clam)
Iron tools and cattle farming began to appear
:Invention of plough wall and wide popularization of cattle farming
The appearance of the curved shaft plough in the lower reaches of the Yangtze
River marks the basic finalization of the traditional Chinese plough
The improved rollover of Ma Jun in Cao Wei dynasty
Irrigation tools
Bobbins in the Tang Dynasty
Sowing tools:Columbine
in the Western Han Dynasty
Plough :in tang
The method of cattle ploughing with two
cattle in the Western Han Dynasty
The improved rollover of M
Jun in Cao Wei in dynasty
Bobbins in Tang Dynasty
Bobbins in Tang
Spring and Autumn Period:
: Shaopi (Huaihe River Basin)
Dujiangyan (Yangtze River Basin)
the Warring States period
Zhengguoqu (Yellow River Basin)
Improvement of water
conservancy facilities
Caoqu and Baiqu (Yellow River Basin)
Han Dynasty
Harnessing the Yellow River
Karez (western region)
Emperor Ming of the
Eastern Han Dynasty
sent Wang Jing
Changes in farming
Self farming economy
Low productivity
Features large scale and simple
Progress in production tools and farming
The emergence of private land
Generation: the Spring and
Autumn period
Mainly planting, supplemented by livestock
Characteristics of ancient
Chinese agriculture
Agricultural production mode of intensive
"Men's farming and women's weaving
Jingqu is a water conservancy and irrigation project with local characteristics in
ancient China, which is still popular in Turpan and Hami areas of Xinjiang.
in the Han Dynasty
Using the ice and snow melting water of
Tianshan and Kunlun Mountains
Well depth changes with terrain gradient
The picture depicts the Han Dynasty farmers using four
tooth rake farming scene. It reflected the emphasis on
intensive cultivation at that time
Characteristics of China's agricultural economy:
Keywords self-sufficient natural economy;
ploughing with iron plow and cattle; intensive
Subject to the natural environment, it is fragile.
Primitive society:
Ancient China
land system
Public ownership of land (destroyed in Shang and Zhou Dynasties
Slave society:State owned land system (expressed in the form of well field system)
State owned land system:Feudal state occupies part of the land (equal
feudal society
land system)
Private ownership of land (main form)
definition: The farmland is divided into roughly equal square fields by
It forms the shape of "well", so it is called "well field".
Gongtian: aristocratic possession
Private field: the share of village members
Minefield system
:It is a kind of aristocratic land ownership in the name of the state
Generation:: Shang Dynasty
Strong::Western Zhou Dynasty
Reason: The use of iron farm tools and cattle farming increased
developing process
the number of private farmland; The frequency of war;
tax reform in various countries
Disintegration: spring and autumn
A large number of public lands were abandoned
Performance: Some "private fields" are gradually private
changed the law to abolish the
end: The Warring States (Shangyang
minefield system in law)
Establishment: Warring States Period
Sovereign private land
Private land
Military establishment
Land sale (main way)
Main form
feudal society
Private ownership
of land
Landlord's private land
result: Land annexation
Evaluation: the dominant position is the foundation of
feudal production relations
Private land owned by farmers
Development: Ming and Qing Dynasties
Farming economy
Mode of operation
Cause: the result of land
Generation and development: Warring States, Han, song, Ming and
Qing Dynasties
Evaluation: the personal attachment of peasants to landlords is relatively
The proportion of tenancy relationship in rural areas is gradually
The improvement of farmers' enthusiasm for production is conducive to
the steady improvement of Agriculture
Root cause: the legitimacy of the private ownership of land and the sale of
land by feudal landlords
Specific reasons: in the early Song Dynasty, the "non establishment of
farmland system" and "non suppression of annexation" made the
polarization more intense
