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PS2240 Finals Revision

Lecture 2: Bureaucracy
● Key attributes and deficiencies of Max Weber’s ideal-type bureaucracy
● Why is bureaucracy efficient and why in reality it is often not
● Differences of Weberian bureaucracy, representative bureaucracy, entrepreneurial bureaucracy
A system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather
than by elected representatives.
Max Weber:
○ Meritocratic​recruitment of qualified personnel
○ Hierarchical​organizational structure
○ Technical and specialized​superiority and experts in the field over public
○ Institutionalized rules​and regulations to confer rational-legal authority
○ Domination​via perceived rational-legal authority
Key attributes
○ Appointment of ranks, not via election
○ Hired on contract basis
○ Meritocratic appointment and promotion
○ Fixed, rank-based salary and pension
○ Unified control and disciplinary system (rule of law)
Bureaucratic Rigidity
Weber’s conception of an “ideal” bureaucracy is unrealistic
Bureaucrats act within “bounded rationality” ie. asymmetric time-information and structural
constraints that limit agency
● Self-Perpetuation​Self-perpetuating method of selecting membership
○ Recruitment criteria and processes conceived by those sitting in the very positions to be filled
(self-projection of traits and qualities they see in themselves)
○ Those in power set the rules of the game, and decide who is allowed to play the game
Stifling Growth
○ As the sole provider of public goods, bureaucracies are often met with little to no competition
with the private sector
○ Lack of incentive to innovate and improve efficiency
Self Serving
○ Primarily rational actors who want to maximize their personal gain
Unrealistic to expect selflessness and prioritization of public interests
Maintenance of tenure and job security supersedes public well-being
Bureaucratic Dysfunctions (Inefficiency)
● Trained Incapacity
○ One's abilities function as inadequacies or blind spots. Actions based upon training
and skills which have been successfully applied in the past may result in inappropriate
responses ​under changed conditions​.
Occupational Psychosis
○ As a result of their day to day routines, people develop special preferences, antipathies,
discriminations and emphases
Professional Deformation
○ Is a tendency to look at things from the point of view of one's own p
​ rofession​ or
special ​expertise​, rather than from a broader or humane perspective.
Goal Displacement
○ One reason bureaucracies endure and are so resilient is because they tend to take on a
life of their own through a process called goal displacement. Once a bureaucracy has
achieved its original goals, it adopts new goals in order to perpetuate its existence.
Representative Bureaucracy
● Definition
○ As posited by Samuel Krislov, representative bureaucracy is a notion that “​broad
social groups​should have spokesman and officeholders in administrative as
well as p
​ olitical​positions​”. With this notion, representative b
​ ureaucracy​ is a form of
representation that captures most or all aspects of a society’s p
​ opulation​ in the
governing body of the state.
● Active Representation
○ Active representation is a function that concludes represented groups benefit from
representative bureaucracies. Most active representation is concerned with how
representation influence ​policymaker​s​and implementation and assumes that
bureaucrats​will act purposely on behalf of their counterparts​in the general
Passive Representation
○ The degree to which the social characteristics of the bureaucracy reflect the social
characteristics of the populations the bureaucracy serves. Studies of passive
representation examine whether the composition of bureaucracies m
​ irrors the
demographic​composition​of the general population.
● Positive Effects
○ In government programs, o​ fficials​ are thought to favor those they can relate to and
discriminate​ against others. This can d
​ iscourage certain ethnicity from applying
or receiving benefits.
○ Representative bureaucracy helps to​ prevent the bias​that is associated with
○ Eg. Studies show that having “...a greater presence of black teachers does yield more
beneficial outcomes for minority students…” due to the fact that teaching consists of
two distinct roles
● Negative Effects
○ Representative bureaucracy may be too f​ ocused on representation instead of
productivity​.​A focus on if everyone is equally represented could lead to a lack of
quality out of fear of not being able to achieve ​equal representation​.
Entrepreneurial Bureaucracy/Public Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurs are​ innovative, future-oriented, "calculated" risk-takers and profit maximizers
who, by their actions, are some of the most creative problem-solving.
Public Entrepreneur
○ A person who creates or profoundly elaborates a​ public organization​so as to alter greatly the
existing pattern of a​ llocation of scarce public resources​. Such persons arise and succeed in
organizational and political milieus which contain contradictory mixes of values received from
the past.
