Uploaded by libikurian.tvm

A Review of Smart Home Community in IoT Environment: Architectural survey and Challenges

JASC: Journal of Applied Science and Computations
ISSN NO: 1076-5131
A Review of Smart Home Community in IoT
Environment: Architectural survey and Challenges
Ms. Libi Kurian#1, Ms.S. Dhanalakshmi*2
#
*
Department of Computer Science, Christ Nagar College, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
PG and Research Department of MCA, Vivekanandha College of Arts& Science for Women, Erode, Tamilnadu, India.
[email protected]
Abstract— Smart cities aim to improve the citizens quality of life by exploiting information about city scale procedures extracted from
heterogeneous data sources gathered on city wide distribution. The IoT is the empowering influence of smart city technologies at
urban scale. IoT includes various elements like communication networks, communication protocols, sensing technologies,
computations, analysis and services. The primary commitment of this survey paper is that it abridges the present condition of
specialty of IoT architecture in smart city. Architecture specific study does always pave the structure of related field. In addition,
most of the possible IoT technologies for smart city are introduced. Emerging IoT technologies were discussed by this survey and its
challenges.
Keywords— Smart City, Internet of things (IoT), Smart building, Security, IoT Architecture, smart city architecture, IoT
technologies, challenges
I. INTRODUCTION
The web transformation has prompted the interconnection among individuals and PCs at an unremarkable scale and pace.
The next revolution will be the interconnection between objects and appliances to create a shrewd environment. Currently it is
estimated that there are 9 billion interconnected devices and in future it is highly expected to reach 24 billion devices by 2020
[9].
According to the recent market analysis report by Knud Lasse Lueth, IoT Analytics clearly indicates that Smart Cities and
Smart Home stand out as the most prominent IoT applications in near future [1].
The smart city is becoming smarter than in the past as a result of the current expansion of digital technologies there has been
a remarkable growth of digital devices, such as sensors, actuators, smartphones and smart appliances, because it is possible to
interconnect all devices and speak with between through the Internet. This led to the huge marketable objectives of the Internet
of Things (IoT) [8].
With the rapid rise of the population density inside urban areas, gathering information for day-to-day management of
activities and long-term development planning in the city is essential in order to supply the requirements of the citizens. For
example, take the case of a public transport system, some information such as real-time location and utilization, occupancy of
parking spaces, traffic jams, and other data like weather conditions, air and noise pollution status, energy consumption, etc.
should be gathered continuously [8]. These data will be analysed by using analytical tools and gives information to that
particular city authorities that helps them to take precaution or necessary steps to solve it.
Smart citizens, smart energy, smart buildings, smart mobility, smart technology, smart healthcare, smart infrastructure, smart
governance and education and finally smart security are the key parts of shrewd urban communities [8].
II. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OF IOT
An IOT architecture is a system of integration of numerous elements, several technologies and communication solutions.
Sensors, protocols, actuators, cloud service, storage and computing tools for data analytics and presentation are considered to be
the essential elements of IOT. There are identification and tracking technologies, wired and wireless sensor and actuator
networks, enhanced communication protocols, and distributed intelligence for smart objects are just some of the most relevant
[3]
The IOT general architecture provide the media to be everywhere incorporating a large number of different and
heterogeneous end systems and sensors to provide services that seamlessly employ very complex tasks [1]. Many IOT
architectures depends on various applications. Different technologies have been applied to address the specific features of each
applications of IOT [2].
