Biochemical Cycle Biosphere: The biosphere is a global ecosystem composed of living organisms (biota) and the abiotic (nonliving) factors from which they derive energy and nutrients. ● Lithosphere - Lower/Upper Mantle, Crust. ● Atmosphere - The gases surrounding the earth. ● Hydrosphere - All of the waters on the earth’s surface. Carbon Cycle: The series of processes by which carbon compounds are exchanged in the environment, involving the incorporation of carbon dioxide into living tissue by photosynthesis and its return to the atmosphere through respiration(Plants), the decay of dead organisms, and the burning of fossil fuels produces Carbon. (Carbon = Building block of life) The Greenhouse Effect: The greenhouse effect is a process that occurs when gases in Earth's atmosphere trap in the Sun's heat. This process makes Earth much warmer than it would be without an atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is one of the things that makes Earth a comfortable place to live. If left unchecked the greenhouse effect can have the opposite outcome. 1. 2. 3. 4. Water Vapor (H2O gas) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O) 1. Solar Radiation reaches the earth’s ATMOSPHERE. Some is reflected back into space. 2. The rest of the Solar Radiation is absorbed by the Lithosphere and Hydrosphere. 3. Heat radiates from the earth towards space. 4. Some of this heat is trapped by the GREENHOUSE GASSES keeping the earth warm enough to sustain life. 5. Human activities (Pollution) increase GREENHOUSE GASSES in the ATMOSPHERE. 6. This traps more heat than necessary and increases the earth's temperature. Photosynthesis: the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to make foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally creates oxygen as a byproduct. 6CO2 + 6H2O + Solar Energy > C6H12O6(glucose) + 6O2(oxygen) Cellular Respiration: During cellular respiration, cells use oxygen and glucose to make energy. This releases Carbon Dioxide back into the environment. 6O2(oxygen) + C6H12O6(glucose) > 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy Ingestion: Animals eat other animals or plants and absorb the Carbon they need to grow. Decomposition: The breakdown of organic matter(living tissues). CO2 and CH4(methane) are released into the atmosphere.