Uploaded by Venkatachalam Mohanasundaram

RM chap1

• Research is the process of finding
solutions to a problem after a thorough
study and analysis of the situational
• Research in common context refers to a
search for knowledge.
• Redman and Mory define research as a
“systematized effort to gain new
Research can also be defined as a
scientific and systematic search for
gaining information and knowledge on a
specific topic or phenomena.
In management research is
extensively used in various areas.
Characteristics of research
a. Systematic Approach
Each step must of your investigation
be so planned that it leads to the next step. Planning
and organization are part of this approach. A planned
and organized research saves your time and money.
b. Objectivity
It implies that True Research should attempt to
find an unbiased answer to the decision-making
• c. Reproducible
A reproducible research procedure is one, which an
equally competent researcher could duplicate, and from it
deduces approximately the same results. Precise
information regarding samples-methods, collection etc., should
be specified.
d. Relevancy (It furnishes three important tasks)
• It avoids collection of irrelevant information and saves
time and money
• It compares the information to be collected with researcher’s
criteria for action ·
• It enables to see whether the research is proceeding in the right
e. Control:
Research is not only affected by the factors,
which one is investigating but some other extraneous
factors also. It is impossible to control all the
• Business research is a systematic and
organized effort to investigate a
specific problem encountered in the work
setting that needs a solution. The research
provides the needed information that
guides managers to make informed
decisions to successfully deal with
An overview of the research process
• Stages in the research process
An overview of the research process
Objectives of Research
1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to
explore new ideas.
2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a
particular individual, situation or a group.
3. To determine the frequency with which
something occurs or with which it is associated.
4. To establish a cause and effect relationship and
test the relationship between two variables.
Why is Research Needed / Important / Necessary in
Nature of Research
Objective and Logical
Future occurrence
Solve the problem
Recording and reporting
Collection of data
Research demands accurate descriptions
Types of Research
Descriptive Research :
-Is one which describes, records, analyses and interprets the
conditions that exist.
-It basically describes ‘what is’.
-It describes the state of affairs as it exists at present.
– The researcher has no control over the variables, he/she can
only report what has happened or is happening.
Descriptive research is term as Ex-post-facto research.
2. Analytical research :
- The researcher has to use facts or information already
available and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of
the material.
3. Applied (Action ) research :
- Aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem
facing a society or an industrial/business organisation.
- Leads to a deeper understanding of the situation by the
local people and by the research team.
-Examples are – research to identify social,
economic or political trends that may affect a particular
institution – marketing research – evaluation research etc.
4. Fundamental ( Basic) research :(basic or pure research)
- Is mainly concerned with generalisations and with the
formulation of a theory – Gathering knowledge for the sake of
knowledge - eg. studies concerning human behaviour.
5. Quantitative Research :
it is based on measurement of quantity or
amount. It is applicable to phenomenon that can be
expressed in terms of quantity
6. Qualitative research :
Is concerned with qualitative phenomenon ie. the
phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind.
Ex. Motivation research ; Attitude or opinion research –
Specially important in behavioral sciences.
7. Conceptual Research :
It is related to some abstract ideas or theory –
generally used by philosophers or thinkers to develop
new concepts or to interpret existing ones –
8. Empirical research :
It relies on experience or observation alone –
without due regard for system and theory – it is data
based research, coming up with conclusions which are
capable of being verified by observation or experiment.
9. Exploratory and formalized research
The research study in which hypothesis is
developed is called exploratory research where as when
hypothesis is tested in the research study it is known as
formalized research.
10. Survey research
A survey is conducted with an object to
understand specific aspect in defined
11. Case study
12. Action research
When research is conducted for the study I
workplace, than action research is commonly
used in such cases. The focus of action
research is given in improving working
13. Field investigations
The field investigations is conducted in the
assessment of actual situations.
14. Evaluation research
The evaluation of any project is the subject
matter of the evaluation research. This type of
study is conducted to evaluate ongoing projects
or project already carried on.
15. Library research
when secondary data is reliable enough to
be used for drawing conclusions than library
research is very useful.
• 16. Causal research:
The objective of causal research is to test
hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships. If the
objective is to determine which variable might be causing
a certain behaviour, i.e. whether there is a cause and
effect relationship between variables, causal
research must be undertaken
17. Exploratory research
It is a type of research conducted for a
problem that has not been clearly defined.
Exploratory research helps determine
the best research design, data collection
method and selection of subjects. It should draw
definitive conclusions only with extreme caution.
Given its fundamental nature, exploratory
research often concludes that a perceived
problem does not actually exist.
Significance of research
• Research inculcates scientific and inductive
thinking and it promotes the development of
logical habits of thinking and organization
• It provides the basis for nearly all govt. policies
in our economic system
• It has its special significance in solving various
operational and planning problems of business
and industry
• It is important for social scientists in studying
social relationships and in seeking answers to
various social problems.