Many and different architectures have been proposed by researchers. Basically, there are three IoT architecture layers [4]:
1. Perception Layer/ IoT Device Layer- The client side.
2. Network Layer/ IoT Getaway Layer -Operators on the server side.
Volume VI, Issue VI, JUNE/2019
Page No:2147
JASC: Journal of Applied Science and Computations
ISSN NO: 1076-5131
3. Application Layer/ IoT Platform Layer- A pathway for connecting clients and operators.
The aim of the first layer is to identify each thing in IoT. It is collecting information through RFID tags, sensors, actuators
and edge devices that interact with the environment. The second layer is the core of the internet of things. Discovers, connects
and translates devices over a network and in a joint effort with the application layer. It sends the information which gathered
through the perception layer. The third layer is preferred for the IoT social needs and industrial technologies [6]. Data
processing and storage with specialized services and functionality for users. Figure 1 shows the 3-layer architecture [5]
Fig 1
In fact, tending to the requirements of every one of these layers is significant on every one of the phases of IoT architecture.
The key highlights of practical IoT architecture include functionality, scalability, availability, and maintainability. Due to
enhancement in IoT, the 3-layer architecture cannot fulfil all the requirements of applications.
Therefore, all the above-mentioned requirements are addressed in 4 stages of IoT architecture. In 4-layered architecture [7],
the three layers Perception, Network and Application have the same functionality as that of the 3-Layer architecture. In 4-Layer
architecture, information is sent to a support layer that is obtained from a perception layer. The support layer has two
responsibilities. It confirms that information is sent by the authentic users and protected from threats. The second responsibility
of the support layer is sending information to the network layer. The medium to transmit information from the support layer to
network layer can be wireless and wire based. [7].
Due to a challenge in IoT regarding security and privacy the researchers proposed a 5-Layer architecture to make the IoT
secure. The 5-Layer IoT Architecture essentially builds upon the 3-Layer approach. It has two more layers. The names of these
newly proposed layers are Processing layer and Business layer. The top-level Business Layer highlights the various
management, business logic, and top-level requirements that is able to provide consistent value to the business and end users.
The user’s privacy is also managed by this layer. It also has the ability to determine how information can be created, stored and
changed [7]. The processing layer is also known as a middleware layer. It collects the information that is sent from a transport
layer. It performs processing onto the collected information. It has the responsibility to eliminate extra information that has no
meaning and extracts the useful information. It is considered that a recently proposed architecture can fulfil the requirements of
IoT regarding security and privacy [7]. Figure 2 presents the 4-layered and 5-layerd architecture.
Volume VI, Issue VI, JUNE/2019
Page No:2148
JASC: Journal of Applied Science and Computations
ISSN NO: 1076-5131
Fig 2
III. BASICS OF IOT ARCHITECTURE
In an article [5] the author explains about the very basic requirements needed to implement a complete IoT architecture
design.
A. Concurrent Data Collection – support for collection, analysis and control from a large number of sensors or actuators.
B. Efficient Data Handling – minimize raw data and maximize actionable information.
C. Connectivity and Communications – provide network connectivity and flexible, robust protocols support between
sensors/actuators and the cloud.
D. Scalable – scale individual elements in the system using the same architecture.
E. Security – end to end encryption and monitoring.
F. Availability and Quality of Service – minimal latencies and fault tolerant.
G. Modular, Flexible and Platform-independent – each layer should allow for features, hardware or cloud infrastructure to be
sourced from different suppliers.
H. Open Standards and Interoperable – communication between the layers should be based on open standards to ensure
interoperability.
I. Device Management – enable automated/remote device management and updates.
J. Defined APIs – each layer should have defined APIs that allow for easy integration with existing applications and
integration with other IoT solutions.
IV. IOT TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART CITY
All paragraphs must be indented. All paragraphs must be justified, i.e. both left-justified and right-justified.
A. RFID
A Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) system uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified. They help in the
automatic identification of anything they are attached to acting as an electronic barcode [9]. Two-way radio transmitterreceivers called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its response. The readers generally transmit their
observations to a computer system running RFID software or RFID middleware [13]. An active tag has an on-board battery and
periodically transmits its ID signal. A passive RFID are not battery powered and use the power of the readers interrogation
signal to communicate the ID to the RFID reader. There are many applications of IoT in which RFID technology is used, such
as a healthcare system, human tracking application and a gesture recognition system [7].
