Sociology - the scientific study of human social life, groups and societies. The origin of sociology It became a distinct discipline in the middle of 19th century. Three factors led to the development of sociology: 1. The Industrial Revolution 2. Imperialism 3. Success of the Natural Science Pioneers of sociology 1. August Comte (1798-1857) The Father of Sociology - proposed positivism A French who migrated from a small town to Paris. became interested in the two in two interrelated issues: social order (social static and social change (social dynamics. - he concluded that the way to answer the problems of social order and social dynamics was to apply the scientific method. - he defined sociology as “the study of society”. Herbert Spencer (1820 – 1903) The Second Founder of Sociology -an Englishman who believed that society operates under fixed laws. - he considered that societies evolve from lower to higher forms. -he applied the idea of Darwin to the development of human society - he developed “Social Darwinism” - advocated that “let the fittest survive”. Karl Marx (1818 – 1883) -A German who believed that the key to human history is “Class Conflict”. -he introduced one of the major perspectives in sociology – Conflict Perspective Emile Durkheim (1858 – 1917) -a French whose primary goal was of getting sociology recognized as a separate academic discipline. -according to him that people were likely to commit suicide if their ties to others in communities were weak. -He identified the key role of social integration in social life. Max Weber (1864 – 1920) - a German - he used cross-cultural and historical materials in order to determine how extensively social groups affect people’s orientations to life. The Fields of Sociology Anthropology – deals with the origins, physical and cultural development, biological characteristics, social customs, and beliefs of humankind. - Archaeology – science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis, and interpretation of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, features, biofacts, and landscapes. Area studies – interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions. Behavioral science – encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world. Communication studies – academic field that deals with processes of communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols over distances in space and time. Cultural studies – concerns the political dynamics of contemporary culture, as well as its historical foundations, conflicts, and defining traits. It studies how a particular medium or message relates to ideology, social class, nationality, ethnicity, sexuality, and/or gender. Development studies – multidisciplinary branch of social science which addresses issues of concern to developing countries. Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Education – process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, customs and values from one generation to another, e.g., instruction in schools. Environmental studies – integrate social, humanistic, and natural science perspectives on the relation between humans and the natural environment. Gender studies – interdisciplinary study which analyses race, ethnicity, sexuality and location. Geography – science that studies the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth. Human geography – studies the world, its people, communities, and cultures with an emphasis on relations of and across space and place. It is one of the two major sub-fields of the discipline of geography. Information science – interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. Journalism – craft of conveying news, descriptive material and comment via a widening spectrum of media. Law – system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Legal management – discipline designed for students interested in the study of State and Legal elements. Library science – interdisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information. Linguistics – scientific study of human language. Management – all business and human organization activity is simply the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Political science – concerned with the study of the state, government and politics. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems and political behavior. International studies – concerned with the study of ‘the major political, economic, social, cultural and sacral issues that dominate the international agenda. International education – comprehensive approach that intentionally prepares people to be active and engaged participants in an interconnected world. International relations – study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system Political economy – study of production, buying and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government. Public administration – implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servants for this work. Psychology – study of the mind, occurring partly via the study of behavior. Social psychology – scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. Social work – professional and academic discipline that seeks to improve the quality of life and wellbeing of an individual, group, or community by intervening through research, policy, community organizing, direct practice, and teaching on behalf of those afflicted with poverty or any real or perceived social injustices and violations of their human rights. Sociology – scientific study of society. It is a social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity. Criminal justice – system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. Criminology – study of the nature, extent, causes, and control of criminal behavior in both the individual and in society. Demography – statistical study of all populations. The Sociological Perspective - the heart of sociology in a distinctive point of view. The truth is that: -Our lives do not unfold according to sheer chance -Nor do we decide for ourselves how to live, acting on what is called “free will”. The essential wisdom of sociology is that: -Our social world guides our actions and life choices just as the seasons influence our activities and clothing. -For human beings the existence of society is essential. It is essential: For the survival of human child at birth; and also For social experience – for purpose of nurturance. Seeing the general in the particular (Peter Burger) -It means identifying general patterns in the behavior of particular people. -according to this view that age is a social construction -Although societies define the stages of life differently, yet there are differences by social class within the same society. Gender is also a social construction - It is the society that determines the image of gender. Further, to the societal variations in gender outlooks, one could see gender differences by social class in the same society Society affects what we do Society has much to do with decisions women and men make about childbearing Social forces are at work even in the apparently case of self-destruction (e.g. suicide) Applying the sociological perspectives to lives benefits us in four ways: 1.The Sociological perspective helps us to assess the truth of community held assumptions (Common sense0 2.The sociological perspective prompts us to assess both the opportunities and the constraints that characterize our lives. 