Uploaded by mrminansis

sociology chapter 1

- the scientific study of human
social life, groups and societies.
The origin of sociology
It became a distinct discipline in the
middle of 19th century.
Three factors led to the development
of sociology:
1. The Industrial Revolution
2. Imperialism
3. Success of the Natural Science
Pioneers of sociology
1. August Comte (1798-1857)
The Father of Sociology
- proposed positivism
A French who migrated from a small
town to Paris.
became interested in the two in two
interrelated issues: social order (social static
and social change (social dynamics.
- he concluded that the way to
answer the problems of social
order and social dynamics was to
apply the scientific method.
- he defined sociology as “the study
of society”.
Herbert Spencer (1820 – 1903)
The Second Founder of Sociology
-an Englishman who believed that society
operates under fixed laws.
- he considered that societies evolve from
lower to higher forms.
-he applied the idea of Darwin to the
development of human society
- he developed “Social Darwinism”
- advocated that “let the fittest survive”.
Karl Marx (1818 – 1883)
-A German who believed that the
key to human history is “Class
-he introduced one of the major
perspectives in sociology – Conflict
Emile Durkheim (1858 – 1917)
-a French whose primary goal was of
getting sociology recognized as a
separate academic discipline.
-according to him that people were
likely to commit suicide if their ties to
others in communities were weak.
-He identified the key role of social
integration in social life.
Max Weber (1864 – 1920)
- a German
- he used cross-cultural and
historical materials in order to
determine how extensively social
groups affect people’s orientations
to life.
The Fields of Sociology
Anthropology – deals with the origins, physical and cultural development,
biological characteristics, social customs, and beliefs of humankind.
- Archaeology – science that studies human cultures through the
recovery, documentation, analysis, and interpretation of material remains and
environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, features, biofacts, and
Area studies – interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to
particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions.
Behavioral science – encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities
of and interactions among organisms in the natural world.
Communication studies – academic field that deals with processes of
communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols over distances in
space and time.
Cultural studies – concerns the political dynamics of contemporary culture, as
well as its historical foundations, conflicts, and defining traits. It studies how a
particular medium or message relates to ideology, social class, nationality,
ethnicity, sexuality, and/or gender.
Development studies – multidisciplinary branch of social science which
addresses issues of concern to developing countries.
Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods
and services.
Education – process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated
knowledge, skills, customs and values from one generation to another, e.g.,
instruction in schools.
Environmental studies – integrate social, humanistic, and natural science
perspectives on the relation between humans and the natural environment.
Gender studies – interdisciplinary study which analyses race, ethnicity,
sexuality and location.
Geography – science that studies the lands, features, inhabitants, and
phenomena of Earth.
Human geography – studies the world, its people, communities, and
cultures with an emphasis on relations of and across space and place. It is one
of the two major sub-fields of the discipline of geography.
Information science – interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the
collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of
Journalism – craft of conveying news, descriptive material and comment via a
widening spectrum of media.
Law – system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social
institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics,
economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of
relations between people.
Legal management – discipline designed for students interested in the study
of State and Legal elements.
Library science – interdisciplinary field that applies the practices,
perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education,
and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation and
dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of
Linguistics – scientific study of human language.
Management – all business and human organization activity is simply the act
of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives.
Political science – concerned with the study of the state, government and
politics. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the
analysis of political systems and political behavior.
International studies – concerned with the study of ‘the major
political, economic, social, cultural and sacral issues that dominate the
international agenda.
International education – comprehensive approach that
intentionally prepares people to be active and engaged participants in an
interconnected world.
International relations – study of foreign affairs and global issues
among states within the international system
Political economy – study of production, buying and selling, and their
relations with law, custom, and government.
Public administration – implementation of government policy and an
academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil
servants for this work.
Psychology – study of the mind, occurring partly via the study of behavior.