B. WSN
A Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of wireless sensor nodes which include a radio interface, an analog- to-digital
converter (ADC), multiple sensors, memory and a power supply [8]. According to the wireless sensor node framework, it
includes various kinds of intelligent sensors, enabling the collection, processing, analysis and dissemination of valuable
information, gathered in a variety of environments. Sensor data are shared among sensor nodes and sent to a distributed or
centralized system for analytics [9]. WSNs could be coordinated with RFID frameworks to obtain few objectives such as
acquiring data in regards to the position of people and objects, development, temperature, movements etc. [8].
Volume VI, Issue VI, JUNE/2019
Page No:2149
JASC: Journal of Applied Science and Computations
ISSN NO: 1076-5131
C. Addressing Schemes
IoT creates an interconnection of things and stuff, for providing smart environments. For this purpose, it is essential to
identify devices exclusively for the success of IoT. Exclusively addressing the large-scale mixture of things is very important to
control them through the Internet. The critical features of creating a unique addressing structure are uniqueness, reliability,
persistence and scalability. Every element that is connected and those that are going to be connected must be identified by their
unique identification, location and functionalities [9].
D. NFC
Near Field Communication (NFC) consists of communication protocols used for bidirectional short distance communication
of electronic devices, typically a smart mobile device and a standard device. It is a set of short-range wireless technologies,
usually involves a distance of 10 centimetre or less range. The application of NFC in smartphones enables us to use it as our
personal cards such as bank card, identification card, public transportation card, access control cards [8].
E. Middleware
Due to few concerns in regards to the heterogeneity of contributing things, to the restricted stockpiling and processability,
alongside to the huge kinds of utilization, the middleware has a crucial undertaking in the interconnection of devices to the
applications layer. The fundamental focus of the middleware is to briefly total the usefulness and correspondence capacities of
all included devices.
F. 3G and 4G LTE
3G, 4G and Long-Term Evolution (LTE) are guidelines for remote broadband correspondence for cell phones and data
terminals based on the GSM/EDGE technologies. It utilizes packet exchanging and message exchanging. This technology is for
broadband connectivity and was not intended for short range uses. They are most adaptable for Internet of Things. It supports
IPV4 and IPV6, while for the 3G network the IPV4 supports and for 4G network the IPV6 satisfies the support requirements.
G. EnOcean
The EnOcean innovation is an energy harvesting wireless technology used primarily in building automation systems; but on
the other hand, it is also connected to different applications in industry, transportation, logistics and smart homes. Modules
based on EnOcean technology combine micro energy converters with ultra-low power gadgets and empower wireless
communications between battery less wireless sensors, switches, controllers and gateways [13].
H. Bluetooth
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances using short-wavelength radio waves
from 2.400 to 2.485 GHz in the ISM band from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high
levels of security.
I. Dash 7
DASH7 Alliance Protocol (D7A) is an open source Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network protocol, which operates in the
433 MHz, 868 MHz and 915 MHz unlicensed ISM band/SRD band. DASH7 gives multi-year battery life, scope of up to 2 km,
low latency for associating with moving things. It is worth seeing that Dash is alluring in military application particularly
substation development. Some of its applications are perilous material checking, manufacturing and warehouse optimizations
and smart meter development [8].
V. SMART CITY ARCHITECTURE
When we look into the recent studies and developments of smart city architecture, we can find that there is no particular
standardization in building a smart city. The overall purpose of a smart city is to achieve efficient management in all segments
of the city while at the same time satisfying the needs of its citizen. It must also be aligned with the principles of justifiable
development and considering the technological modernization and a collaboration between economic and social agents as the
main driving forces of change.