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the economy of commodity currency
flourished and the private ownership of land developed further
Harm: it seriously affects the tax revenue of the country,
Cause social unrest
Measures: the measures of "equalization of land" and "limitation of
land", which limit the high concentration of land and protect the self
farming economy
The formation of four
economic zones
(economic distribution in Han
Division of Sima Qian: Shandong, Shanxi, Jiangnan and
north of Longmen Jieshi
Characteristics: from the Warring States period to the Eastern Han Dynasty, diversity
and unbalanced development of economic strength are presented
Cause: mainly war
Regional economy and the South shift of the
center of gravity
The first climax: the population flow between the two Jin Dynasties
The southward
migration of the
population in the
The second climax: after the rebellion of an Shi in Tang Dynasty
The third climax: Jingkang rebellion
Central Plains
A lot of labor has been added to the South
With advanced production tools and technologies
It promotes the South shift of economic center and the integration of
North and South cultures
The migration of people from the north to the South brought labor force
and advanced production tools and technologies
The political situation in the south is relatively stable
It has great potential to develop agricultural economy
Sun Wu, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties: the development of the South
The South shift of economic
center of gravity
After the middle Tang Dynasty: gradually surpassing the North
Southern Song Dynasty: the completion of the South shift of economic center
Influence: the cultural center moves to the South
A schematic diagram of the use of currency in various regions of the northern and Southern
Dynasties was made. This map reflects the relatively stable economic development of the
Yangtze River Basin
Regions using silk as
Areas using copper
Areas using gold and silver
as currency
Bronze smelting and casting
industry: Bronze Age
Iron and steel smelting industry: spring and
Autumn Period
Metal smelting
The change of iron smelting fuel: Han Dynasty, Southern
Silk industry: ancient times, Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty
Cotton textile industry: late Song, early Yuan, Yuan Dynasty, Min
Pottery industry: matrilineal clan, patrilineal clan
Handicraft industry in the era of farming
Porcelain industry: Eastern Han, southern and Northern
Dynasties, Sui and Tang Dynasties Song, yuan, Ming and
Qing Dynasties
Cottage industry
Private handicraft
Official handicraft industry
Mode of operation
Product characteristics
Sima Wuding was in the late Shang Dynasty,
The bronze tripod for Royal Sacrifice,
Unearthed in Wuguan village, Anyang City, Henan
He got his name because he wrote "simuWe" in his
It is now in the National Museum of China.
The shape of Sima Wuding is tall and heavy,
It's also called simuw dafangding,
Height 133 cm, mouth length 110 cm
Mouth width 79 cm
It weighs 832.84kg, with a rectangular tripod belly,
Two straight ears up
(there was only one ear left at the time of discovery,
The other ear was later copied from the other ear,
This tripod is the Zugeng or Zujia of the king of
It was made for sacrifice to its mother.
In the late Shang Dynasty, bronze ware was
It belongs to ritual utensils and sacrificial
It is the largest bronze ware of Shang
Dynasty in China,
It is 58.3cm high and weighs nearly 34.5kg,
It was unearthed in 1938 on the hillside of
yueshanpu, Huangcun, Ningxiang County,
Hunan Province.
It is now in the National Museum of China in
Water drainage in the
Eastern Han Dynasty
White porcelain
of Tang
Fighting colors in Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty colorful porcelain
Enamel porcelain of Qing Dyna
Pastel porcelain of Qing Dynasty
Mode of operation
Cottage industry
Individual farmer‘s
Sideline activities
Official handicraft
(Western Zhou Dynasty)
From conscription to
Forced labor and super
Private handicraft
industry(spring and
Autumn period and
Family before Tang
A small workshop.