Optimistic in their perspective toward the future
Breaking out of the confines of routine and taking risks by going beyond the routine
Seeking higher values
Motivated for achievements
Policy Entrepreneurship
● A. New policy direction
● B. Creation of new agencies
● C. Better services
● D. Creation of new services
● E. Implementation of policies
Economic Entrepreneurship
● A. New revenue generation plans (including user and development fees)
● B. Cost cutting schemes
● C. Privatization
● D. Load shedding
● E. Municipal leasing
● F. New budget systems rewarding saving
● G. Public/private partnerships
● H. Local economic development plans
● I. Public investments
● J. Public enterprises
● K. Marketing and selling of public services
Civic Entrepreneurship
● A. Co-production of public services
● B. Volunteer bureaus
● C. Co-termination in policy design/evaluation of public services
○ 1. citizen budget committees
○ 2. neighborhood conciliation/ mediation services
● 3. citizen planning and review committees
● D. Civic education.
Scientific Management
Frederick Taylor’s Scientific Management
● Workmen naturally soldier (man mode)
● Management lack knowledge, does not provide proper instructions on how to best perform
one’s job and does not offer proper incentives (ie. Day wage, piecework pay)
● Initiative of workmen
○ Hard work, goodwill, and ingenuity obtained practically with absolute regularity
Four Duties
1. ​Science, not rules of thumb.
o Rather than doing things how they’ve always been done, Taylor wanted each job to
be ​studied scientifically to identify the most efficient way​to do that job.
o Taylor advocated using ​time and motion studies​as a way to do this. This often
involved looking at the most efficient workers to identify why they were so
o The ultimate aim is to describe in a​ repeatable way how to do the job in the
most efficient manner. ​That way, everyone in the organization doing this job
can be trained to do it in the most efficient way. (​ SOPs)
● 2. S​ cientifically train employees.
o Don’t allow employees to train themselves. Instead, each employee should be
taught exactly how each task should be performed.
o Taylor d
​ idn’t want employees thinking for themselves​, he simply wanted a
simple task performed as quickly (as efficiently) as possible. In a nutshell, workers
should be paid for doing, not thinking.
● 3. E
​ nsure most efficient ways of working are used.
o There are two parts to ensuring that the most efficient ways of working are being
o ​Monitor: ​Monitor worker production to ensure that they are efficient.
(Hawthorne experiments)
o ​Cooperate:​Work with employees to retrain and recalibrate them, so that they are
exactly following the most efficient way to perform their job.
o One consequence of this was that organizational structures had to change. Rather
than a factory having one single foreman, Taylor advocated several, each one
specifically focused on efficiency for a particular area of the factory.
o The aim of this step is to maximize production, unlike in situations where
‘soldiering’ occurs. That is situations where workers naturally slack off because
they are not being monitored.
● 4. D
​ ivide work between managers and workers.
o Work should be divided almost equally between m
​ anagers and employees.
o Managers should be responsible for ​developing the processes, ways of working and
monitoring employees.
o Employees should be responsible for e​ xecuting a task​as quickly as possible.
● 5. Pay based on results.
○ Workers should be paid based on how much they produce. This is done using
piece-rate pay.
○ The use of piece-rate pay focuses workers minds on their productivity. If they don’t
produce, then they don’t earn.
■ $ 1 x 10 pieces x 1 day = $10
■ $1 x 9 pieces x 1 day = $9
■ Differential rate pay
● $1 x 10 pieces x 10 hours x 125% = $12.5
● $1 x 9 piece x 10 hours x 80% = $7.20
Scientific management and its parallels in PA
Efficiency as main goal and priority after progressive era
Strategy to amass enough information about jobs so that management could rest on “clearly defined
and fixed principles” instead of depending on more or less hazy ideas received from limited observation
New Public Management as a manifestation of Taylor’s scientific management
○ Taylor’s “Division of labor” = Removal of political interference in PA
■ Managers as managerial role, workers as workers = Policy formulation for politicians,
execution/implementation for bureaucrats
○ Taylor’s “Scientific Training of Employees” = NPM’s Impersonal Bureaucracy
■ Paid to do, not to think = Policy formulation for politicians,
execution/implementation for bureaucrats
○ Taylor’s “Monitoring and Data Acquisition” = NPM’s Performance Management
■ Focus on r​ esults-based performance evaluations​for logical incrementalism
■ Reporting aspect for s​ trategic planning formulation
■ Monitor​performance indicators
● Taylor: Production (factory) = Quality of government
○ Taylor’s camp argues that ​public, instead of private, ownership would propel efficiency
in areas such as utility management
○ NPM reforms ultimately strive to make civil service and PA more business-like
○ NPM rejects hierarchical organizations with SOPs, rules, and regulations associated with the
legacies of Taylor.