In the paper,” Study of the Architecture of a Smart City” [10] the author identifies two type of architecture in a smart city. An
External architecture that monitors the exterior of the city such as streets, parks, avenues, leisure areas, parking space etc. Here
it is necessary to place a series of sensors that allow to obtain a series of information for making decision either in public light
or in other elements of the city such as bus shelters, garbage bins, street light post etc. The most architectural infrastructure can
be used are the star architecture or mesh network. The second type is an Internal architecture that monitors the interiors of the
buildings, flow of humans and things, air conditioning, water etc. The placement of sensors inside a building has great
dependence on certain parameters such as geometric shop, type of building, if its heritage or not, usability, private or public
Volume VI, Issue VI, JUNE/2019
Page No:2150
JASC: Journal of Applied Science and Computations
ISSN NO: 1076-5131
ownership etc [10]. There is a great need for the correct placement of sensors and actuators for the proper function of the IoT
systems. Figure 2 shows a representation of a smart city architecture.
Fig 2: Schematic diagram of a smart city architecture (Image courtesy of ARC Advisory group)
VI. EMERGING IOT TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES
The innovations and standards of IoT will have an exceptionally wide impact on organizations, influencing business strategy,
risk management and a wide range of technical territories, such as architecture and network design. Some emerging IoT
technology challenges are [14]:
A. IoT Security
Security technologies will be required to shield IoT gadgets and platforms from both information attacks and physical
altering, to encrypt their communications, and to address new encounters such as impersonating "things" or denial-of-sleep
attacks that drain batteries. IoT security will be complicated by the fact that many "things" use simple processors and operating
systems that may not bolster sophisticated security approaches.
B. IoT Analytics
IoT business models will misuse the data gathered by "things" in many ways, which will demand new analytic tools and
algorithms. As information volumes increase throughout the next five years, the requirements of the IoT may diverge further
from traditional analytics.
C. IoT Device (Thing) Management
Seemingly perpetual nontrivial "things" will require management and observing, including device monitoring, firmware and
software updates, diagnostics, crash analysis and reporting, physical and security management. Tools must be capable of
managing and monitoring thousands and perhaps even millions of devices.
D. Low-Power, Short-Range IoT Networks
Low-power, short-range networks will govern wireless IoT connectivity through 2025, far outnumbering connections using
wide-area IoT networks. However, commercial and technical trade-offs mean that many solutions will coexist, with no single
overwhelming winner.
Volume VI, Issue VI, JUNE/2019
Page No:2151
JASC: Journal of Applied Science and Computations
ISSN NO: 1076-5131
E. Low-Power, Wide-Area Networks
Traditional cellular networks don't deliver a good blend of technical features and operational expense for those IoT
applications that need wide-area coverage joined with relatively low bandwidth, good battery life, low hardware and operating
cost, and high connection density. Emerging standards such as narrowband IoT will probably overwhelm this space.
F. IoT Processors
The processors and architectures used by IoT devices define many of their capabilities, for example, regardless of whether
they are capable of strong security and encryption, power consumption, sophisticated enough to support an operating system,
updatable firmware, and embedded device management agents. Understanding the ramifications of processor decisions will
demand deep technical skills.
G. IoT Operating Systems
Traditional operating systems such as Windows and iOS were not designed for IoT applications as they consume more power,
need fast processors, and in some case lack guaranteed real-time response. Support large memory and so for small devices it
may not support the chips that IoT developers use. There is a need for IoT-specific operating systems that suit many different
hardware footprints and feature needs.
H. IoT Platforms
IoT platforms pack many of the infrastructure components of an IoT system into a single product. The services provided by
such platforms are Low-level device control and operations, device monitoring and management, security, and firmware
updates; IoT data acquisition, transformation and management; IoT application development, including event-driven logic,
visualization, analytics and connectors to link to enterprise systems
I.
IoT Standards and Ecosystems
Standards and their associated application programming interfaces (APIs) will be essential because IoT devices will need to
interoperate and communicate. Many IoT ecosystems will emerge, and organizations creating products may have to develop
alternatives to support multiple standards and to update products as the standards evolve and new standards and APIs emerge.