Employment and labor
relations appear
Warring States period)
The products are
mainly for yourself
Consumption and
taxes, little access
to the market
Products designated
by the government
and transfer,
excluding cost, Out
of the market
Engaged in commodity
Increasing scope of
Has always
existed in society
In economic life
In the early Ming Dynasty,
Occupying ancient
handicraft industry
Leading position of
After the middle of
Ming Dynasty
Dominant position
Important:Chinese ancient silk industry
has been very developed, different
times have different performance. The
situation of Ming Dynasty's silk
industry using the new type of "yarn
and silk machine"
Important:Bronze ware reflects the
superb casting technology in ancient
times and is the crystallization of
human wisdom. The chime bells
unearthed in Hubei Province are bronze
Production: the end of primitive society
Reason: the development of productivity -- the emergence of surplus products and the
development of social division of labor
Shang Dynasty: professional merchants and the earliest coins (merchants, Bei)
Zhou Dynasty: "industrial and commercial food officials
Business in the age of farming
The spring and Autumn period and the Warring States Period: private businessmen
become the main body of businessmen
Development Sui and Tang Dynasties: prosperity (reasons: political unity and the opening of the Grand C
Song Dynasty: the world's first paper money (Jiaozi), market town and night market flourish
Yuan Dynasty: paper money widely circulated
Ming and Qing Dynasties: new features
Before the Warring States Period:
attaching importance to and
Han Dynasty: Development
After the Warring States
Period: emphasizing
agriculture and restraining
Since the middle Tang Dynasty: some looseness
Ming and Qing Dynasties: strengthening
New features: the rise of Commercial Towns
Monetary economy dominates
Commercialization of agricultural products
Silver becomes currency in circulation
Regional business Gang formation
Reason: business instability
Businessmen have great mobility
Emphasis on farming during the Warring States Period
Strengthen centralization
The origin of the city (see knowledge link)
Set up cities above county level
Zhou Qin to
Tang Dynasty
City characteristics: strictly restricted by the
The city is in a specific position in the
Separation of districts and cities
Ancient Chinese
do business during daytime
City function: mainly political center and military town
Breaking through the limits of space
and time
City characteristics: no longer under the direct
control of the government
Song Dynasty
Night market, Xiaoshi and CaoShi
There are places of entertainment
Urban function: greatly strengthened economic function
Ming and Qing Dynasties: the increase of urban productivity and commerciality (the rise of a large number of
industrial and Commercial Towns)
Relevant data records: according to the millennium history of the
world economy by historian Madison, in 1820, China's gross
domestic product (GDP) accounted for 32.9% of the world's
total economic output, the total of Western European countries
accounted for 23.6%, and the United States and Japan
accounted for 1.8% and 3% respectively. The above statistics
show that at that time, China's total economic output far
exceeded that of European and American countries
Archaeological discovery: a site of the Warring States period was
found in Beijing, from which 3876 coins of Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei
and other countries were unearthed. In Liaoning, Jilin and Inner
Mongolia, there are also coins unearthed in Yan state. These
coins show that:
① Trade between Yan state and northern nomadic areas
② The currencies of the vassal states can circulate with each
③ Frequent business and trade between vassal states
More than 30 kinds of production technologies lead the world in Tiangong
Increase of yield per unit area (double season rice)
High development of
farming economy
Changes in food and clothing structure (introduction of corn and sweet pota
The reform of the tax and servitude system
The development and
The development of handicraft industry: in the middle of Ming Dynasty, the private handicraft industry
occupied the leading position
Silver becomes currency
Business development::Along the canal, Jiangnan and other places, industrial and
commercial towns rise
After the middle of the Ming Dynasty, capitalism sprouted
Improvement of
comprehensive national
Expansion of cultivated land area;population growth
Annual growth rate of China's GDP is higher than that of Europe
Leading the worl
in Ming and Qing
Time: early 19th century
Performance: the transformation from major western countries to modern industrial
countries,And China is in a deep crisis
Reasons: shut down the country (sea ban); attach importance to agriculture and restrain commerce
some people think that some kind of foreign
trade in ancient China "is only a small-scale
peddler activity for peaceful people, and only
a kind of glorious etiquette used by the
government to express the spread of
Chinese culture." The economic activity of
this understanding is the tribute trade of the
Ming Dynasty
The formation of agricultural production mode
Farming economy in
ancient times
Changes in land system
Regional economy and the South shift of the center of gravity
Important department
Economic history of ancient China
Handicraft industry in the
era of farming
Management form
development history
government policy
Commerce and city in the era of farming