Kingdom Animals, Phyla Porifera, Cnidaria, & Ctenophora … Guided Notes 1. All members of Kingdom Animalia (aka Metazoa) share five very basic characteristics: They are ____________________ - cells with a nucleus & membrane-bound organelles. They are ____________________ - cells are somewhat to very specialized; most form tissues. They are ____________________ and ____________________ - Animals ingest then digest. Reproduction is usually ________________ (though some reproduce asexually as well) – which increases variation within the species and enhances evolution. 2. All animals are grouped into two main categories: _____________________________ lack backbones and other interior frameworks. _____________________________ have backbones and other parts of an interior framework called an ________________________. 3. The general form an organism takes is its ________________, and there are four main types: If there is no special form or shape, the animal shows ____________________, as in sponges. __________________ symmetry is ball-shaped and meets the environments equally on all sides, making this the perfect symmetry for floating organisms like the protozoan Volvox. _______________ symmetry has two ends but no right or left side. It is cylindrical and is common to animals that move little, like the sea jellies in the plankton and the echinoderms in the benthos. ___________________ symmetry has two sides that are similar in shape and form, as seen in worms, arthropods, and vertebrates. 4. Phylum ________________ encompasses the sponges. The name comes from the Latin __________, meaning “pore” + __________, meaning “to bear.” 5. Sponges have these characteristics: The body is filled with ____________. The organism is ______________ - lives attached. The size ranges from _____ to over ____ feet. Habitat: all are ______________; most are ____________. Sponges are subdivided into classes based on ________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________. 6. ________________ are support structures unique to sponges and are made of three main materials: __________________________ __________________________________. 7. The classes of sponges are Class Spicule composition example Calcarea Hexactinella Demospongiae Sclerospongiae 8. Sponges show a low degree of cell specialization – the lowest of all animals – but there are specialized cells within the sponge body: The _____________________ is also called the collar cell. It circulates water and gathers food. They are found at the center of every pore the enters the sponge body. The ____________________ is also called the epidermal cell. These cells cover the entire body of the sponge. Many secrete special defensive chemicals and so are under investigation as a possible source of pharmaceuticals. The ____________________ is also called the mesoglea. It is not composed of cells but rather is a jelly-like substance located between the inner and outer layer of cells. ___________________ are irregularly shaped cells located in the mesenchyme, where they act as transporters of food, waste, sperm, and eggs. The ________________ is a tubular cell through which water enters the central cavity, called the ____________________. 9. The large excurrent pore through which water leaves the sponge body is called the _______________. Water enters through __________________ pores. 10. Sponges are such simple animals that they can reproduce both sexually and asexually. In sexual reproduction, ____________ are released into the water. Spawning is triggered by the __________________ of neighbors. _______________________ gather the sperm and ____________________ deliver them to the eggs, where fertilization occurs, producing a ______________ that develops into a __________, which then exits through the collar cells and enters the ________________ until mature enough to “settle down.” Because they naturally contain the organs of both sexes, we describe sponges as __________________________, few of which self-fertilize. Asexual reproduction may occur in one of two ways: __________________________ occurs when sponges regrow lost or damaged parts. __________________ occurs when a new organism grows from the original. Sponges are so primitive, that a living sponge can be “blended” then placed back into still water, and the animal will reassemble itself. 11. Phylum ____________________ aka Coelenterata includes the jellyfish, corals, hydras, sea anemones, and their relatives: In size the range from ___ to ______ feet. Their habitats are all ______________, mostly _____________ - salt water. Symmetry is ____________. __________________ have special stinging cells. There is a gut with ___ opening. There is no ____________________. 12. Cnidarians are divided into classes based on the dominant body form in their life cycle: The ____________ is sessile – lives attached to a substrate. The ____________ is a free-swimming “bell.” Polyps may “bud off” to form medusas. 13. The classes of cnidarians are Class Dominant form Examples Hydrozoa Scyphozoa Anthozoa 14. Tentacles may look both beautiful and delicate, but they hold special stinging cells called __________________________ that are used for both offense (getting food) and defense. There is a trigger that sets it off, a barbed, hollow filament, and a venom gland in each nematocyst. 15. The most toxic animal in the ocean is the ________________, found off the coast of Australia in the Indian Ocean. 16. Many anthozoans for special partnerships = SYMBIOSIS – with other organisms. Hard corals cannot live without their algal partners, the __________________________. (mutualism) In ______________________________ the coral polyp expels its algal partners. The coral skeleton/polyps lose their color and the coral dies. Sea anemones are home to a variety of animals, including “Nemo” - ____________________. (commensalism) 17. Like sponges, cnidarians reproduce both sexually and asexually, producing some life cycles that are extremely complicated! All cnidarians go through a larval stage called the ________________, which they share with the flatworms. It consists of a flattened, bilateral body covered with cilia. Cnidarians also go through a stage called the ____________ larva that precedes the medusa stage. This larval form can either grow into a mature, sexual medusa or settle down to form a polyp. 18. Phylum _________________ encompasses the so-called “comb jellies.” The name comes from the Greek ____________ = “comb” + ____________ = “bearing.” In size they range from ____ inch to ____ feet. Without exception, ctenophores are ____________. They are often ____________________________, giving off “living light” as phosphorus compounds interact with oxygen. They have ____ ciliated bands. They have ____ tentacles (no stinging cells). They have a gut with ____ opening. They lack a ____________________. They show ________________ symmetry. Examples include the sea walnut and Beroe.