Psychology Study guide the behavior (usually unconscious) of using evaluations based on things unrelated, to make Name: _______________________________ judgments about something or someone. Priming Effect: Priming is a technique whereby Neuropsychologist exposure to one stimulus influences a response Also to a subsequent stimulus, without conscious biopsychologists guidance or intention. For example, the word Explore how the brain works NURSE is recognized more quickly following the Most often work in university/college settings called biological psychologists or word DOCTOR than following the word BREAD. Social Psychologist Chapter 1 Explore how behaviors, feelings, and beliefs are Psychology: influenced by others the study of the mind(mental process) and Study behavior. prejudice, group behavior, etc. Psyche(meaning “life” or “self”) Work in the business setting, government, and + logos(referring to reasoning and logic) conformity, attitudes, leadership, universities “Logical study of life, soul, mind, and self.” Developmental Psychologist Behavior: every measurable internal and Study the growth or development that takes external activity a living thing does. Some place from the womb to death behaviors can be observed. Others-such as the Work in senior centers, hospitals, day-cares or actions of the mind, ideas, and strategies- universities cannot. Emotional states, attitudes, stress, the way we interact with our environment, physical Cognitive Psychologist reactions-all these are included in behavior. Study thought processes including intelligence, problem solving, attention, decision making, Overt behavior: visible to others. (in other word language, etc. seen behaviors) Ex. The way we talk, walk, dress, Work in educational settings and the business eat and so on… in short these are the action we world see and observe in individual and group around us. Forensic Psychologist Covert behavior: not obvious to the people Apply law and psychology to legal issues around us. (unseen behavior) Ex. Feeling such Work in correctional settings, law enforcement, as anger, jealousy, kindness, pity, happiness, and and academic settings sadness. In fact, covert can be deducted from the overt. Sports Psychologist Explore psychological issues in improving Halo Effect: The halo effect is a form of athletic performance cognitive bias in which the brain allows specific Work for sports teams or in private practice positive traits to positively influence the overall evaluation of the person, idea, or object in the Educational Psychologist halo. The halo effect can also be explained as Study how humans learn and how to improve the learning process Contemporary Psychological Perspectives Work in school systems, the government, or at Psychological Perspectives universities Method of classifying a collection of ideas Also called “psychological approaches” Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychologist To view behavior from a particular perspective Try to apply psychology to help business and organizations operate Cognitive Perspective Work for the government, business or in School of thought that focuses on how people academic settings think – how we take in, process, store, and retrieve information Animal Psychologist Focus: On how people think and process To study the behaviors and cognitive processes information of non-human animals. Behavior To examine how animal interact each another interprets the situation is explained by how a person their relationship with the environment, and with human beings. Jean Piaget Developmental and cognitive psychologist Psychology in the Past known for his studies of children’s thought Psychology began in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany processes Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920): Introspection - Interested in how thinking develops looking inside oneself and describing what is going on Biological Perspective Gestalt Psychology School of thought that focuses on the physical Psychological perspective that emphasized our structures tendency to integrate pieces of information into particular behavior, thought, or emotion meaningful wholes. Focus: The whole is different from the sum of its parts. hormonal) and physiological processes impact and How substances biological underlying (genetics, a neural, behavior and mental processes. Behavior is explained by brain chemistry, genetics, glands, etc. Social-Cultural Perspective School of thought that focuses on how thinking or behavior changes in different contexts or situations Focus: How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation Behavior is explained by the influence of other William James (1842-1910): Functionalism, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): unconsciousness, psychoanalysis (psychodynamic approach) John B. Watson (1878-1958): Behaviorism people present Behavioral Perspective Focus: How we learn through punishments, and observation rewards, Behavior is explained by previous learning Psychodynamic Perspective Behaviorism Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious The theory that psychology should only study drives and conflicts observable behaviors, not mental processes. Behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) one’s childhood. Russian Physiologist Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective. Studied learning in animals Psychoanalysis Emphasized the study of observable behaviors Theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes our thoughts and John B. Watson (1878-1958) actions to unconscious motives and conflicts Founder of behaviorism Studied only observable and objectively described acts Emphasized Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Founder of the psychoanalytic perspective objective and scientific Believed that abnormal behavior originated methodology from unconscious drives and conflicts B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Chapter 2 American psychologist whose brand of behaviorism focused on the role of responses Theory is an explanation that integrates in