Social psychology – scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and
behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of
Social work – professional and academic discipline that seeks to improve the
quality of life and wellbeing of an individual, group, or community by
intervening through research, policy, community organizing, direct practice,
and teaching on behalf of those afflicted with poverty or any real or perceived
social injustices and violations of their human rights.
Sociology – scientific study of society. It is a social science which uses various
methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of
knowledge about human social activity.
Criminal justice – system of practices and institutions of
governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating
crime, or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and
rehabilitation efforts.
Criminology – study of the nature, extent, causes, and control of
criminal behavior in both the individual and in society.
Demography – statistical study of all populations.
The Sociological Perspective
- the heart of sociology in a distinctive
point of view.
The truth is that:
-Our lives do not unfold according to
sheer chance
-Nor do we decide for ourselves how
to live, acting on what is called “free
The essential wisdom of sociology is that:
-Our social world guides our actions and life
choices just as the seasons influence our
activities and clothing.
-For human beings the existence of society
is essential. It is essential:
For the survival of human child at birth;
and also
For social experience – for purpose of
Seeing the general in the particular
(Peter Burger)
-It means identifying general patterns in the
behavior of particular people.
-according to this view that age is a social
-Although societies define the stages of life
differently, yet there are differences by social
class within the same society.
Gender is also a social
- It is the society that determines
the image of gender. Further, to
the societal variations in gender
outlooks, one could see gender
differences by social class in the
same society
Society affects what we do
Society has much to do with
decisions women and men make
about childbearing
Social forces are at work even in
the apparently case of self-destruction
(e.g. suicide)
Applying the sociological perspectives to lives
benefits us in four ways:
1.The Sociological perspective helps us to assess
the truth of community held assumptions
(Common sense0
2.The sociological perspective prompts us to assess
both the opportunities and the constraints that
characterize our lives.
3.The sociological perspective helps us empower to
participate actively in our society.
4.The sociological perspective helps us recognize
human variety and confront the challenges of living
in a diverse world.
Theoretical Paradigms
Consensus and Conflict Theories
(Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Talcott
Parsons, et.al.,)
Consensus Theory
-is a general or widespread agreement among all
members of a particular society
-emphasizes on social order, stability and social
-see shared norms and values as fundamental to society,
focus on social order based on tacit agreement, and view
social change as occurring in a slow and orderly fashion.
- examine value integration in society.
-is a concept of society in which the absence of
conflict is seen as the equilibrium in the society
based on a general or widespread agreement
among all members of a particular society.
-is concerned with the maintenance of social
order in society, in relation to accepted norms,
values, rules and regulations in the society.
Conflict Theory
- is a clash between ideas, principles and people.
-emphasize the dominance of some social
group by others, see social order as based on
manipulation and control by dominant groups,
and view social change as occuring rapidly and
in a disorderly fashion as subordinate groups
overthrow dominant groups (Ritzer, 2000).
-focuses on the heterogeneous nature of
society and the differential distribution of
political and social power.
-assumes that social behavior is best
understood in terms of conflict or tensions
between competing groups.
-it focuses on the struggle of social classes to
maintain dominance and power in social
-is interested in how society’s institutions may
help to maintain the privileges of some groups
and keep others in subservient position.
-it emphasizes on social change and
redistribution of resources
Structural Functionalism
(Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton, et. Al.,)
-states that society is made up of various
institutions that work together in cooperation
- it has four functional imperatives:
1. Adaptation (Action System)
2. Goal attainment (Personality system)
3. Integration (Social system)
4. Latency (Cultural system)
Functional Requisites of a Social System
1.Social system must be structured so that
they operate compatibilty with other
2.To survive, the social system must have
the requisite from the other systems.
3.The system must meet a significant
proportion of the needs of its actors.
4.The system must elicit adequate
participation from its members.
5.It must have at least a minimum
of control over potentially
disruptive behavior.
6.If conflict becomes sufficiently
disruptive, it must be controlled.
7.Finally, a social system requires a
language in order to survive .