3.The sociological perspective helps us empower to participate actively in our society. 4.The sociological perspective helps us recognize human variety and confront the challenges of living in a diverse world. Theoretical Paradigms Consensus and Conflict Theories (Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Talcott Parsons, et.al.,) Consensus Theory -is a general or widespread agreement among all members of a particular society -emphasizes on social order, stability and social regulations. -see shared norms and values as fundamental to society, focus on social order based on tacit agreement, and view social change as occurring in a slow and orderly fashion. - examine value integration in society. -is a concept of society in which the absence of conflict is seen as the equilibrium in the society based on a general or widespread agreement among all members of a particular society. -is concerned with the maintenance of social order in society, in relation to accepted norms, values, rules and regulations in the society. Conflict Theory - is a clash between ideas, principles and people. -emphasize the dominance of some social group by others, see social order as based on manipulation and control by dominant groups, and view social change as occuring rapidly and in a disorderly fashion as subordinate groups overthrow dominant groups (Ritzer, 2000). -focuses on the heterogeneous nature of society and the differential distribution of political and social power. -assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tensions between competing groups. -it focuses on the struggle of social classes to maintain dominance and power in social systems. -is interested in how society’s institutions may help to maintain the privileges of some groups and keep others in subservient position. -it emphasizes on social change and redistribution of resources Structural Functionalism (Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton, et. Al.,) -states that society is made up of various institutions that work together in cooperation - it has four functional imperatives: 1. Adaptation (Action System) 2. Goal attainment (Personality system) 3. Integration (Social system) 4. Latency (Cultural system) Functional Requisites of a Social System 1.Social system must be structured so that they operate compatibilty with other systems. 2.To survive, the social system must have the requisite from the other systems. 3.The system must meet a significant proportion of the needs of its actors. 4.The system must elicit adequate participation from its members. 5.It must have at least a minimum of control over potentially disruptive behavior. 6.If conflict becomes sufficiently disruptive, it must be controlled. 7.Finally, a social system requires a language in order to survive . Key Principles of the Functionalist Theory -interdependency - functions of social structure and culture - consensus and cooperation - equilibrium Components of social structure - families -neighbors - associations - schools -churches - banks -countries Interactionist Theories (George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley) Symbolic interactionism - views the self as socially constructed in relation to social forces and social structures. Principles of Symbolic Interactionism 1.Human beings unlike lower animals, are endowed with a capacity for thought. 2.The capacity for thought is shaped by social interaction. 3.In social interaction, people learn the meanings and the symbols that allow them to exercise their distinctively human capacity for thought. 4.Meanings and symbols allow people to carry on distinctively human action and interaction. 5.People are able to modify or later meanings and symbols that they use in action and interaction on the basis of their interpretation of the situation. 6.People are able to make these modifications and alterations because, in part of their ability to interact with themselves, which allows them to examine possible courses of action, assess their relative advantages and disadvantages, and then choose one. 7.The intertwined patterns of action and interaction make up the groups and societies. Non-symbolic Interactionism Basic forms of Social Interaction non-symbolic interaction which does not involve thinking symbolic interaction which requires mental processes. Three types of objects: - physical objects (tree) - social objects (student) - abstract object (idea or moral principle) Looking-glass self - We see ourselves as other see us - Charles Cooley Social Interaction Components of Social Interaction 1. Social status (individual’s social position) - Status set – all the statuses a person holds at a given time Ascribed Status – a social position that someone receives at birth or assumes involuntarily later in life (son, teenager) Achieved status – refers to a social position that someone assumes voluntarily and that reflects personal ability and effort (students, teacher, singer) - Master status – a status that has an exceptional importance for social identity often shaping a person’s entire life (occupation) 2.ROLE – a behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status - Role set – number of roles attached to a single status Role conflict – incompatibility among roles corresponding to tow or more statuses (mother and at the same time employee) Role strain – incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status (teacher: friendly and maintainer of discipline) - Role Exit (Retirement) 2.The Social Construction of Reality – a process by which people creatively shape reality through interaction. 