learning. principles, organizes and predicts behaviors or Focused on learning through rewards and events. General. observation For example, low self-esteem contributes to Humanistic Perspective depression. Focus: How the drive for personal growth and self-actualization impact behavior and mental Hypothesis is a testable prediction, often processes. induced by a theory, to enable us to accept, Behavior is explained as being motivated by reject or revise the theory. Specific. satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential once Example: basic needs are met. esteem assessment are more likely to feel But unlike the behaviorists, believe that People who score low on a self- depressed. consciousness, self-awareness, and free will allow us to shape our lives. (people are innately Research refers to the process of testing the good.) hypothesis. Carl Rogers/Abraham Maslow Prominent Humanists Rejected idea that behavior is controlled by rewards and punishments Stressed free will in decision making Different Types of Studies 1. Longitudinal Studies: periodic tests on participants over a number of years. (Child development) 2. Cross-sectional Studies: participants chosen from a representative sample of the population. 3. Case Studies: in-depth studies of one individual or several individuals with the goal of Variables: anything that can take on different values or qualities. finding out as much as possible what factors have influenced his or her development and personality. 4. Blind/Double-Blind Studies: to counter effects of experimenter and participant expectations and biases. Self-Reporting Methods - Surveys: Participants answer questions about the variable being tested. - Interviews: face to face. Much more detailed answers to be obtained Behavioral Methods Many factors influence our behavior. interest us while Experiments manipulate factors that keeping generated by Variable manipulated (cause) factors and record in natural participants’ behaviors. - Laboratory Experiment: in a lab. The number is Graphs and Statistical Analysis Measures of Central Tendency a factor, manipulated by the experimenter, and whose effect is being studied. Dependent Variable (outcome, effect) is a factor that may change in response to independent variable. In psychology it is usually a behavior or a mental process. Eating cookies before class each day will lead to higher average scores. environments Observation: - Field Study: Lab to a more naturalistic setting. isolate cause and effect relationships. Independent Naturalistic of variables can be limited and controlled. other factors under (2) control. Effects - - Mean: calculated by adding up all the scores and dividing by the number of scores. - Median: the midpoint of the distribution of numbers. - Mode: the most frequent score. Chapter 6 Consciousness: The awareness of one’s self and one’s environment External sensory perception: awareness of sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and touch sensations in the environment. Entrainment: alternation of a natural cycle to fit Internal sensory perception: the ability to a different rhythm internally experience sensory information from Shift Work: working during the hours when one a remembered event or to create sensory would normally sleep may increase the risk of representations accidents and absenteeism and lead to poor of events we’ve never experienced. job satisfaction, in addition to fatigue, stomach problems, and depression. Abstract awareness: the symbols we use to Jet Lag: a different geographical time. Having represent big ideas. difficulty sleeping at night and tend to be Thoughts, ideas, or emotions sluggish and unable to function as effectively as at home. Awareness of self: aware of yourself as an individual apart from other individuals and Altered States of Consciousness objects in your environment Daydreaming: Fanciful imagery or unfocused thoughts that may be different from a person’s Levels of Consciousness reality. Normal or Waking Consciousness: includes Hallucination: Experiencing sights and sounds whatever we are aware of in the present. that do not occur. The person is unable to Content is based on what we choose to attend distinguish his or her perceptions from those to. produced by real experience. Beautiful Mind Subconscious: Thoughts, emotions, and Meditative State: A highly focused state of behaviors are available to us, but not presently consciousness achieved by concentrating on a in our awareness. repetitive, peaceful stimulus. Lucid Dreaming: Dreaming while you’re aware Separate it into two subcategories. that you’re dreaming. One might control the 1. Preconscious: knowledge and memories in direction of the dream. Lucid dreaming is our minds, but not being accessed. learned through practice. 2. Nonconscious: behaviors and thoughts process automatically, without conscious effort and sometimes without control. Unconscious: contains desires, conflicts, or memories with which our conscious mind cannot easily deal. Altered States of Consciousness Awareness that is distinctly different in quality or pattern from waking consciousness. A person’s sense of self or sense of the world changes. Consciousness Chronobiology: the study of the effects of time on life processes. Biological clock: structure within the brain that is NOT an all-or-nothing phenomenon—it exists on a continuum Because of BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS programs activities in the body to occur at Biological rhythms are controlled by internal different times during a daily cycle. “biological clocks.” Circadian rhythms: cycle that occurs in roughly a 25-hour period. Sleep Cycle and its Stages Sleep measured using EEG. About every 90minutes we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages. Brain waves based on awake, Rapid Eye Movements (REM) and reports vivid dreams. relaxed, sleeping. Why do we sleep? Awake & Alert During strong mental engagement brain We spend one third of our life sleeping. exhibits low amplitude, fast, irregular beta If an individual remains awake for several days waves they deteriorate, in terms of immune function, (15-30 cps). A person awake in conversation shows beta activity. concentration and accidents. Rats died after 32 days of no sleep. Awake but Relaxed When eyes are closed, but the individual is awake, brain activity slows down to large amplitude, slow, regular alpha waves (9-14 cps). 