Key Principles of the Functionalist Theory
- functions of social structure and culture
- consensus and cooperation
- equilibrium
Components of social structure
- families
- associations
- schools
- banks
Interactionist Theories
(George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley)
Symbolic interactionism
- views the self as socially constructed in relation to
social forces and social structures.
Principles of Symbolic Interactionism
1.Human beings unlike lower animals, are endowed
with a capacity for thought.
2.The capacity for thought is shaped by social
3.In social interaction, people learn the meanings and
the symbols that allow them to exercise their
distinctively human capacity for thought.
4.Meanings and symbols allow people to carry on
distinctively human action and interaction.
5.People are able to modify or later meanings and
symbols that they use in action and interaction on the
basis of their interpretation of the situation.
6.People are able to make these modifications and
alterations because, in part of their ability to interact
with themselves, which allows them to examine
possible courses of action, assess their relative
advantages and disadvantages, and then choose one.
7.The intertwined patterns of action and interaction
make up the groups and societies.
Non-symbolic Interactionism
Basic forms of Social Interaction
non-symbolic interaction which does not
involve thinking
symbolic interaction which requires mental
Three types of objects:
- physical objects (tree)
- social objects (student)
- abstract object (idea or moral principle)
Looking-glass self
- We see ourselves as other see us
- Charles Cooley
Social Interaction
Components of Social Interaction
1. Social status (individual’s social position)
- Status set – all the statuses a person holds at a given
Ascribed Status – a social position that someone
receives at birth or assumes involuntarily later in life (son,
Achieved status – refers to a social position that
someone assumes voluntarily and that reflects personal ability
and effort (students, teacher, singer)
- Master status – a status that has an exceptional
importance for social identity often shaping a person’s entire life
2.ROLE – a behavior expected of someone who holds a
particular status
- Role set – number of roles attached to a single
Role conflict – incompatibility among roles
corresponding to tow or more statuses (mother and at
the same time employee)
Role strain – incompatibility among roles
corresponding to a single status (teacher: friendly and
maintainer of discipline)
- Role Exit (Retirement)
2.The Social Construction of Reality – a process by
which people creatively shape reality through
4. Communication
- Language (Both verbal and non-verbal)
Social Groups
-number of people who share some
common characteristics
Two essentials of social groups – social
interaction and consciousness of
Types of Social Groups
Primary Groups – a small social group whose
members share a personal and enduring
Secondary Groups – a large and impersonal social
group whose members pursue a specific interest or
In-Groups – is social group commanding a
member’s esteem and loyalty (I feel I belong to
Out-Groups – is a group toward which one feels in
competition or opposition.
Group size
Dyad – two members
Triad – three members and is more stable than
Reference Group – serves as reference in making
evaluation and decisions
Stereotypes – is a group-shared image of another
group or category of people.
Social distance – the degree of closeness or
Networks – a web of weak social ties.
The Four Pillar of Education
-Learning to know, that is acquiring the instruments of
-Learning to do, so as to be able to act creatively in one’s
-Learning to live together, so as to participate in and
cooperated with other people in all human activities.
- Learning to be, so as to better develop one’s personality
and to act with ever greater autonomy, judgment and
personal responsibility.
Anchored on Six focal points
1. Research-based
2. Interconnectivity
3. Interdisciplinary mode of teaching
4. Anticipatory role of education
5. Multi-mode delivery systems
6. Multi-cultural in approach
Intercultural communication
Two types of communication
- verbal- the use of language
non-verbal – the use of gestures, facial
expressions and other body movements
Language – is an abstract system of word meanings
and symbols for all aspects of culture. It includes
speech, written characters, numerals, symbols and
gestures and expressions of non-verbal
Paralanguage – is the language of gestures,
expressions and postures.
Kinesics (body movements – the most
obvious form of paralanguage.
Man’s language – is a reflection of the king
of person he is, the level of education he has
attained and an index to the behavior that
may be expected from him.
Areas of language
1.Phonology – refers to the system of sounds (phonemes –
the basic unit of sounds)
2.Semantics – the study of word meanings and word
3.Grammar – refers to the structure of language through its
morphology and syntax.