VII.
CONCLUSION
The aim of this review article is to explain the IoT concepts used in smart city, in a comprehensive manner. The article also
explores the variant specifications and features of IoT architectural designs with the importance of specifying the very basic
requirements needed to implement a complete IoT architecture design. Various IoT technologies for smart city are elaborated.
IoT faces a lot of challenges due to constrained devices. The emerging IoT technology challenges arising from implementing
IoT systems were outlined. The innovations and standards of IoT will have an exceptionally wide impact on many areas of IoT
systems. The paper highlights the possible research opportunities for future IoT researchers.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We thank all our well-wishers for their immense support given to us in preparing this Review paper
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
Tai-hoon Kima, Carlos Ramosb, Sabah Mohammed, “Smart City and IoT”, Future Generation Computer Systems, 76(2017)159-162.
Dr.Aditya Tiwary, Manish Mahato, Abhitesh Chidar, Mayank Kumar Chandrol, Mayank Shrivastava, Mohit Tripathi, ”Internet of Things (IoT):
Research, Architectures and Applications", International Journal on Future Revolution in Computer Science & Communication Engineering, March 2018,
Vol: 4, pp.23–27.
Luigi Atzori, Antonio lera, Giacomo Morabito, "The Internet of things: A survey", Computer Networks, 54(2010) 2787-2805.
(2018) Data Driven Investor website [online]. Available: https://medium.com/datadriveninvestor/4-stages-of-iot-architecture-explained-in-simple-wordsb2ea8b4f777f.
(2019) NetBurner website [online]. Available: https://www.netburner.com/learn/architectural-frameworks-in-the-iot-civilization/
Jeyavarthni. M, Dr. D. Ravindran, R. Stephan, "Internet of Things: A Survey ", International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science,
Engineering and Information Technology, (2017) Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 832-839.
Muhammad Burhan, Rana Asif Rehman, Bilal Khan, Byung-Seo Kim, "IoT Elements, Layered Architectures and Security Issues: A Comprehensive
Survey", Sensors, 2018, 18, pp 1-37.
Saber Talari, Miadreza Shafie-khah, Pierluigi Siano, Vincenzo Loia, Aurelio Tommasetti, João P.S.Catalão, "A Review of Smart Cities Based on the
Internet of Things Concept", Energies,(2017), 10, pp 1-23.
Jayavardhana Gubbi, Rajkumar Buyya, Slaven Marusic, Marimuthu Palaniswami, "Internet of Things(IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future
directions", Future Generation Computer systems,29 (2013), pp. 1645-1660.
Jose Antonio Rodriguez, Francisco Javier Fernandez, Pablo Arboleya, "Study of the Architecture of a Smart City", Proceedings 2018, 2, 1485, pp 1-5;
Volume VI, Issue VI, JUNE/2019
Page No:2152
JASC: Journal of Applied Science and Computations
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
ISSN NO: 1076-5131
Gokulnath. C, Marietta J, Deepa R, Senthil Prabhu R, Praveen Kumar Reddy M, Kavitha B.R, "Survey on IOT based Smart City ", International Journal
of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT), April 2017, Volume 46 Number 1, pp 23-28.
Zhengguo Sheng, Shusen Yang, Yifan Yu, Athanasios V. Vasilakos, Julie A. Mccann, Kin K. Leung, "A Survey On The IETF Protocol Suite For The
Internet Of Things: Standards, Challenges, And Opportunities”, IEEE Wireless Communications, December 2013, pp. 91-98.
(2019) Postscapes website [online]. Available: https://www.postscapes.com/internet-of-things-technologies/
(2019) MH&L website [online]. Available: https://www.mhlnews.com/technology-automation/top-10-emerging-iot-technologies-you-need-know.
Volume VI, Issue VI, JUNE/2019
Page No:2153