1. Adaptive Theory: Sleep protects. Sleeping in the darkness when predators loom kept our ancestors out of harms way. A meditating person exhibits alpha brain 2. Restorative Theory: Sleep helps restore and activity. repair brain tissue, immune system. During sleep pituitary gland releases growth hormone. Older people release less of this hormone and Stages of Sleep sleep less. NREM Sleep: Stages 1-2 3. Information Consolidation Theory: Sleep During early light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain restores and rebuilds our fading memories. enters a high amplitude, slow, regular wave Learning increases amount of REM sleep. When form called theta waves (5-8 cps). A person people are deprived of REM sleep they are less daydreaming shows theta activity. adept at creative problem solving. Hypnogogic Sensations, K Complexes, and Spindles Sleep Disorders Sleep Apnea NREM Sleep: Stages 3-4 Sudden and regular During deepest sleep (stages 3-4) brain activity during sleep slows down. There are large amplitude, slow Associated with snoring delta waves (1-4 cps). breathing stoppages Sometimes called “delta sleep” REM Sleep: Stage 5 After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4) the Sleepwalking A sleepwalker may interact or talk with people. Occurs in NREM sleep. Awakens with no memory of the activity. sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages Insomnia in low amplitude, fast and regular beta waves Difficulty getting to sleep or staying asleep (15-40 cps), much like awake-aroused state. A person unrefreshed, even after sufficient Paradoxical sleep. sleep A person in this sleep phase exhibits Diet, exercise patterns, sleeping environment, 1) Hallucinogens worry, or concern Hypersomnia Chapter 7 Chronic, excessive sleeping Irresistible drowsiness and napping during the day; and difficulty waking up asleep suddenly, unpredictably, and uncontrollably The person may exhibit sudden loss of muscle control When, during awakening or falling asleep, a person is aware but unable to move or speak. be triggered by sleep deprivation, psychological stress, or abnormal sleep cycles. REM Behavior Disorder Act out dream activity and in severe cases may endanger him- or herself and others with movements. Nightmares often awaken and recall an apparently long and movielike frightening dream Psychoactive drugs are divided into three groups. 1. relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior Relatively Permanent Behavior Means there might be some variance in how you behave, but overall the change in behavior is permanent. Some action that produces activity in an organism. Anything perceived by the senses. Response The reaction of an organism to a stimulus. Classical Conditioning Learning through the association of a stimulus and response. When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism. Unconditioned Response(UCR) 1) Alcohol. A reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus. 3) Opiates Conditioned Stimulus(CS) Stimulants A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces 1) Caffeine and nicotine no reliable response in an organism. 2) Methamphetamines 3) Ecstasy or Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): “Club Drug” 4) Cocaine 3. a Depressants 2) Barbiturates 2. is Stimulus Sleep Paralysis can (Conditioning) due to experience. Narcolepsy Falls Learning Hallucinogens Conditioned Response(CR) A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism. Acquisition The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the UCS are presented together. Extinction When a UCS (food) does not follow a CS (tone) the CR (salivation) starts to decrease and at some point goes extinct. Spontaneous Recovery After a rest period an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers and if CS (tone) persists alone becomes extinct again. Generalization Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to CS is called generalization. involves the removal of an unfavorable events Little Albert experiment or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by Discrimination Discrimination Negative Reinforcement is the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that the removal of something considered unpleasant. do not signal a US. Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which the frequency of a behavior depends on the consequence that follows that behavior The frequency will increase if the consequence is reinforcing to the subject. The frequency will decrease if the consequence is not reinforcing to the subject. Reinforcer any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows Shaping and Chaining Positive Reinforcement Shaping is favorable events or outcomes that are procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior presented after the behavior. In situations that toward closer and closer approximations of the reflect positive reinforcement, a response or desired behavior behavior is strengthened by the addition of something. Chaining The chain of responses is broken down into small steps using task analysis. Parts of a chain SR occurs after a given number of R which are referred to as links. varies about some mean. (ex. VR 50) Conditioning: high sustained rate Training a rat to put a coin into a basket Extinction: Fairly rapid. Most R emitted early at high rate. Many R. Primary Reinforcer Ex) Gambling an innately (naturally) reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need Fixed-Interval Schedule 1st R following a designated interval of time is Secondary (or conditioned Reinforcer) reinforced. (ex. FI 10 min) a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power Conditioning: low rate; longer scallops with through its association with a primary reinforce longer intervals Extinction: initial