○ NPM advocates for “an entrepreneurial revolution”
○ NPM argues that improved communication technologies and more knowledge-oriented work
facilitate less-rule driven and rigid organizations
○ NPM argues that job security and tenure is secured by civil servants’ efficiency and
competency, and also because managers will not practice favoritism but rather judge
competency based on performance
○ At-will employment​is a term used in U.S. labor law for contractual relationships in
which an employee can be dismissed by an employer for any reason (that is, without
having to establish "just cause" for termination), and without warning. vs
Spoils/Patronage system
■ Necessary for efficient bureaucracy due to​ flexibility of workforce and
micro changes to suit the change in demands
■ This argument contrasts with P
​ rogressive Era assumptions that at-will
systems demoralize efficient workers who do not enjoy political
■ Taylor believed that rules could ​minimize arbitrariness and lead to
favoritism​. On the other hand, NPM advocates believe entrepreneurial
flexibility helps managers assemble the work team with the best capacity.
Science of Administration
Division of Work
Men differ in nature, capacity, and skill and gain greatly in dexterity by specialization,
because the same man is limited by physical existence and range of skill/knowledge
Nothing is gained by subdividing work if that further subdivision results in setting up
a task that requires less than the full time of one man (duh).
Division of work might not be necessary if there are technological advancements and
Division of work must not pass beyond physical division into organic division
Coordination of work
- ​ Interrelating the subdivisions of work ​by allotting them to men who are placed in
a structure of authority, so that work can be c​ oordinated by orders of superiors to
subordinates (hierarchy)
- ​ Dominance of idea develops intelligent singleness of purpose​in the minds and
wills of those are working together as a group so that each worker will of his own
accord fit his task into the whole with skill and enthusiasm
Coordination through organization
o Requires the establishment of a system of authority whereby the central
purpose or objective of an enterprise is translated into reality​through
the combined efforts of many specialists, each working in his own field at a
particular time and place.
One Master
o Clear delineation of instructions and command for efficiency and
homogeneity of direction
Caveamus Expertum
o All workers, even highly trained technicians, have a profound sense of
omniscience and a great desire for complete independence in the service of
o General hubris from competence in one particular field, they tend to assume
knowledge and authority in fields in which he has no competence
Organizational Patterns
- Top-Down vs Bottom Up
- Executives at the top of the hierarchy often to not understand the problem first hand
from the workmen
- Conversely, workmen do not understand the directions and intentions of executives
vice versa due to imperfect information, and bureaucratic red tape.
o Planning
o Organizing
o Staffing
o Directing
o Coordinating
o Reporting
o Budgeting
Progressive Era
o ​Partisan​corrupt politics, industrialization immigrants, and failed municipal
management -> failure of democracy
o ​Rise of a new middle class​that sought to bring order to the society and create
a niche for themselves in that society
Two Impulses for Reform
o Seeking social justice and improving the lives of the unfortunate –​ Social
o Rationalizing and regulating organizational, institutional and social processes
Efficiency Movement
Management and Science Centric?
A gender perspective (Camilla Stivers)
o Bureau Men (Emphasize procedures, efficiency and expertise) vs Settlement
Women (Role of government, substance of gov, shd take care of the
o Science = Masculinity (command and control, expertise, rationality, efficiency)
o Science = Business (industrial prosperity)
o Science = Neutrality/funding (non partisan)
o “Paradoxically, the image of scientific neutrality made PA appear gender-free”
o Angela Merkel New Settlement Woman?
Stage of Discipline
- Intellectual thoughts: the rise of Taylor’s scientific management was a principal source
of ideas for the scientific reform of municipal administration – The Orthodoxy
- Reform practice: Bureau men’s support extended Taylorism to personnel
administration, accounting, and the organization and management of other specialized
government functions
The Orthodoxy:
- ​ Politics Administration Dichotomy
Administration is ​value-free​(not involved with value judgment)
A set of g​ eneric principles that can apply to any organizations​, private or public
(ie. One best way to efficiency)
The Role of Government
Decentralization of power
The ​executive branch​should only ​PLAN and IMPLEMENT ADOPTED PLAN
Legislative should just DEBATE
Science and Administration
PA can use scientific methods
PA should look for a science of admin (ie. Scientific management)
o Intellectual examination of classification of phenomena, testing hypotheses by
experiment, and application of discovered rules
Objective is to discover ​“principles”​or “​ immutable laws of administration”
Reform and Organizations
Adopt a new set of principles
o Existing principles that m
​ aximize representativeness (representative
bureaucracy) over executive efficiency​have defects
§ Elections, power checks, and balances, multi-heads management,
patronage politics
o Reform the dominant value, basic structure and underlying processes of
administration and develop a capable government
Behavioral Approach
Dahl’s Challenges to the Orthodoxy
Impossible to exclude values from concrete problem of public administration
● Is efficiency is truly the most important criteria for PA?