Morphology – the study of the language’s smallest
units of meaning (morphemes) – prefixes, suffixes and root
Syntax – specifies how words are combined into
4.Pragmatics – is concerned rules for the use of appropriate
language and particular contexts.
-refers to the attitudes, values, customs and behavior
patterns that characterize a social group.
- people’s way of life
- Culture is learned
- Culture is shared by a group of people
- Culture is universal
- Culture is cumulative
- Cultures change
- Culture is dynamic
- Culture is ideational
- Culture is diverse
Culture gives us a range of permissible behavior
Components of Culture
1. Communication
- Language
- Symbols
2. Cognitive
- Ideas
- Knowledge
- Beliefs
- Values
- Accounts (Motives)
3. Behavioral
- Norms
4. Material
- Artifacts
- Mentifacts
Organization of Culture
Cultural traits – Cultural complexes –
Cultural patterns
How is culture transmitted
1. Enculturation – learning culture of one’s
own group
2. Acculturation – learning some new traits
from other culture
3. Assimilation – losing or forgetting one’s
previous identity.
Importance and Functions of Culture
1. it helps individual fulfill his potential as a human
2.Man can overcome his physical disadvantages and
allows him to provide himself with fire, clothing, food
and shelter.
3.It provides rules of proper conduct for living in a
4.It also provides the individual his concepts of family
nation and class.
Cultural relativism – practices considered
immoral or taboo to a certain group of people but are
accepted by other groups with a different cultural
Culture by social class
High culture – culture patterns that distinguish a society’s elite.
Popular culture – is widespread among society’s population
Culture of poverty – Cultural patterns shared by the poor
Sub-culture – cultural patterns that set apart some segments of a society’s
Multiculturalism – recognizes cultural diversity in the society and promote
the equality of all cultural traditions.
Counter-culture – cultural patterns that strongly
oppose widely accepted patterns within a society.
Cultural change – the process of alteration of
culture over time.
Causes of cultural change;
1. Inventions
2. Discovery
3. Diffusion
Cultural lag – the different rate of change in the
two integrated elements of culture can result in one
element lagging behind the other.
Ethnocentrism – the practice of judging other’s culture by the
standards of one’s own culture.
Xeno-centrism – considering other’s culture as superior to one’s
Social Institutions
1. The Family – smallest unit of society
Kinds of family patterns
a. Membership
-nuclear (conjugal)
- extended (consanguine0
b. Residence
- Neolocal
- matrilocal
- patrilocal
c. Authority
- patriarchal
d. Descent
- bilineal
- patrilineal
2.Education – the basic purpose is to transmit
- Intellectual
- Social
- Human/social functions
- Cultural functions
3.Religion – is the socially defined
patterns of beliefs concerning the
ultimate meaning of life; it assumes
the existence of supernatural – Stark
a. Belief in a deity
b. A doctrine of salvation
c. A code of conduct
d. Religious rituals
Three elements of Religion
- sacred and profane
- legitimation of norms
- rituals
- religious community
Church – tends to be large with inclusive membership in low
tension with surrounding
Sect – has a small exclusive membership, high tension with
society (Literal in teaching), Biblical passages are the pliteral
words of god; “born again”
Cults – more innovative institutions and are formed when
people create new religious beliefs and practices.
4. Economic
Microeconomics – is concerned with the
specific economic parts and the relationships
between those parts.
Macroeconomics – economy as a whole or
large segments of it.
Basic economic problems:
1.What goods and services to produce and how
2. How to produce goods and services.
3. For whom are the goods and services.
5. Government
-the institution that resolves conflicts that are
public in nature and involve more than a few
Branches of Government:
a. Executive branch – proposes and
enforces rules and laws
b. Legislative branch – which makes rules
and laws.
C. Judicial branch – which adjudicates rules
and laws
Politics – the pattern of human
interaction that serves to resolve
conflicts between peoples, institutions
and nations.
Administration – refers to the
aggregate of persons in whose hands
the reigns of government are for the
time being.