scallop; low sustained rate with Punishment occasional scallop appropriate to interval an adverse event or outcome that causes a Ex) School Break time decrease in the behavior it follows Variable-Interval Schedule Positive Punishment An interval schedule in which intervals between sometimes referred to as punishment by SR vary at random about some mean. (ex. VI 5 application, involves the presentation of an min) unfavorable event or outcome in order to Conditioning: no pauses or scallops; fairly low weaken the response it follows. rate Extinction: sustained; response gradually tapers Negative Punishment off also known as punishment by removal, occurs Ex) Hunting & fishing when a favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs. Motivation Intrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a Schedules of Reinforcement behavior for its own sake. Continuous Schedule Every R produces SR Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a Conditioning: high, steady rate behavior due to promised rewards or threats of Extinction: high initial rate; few R; short time punishments. Fixed-Ratio Schedule Observational Learning Every nth R produces SR (ex. FR 50) The type of learning that is required by Conditioning: High rates; pauses increase with watching and imitating others. size of ratio Albert Bandura Extinction: fairly rapid; R emitted early at high Bobo Doll Experiments rate. Any later R occur at high rate. Ex) Numbers of apples pick Mirror Neurons Neuroscientist have discovered (mirror) neurons Variable-Ratio Schedule in the brain of animals and humans that activate during observational learning. and is quickly forgotten after such time. It stores material and has the longest duration Modeling Requirements Bandura suggests of the three memory stages; also known as the four requirements for subconscious or preconscious. effective modeling to occur: 1. Attention 3. Long-term memory(LTM) is not conscious, 2. Retention but we can recall it and implement it into our 3. Ability to reproduce the behavior consciousness fairly easily. Sometimes, long- 4. Motivation term memory is not always easy to remember. Learner must believe they can successfully carry out the behavior and control the outcome--Self-efficacy Antisocial/Prosocial Behavior Antisocial behavior - negative, destructive unhelpful behavior Prosocial behavior – positive, constructive, helpful behavior Recognition Both types of behavior can be modeled Noticing that you have seen or heard stimuli effectively. before. Being able to pick out a memory from a group Chapter 8 of stimuli. Memory A mental process of encoding, storing, and Attention retrieving The concentration of mental effort on sensory information that is gained throughout any point in time. or mental events. Determines Stages of Memory what information from the environment is sent on for further processing. 1.Sensory Memory is stored for a very short amount of time. Sensory memory is the first of Short-term Memory (Working Memory) three memory stages and it holds sight, sound, 1. Encoding smells and texture, but only for a very short In the form of pictures (iconic), sounds (acoustic amount of time. Often, visual information is or echoic), or meaning (semantic) stored for no more than half a second, and Memory is stored acoustically rather than auditory information no more than 3 to 4 iconically. seconds. Two exceptions 2.Short-term(working) memory(STM) is what preserves recently perceived events for less than a minute. Short-term memory is the conscious mind. Often, it lasts anywhere from 20-30 seconds 1)Flashbulb memory: A clear and vivid longterm memory of an especially meaningful and emotional event. 2)Eidetic imagery: An especially clear and persistent form of memory that is quite rare; sometimes known as "photographic memory." The part of our memory that we use to 2.Time Duration of STM remember the "how-to" skills we have learned. Less than 30 sec Remembering how to play a musical instrument. Rehearsal: repetition Declarative memory: A division of Long Term Elaboration: adding meaning to something by Memory that stores explicit information; also connecting it or organizing it with other known as fact memory. It is the part of your information already in long-term memory. long term memory that stores specific facts and events. 3. Capacity of STM Magic number: 7 plus or minus 2 Duration of LTM: Permanently Chunking: Organizing pieces of information Capacity of LTM: limitless, infinite into a smaller number of meaningful units (or chunks) – a process that frees up space in Memory Retrieval working memory. Recall: A retrieval method in which one must reproduce previously presented information. 4.Storage in STM Decay: If the information wasn’t important Recognition: A retrieval method in which one enough to be rehearsed or elaborated upon, must identify present stimuli as having been the signal simply faded. previously presented. Long-term Memory Forgetting 1.Explicit and Implicit Memory is the deterioration in performance following a Explicit memory: Memory processed with attention that has been and can period without practice. be consciously recalled. Consciously remembered Decay behaviors. Decay: If the memory wasn’t activated over long periods of time, the signals that moved There are two major types of explicit memory: through the central nervous system would 1.Episodic memory- your long-term memories weaken and eventually disappear, or decay. of specific events 2.Semantic memory- memories of facts and Interference: other general knowledge information A cause of forgetting by which previously stored information prevents learning and Implicit memory: A memory that was not remembering new information. deliberately learned or which you have no You learned how to speak Spanish but now you conscious are can't remember the French you're learning remembered without any conscious effort to be because the Spanish blocks the new language. awareness. Memories that remembered. Procedural and Declarative Memory Procedural memory: A division of LTM that stores memories for how things are done.