4. Communication - Language (Both verbal and non-verbal) Social Groups -number of people who share some common characteristics Two essentials of social groups – social interaction and consciousness of membership Types of Social Groups Primary Groups – a small social group whose members share a personal and enduring relationships. Secondary Groups – a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific interest or activity. In-Groups – is social group commanding a member’s esteem and loyalty (I feel I belong to them. Out-Groups – is a group toward which one feels in competition or opposition. Group size Dyad – two members Triad – three members and is more stable than dyad. Reference Group – serves as reference in making evaluation and decisions Stereotypes – is a group-shared image of another group or category of people. Social distance – the degree of closeness or acceptance. Networks – a web of weak social ties. The Four Pillar of Education -Learning to know, that is acquiring the instruments of understanding. -Learning to do, so as to be able to act creatively in one’s environment. -Learning to live together, so as to participate in and cooperated with other people in all human activities. - Learning to be, so as to better develop one’s personality and to act with ever greater autonomy, judgment and personal responsibility. Anchored on Six focal points 1. Research-based 2. Interconnectivity 3. Interdisciplinary mode of teaching 4. Anticipatory role of education 5. Multi-mode delivery systems 6. Multi-cultural in approach Intercultural communication Two types of communication - verbal- the use of language non-verbal – the use of gestures, facial expressions and other body movements Language – is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture. It includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols and gestures and expressions of non-verbal communication. Paralanguage – is the language of gestures, expressions and postures. Kinesics (body movements – the most obvious form of paralanguage. Man’s language – is a reflection of the king of person he is, the level of education he has attained and an index to the behavior that may be expected from him. Areas of language 1.Phonology – refers to the system of sounds (phonemes – the basic unit of sounds) 2.Semantics – the study of word meanings and word combination 3.Grammar – refers to the structure of language through its morphology and syntax. Morphology – the study of the language’s smallest units of meaning (morphemes) – prefixes, suffixes and root words Syntax – specifies how words are combined into sentences. 4.Pragmatics – is concerned rules for the use of appropriate language and particular contexts. Culture -refers to the attitudes, values, customs and behavior patterns that characterize a social group. - people’s way of life Characteristics: - Culture is learned - Culture is shared by a group of people - Culture is universal - Culture is cumulative - Cultures change - Culture is dynamic - Culture is ideational - Culture is diverse Culture gives us a range of permissible behavior patterns Components of Culture 1. Communication - Language - Symbols 2. Cognitive - Ideas - Knowledge - Beliefs - Values - Accounts (Motives) 3. Behavioral - Norms Mores Laws Folkways Rituals 4. Material - Artifacts - Mentifacts Organization of Culture Cultural traits – Cultural complexes – Cultural patterns How is culture transmitted 1. Enculturation – learning culture of one’s own group 2. Acculturation – learning some new traits from other culture 3. Assimilation – losing or forgetting one’s previous identity. Importance and Functions of Culture 1. it helps individual fulfill his potential as a human being. 2.Man can overcome his physical disadvantages and allows him to provide himself with fire, clothing, food and shelter. 3.It provides rules of proper conduct for living in a society. 4.It also provides the individual his concepts of family nation and class. Cultural relativism – practices considered immoral or taboo to a certain group of people but are accepted by other groups with a different cultural orientations. Culture by social class High culture – culture patterns that distinguish a society’s elite. Popular culture – is widespread among society’s population Culture of poverty – Cultural patterns shared by the poor Sub-culture – cultural patterns that set apart some segments of a society’s population Multiculturalism – recognizes cultural diversity in the society and promote the equality of all cultural traditions. Counter-culture – cultural patterns that strongly oppose widely accepted patterns within a society. Cultural change – the process of alteration of culture over time. Causes of cultural change; 1. Inventions 2. Discovery 3. Diffusion Cultural lag – the different rate of change in the two integrated elements of culture can result in one element lagging behind the other. Ethnocentrism – the practice of judging other’s culture by the standards of one’s own culture. Xeno-centrism – considering other’s culture as superior to one’s own. Social Institutions 1. The Family – smallest unit of society Kinds of family patterns a. Membership -nuclear (conjugal) - extended (consanguine0 b. Residence - Neolocal - matrilocal - patrilocal c. Authority - patriarchal -matriarchal d. Descent - bilineal - patrilineal -matrilineal 2.Education – the basic purpose is to transmit knowledge Functions: - Intellectual -Political - Social -Economic -Technical - Human/social functions - Cultural functions 3.Religion – is the socially defined patterns of beliefs concerning the ultimate meaning of life; it assumes the existence of supernatural – Stark Characteristics: a. Belief in a deity b. A doctrine of salvation c. A code of conduct d. Religious rituals Three elements of Religion - sacred and profane - legitimation of norms - rituals - religious community Church – tends to be large with inclusive membership in low tension with surrounding Sect – has a small exclusive membership, high tension with society (Literal in teaching), Biblical passages are the pliteral words of god; “born again” Cults – more innovative institutions and are formed when people create new religious beliefs and practices. 4. Economic Divisions: Microeconomics – is concerned with the specific economic parts and the relationships between those parts. Macroeconomics – economy as a whole or large segments of it. Basic economic problems: 1.What goods and services to produce and how much. 2. How to produce goods and services. 3. For whom are the goods and services. 5. Government -the institution that resolves conflicts that are public in nature and involve more than a few people. Branches of Government: a. Executive branch – proposes and enforces rules and laws b. Legislative branch – which makes rules and laws. C. Judicial branch – which adjudicates rules and laws Politics – the pattern of human interaction that serves to resolve conflicts between peoples, institutions and nations. Administration – refers to the aggregate of persons in whose hands the reigns of government are for the time being.