● Impossible to exclude study of human behaviour
○ Values
○ Individual Personality
○ Social Setting
● PA vs Normative Values
○ Science as a political approach vs​ inherently inevitable existence of normative
○ Morality is inherently conflicting with efficiency​. Eg. No strikes were ever raised
on non-moral grounds
○ The function of science in PA to a means to an end, but rather devising best means to
an end to function within socio-normative constraints
● PA vs Human Behaviour
○ Inability to use experimental processes
○ Intrinsic rewards (​psychological needs​) over mere money (​classic​)
Simon’s similarities with the Orthodoxy
Seeking for a ​science​of administration
Advocating ​politics-administration dichotomy​(value-fact dichotomy)
A quest for g​ eneral principles​of administration (general applicability to different contexts)
Acceptance of​ efficiency​as the criterion for decision making
Simon’s Challenges to the Orthodoxy (Bounded Rationality)
● Unity of Command as incompatible to Specialization
○ Authority as subordinates ​accepting decisions irrespective of his own judgment
and beliefs of merits of that decision
○ Needs to be only o
​ ne unitary command​, if not there will be a lack of coordination
and ​cognitive dissonance
○ Specialization​as decision-making made at a point in the org where it can be made
most expertly​. However, having a ​sole authority prevents more nuanced and
specialized​decision-making from other sources. (CONFLICT)
○ Gulick, on the other hand, proposes d
​ ual supervision​and practice of​ technical
○ Taylor has also rejected the principle of unity of command. In its place, he advocated
the concept of “​Functional Foremanship​”, under which a worker receives orders
from eight supervisors, or functional foremen. This ensures specialization and expert
● Span of control
○ Administrative efficiency enhanced by limiting the number of subordinates who
report directly to one administrator vs limitation of the number of organization levels
(verticality vs horizontality)
○ Verticality leads to red tape due to multiple layers of approval required for decision
○ Horizontality leads to administrative overload, reduction will​ improve the freedom
to plan, supervise and facilitate ease of coordination.
● Homogeneity
○ Organization by grouping workers into Purpose, Process, Clientele or Place
○ Purpose - End goal of higher-level hierarchy
○ Process - Technical proficiency, purpose at lower level of the hierarchy
○ Clientele - Customer, receiving end of process and purpose
○ Place - Physical facilitation of all 3 combined
Impasse/Deadlock of Public Theory
Simon’s most notable contributions:
● Focus on decision making
● Revised concept of decision makers (not economic man, but satisficing man)
● Man has bounded/limited rationality
Human Relations
Public Service Motivation
Rationality (Utility Maximization of Self)
■ o​ ​Public service motivation grounded in ​individual utility maximization
■ o​ ​Altruism to formulate good public policy
■ o​ ​Advocacy for special interest
● Norm-Based (Public Interest and Societal Good)
■ o​ ​Excessive and uncritical reliance upon the values of business administration
lead to problems in American PA
■ o​ ​Desire to serve the public interest (altruism)
■ o​ ​Social equity - activities intended to ​enhance the well-being of
minorities who lack political and economic resources
● Affective (Human Emotion)
■ o​ ​Personal identification​with a program emanating from a ​genuine
conviction​about its social importance
■ o​ ​Nobility​of public service trumps profit motivation
■ o​ ​Benevolence
Greater individual public service motivation -> ​greater likelihood of seeking membership
in a public organization
I​ n public organizations, public service motivation is positively related to individual
■ o​ ​Meaningfulness and responsibilities
■ o​ ​Individuals highly committed are likely to be h
​ ighly motivated to remain
(less turnovers)
■ o​ ​Committed employees are more spontaneous, innovative behaviors ->
better adjustment to contingencies
■ o​ ​Go beyond call of duty/reasonable boundaries
■ o​ ​But too much commitment -> fanaticism, suspension of individual
judgment “failures of socialization”
● Public organizations that attract members with high levels of public service motivation are
likely to be ​less dependent on utilitarian incentives to manage individual performance
■ o​ ​Unique motives
Orthodoxy (1887-1937)
Public administration is value-free
● Science of administration
● Behavioural Approach (1920s – 1950s)
● Political Approach (1940s – 1970s)
Woodrow Wilson
“the field of administration is a field of business. Should be removed from political
○ “although politics sets the tasks for administration, it should not be suffered to
manipulate its offices”
○ Prevent partisan politics in civil service -> driving force of civil service reform in US
○ Politics has to do with policies or expressions of the state will. Administration has to
do with the execution of these policies (Frank Goodnow)
“everything that has to do with the government is political”
Whether an issue is policy or administration depends on the level of people in a hierarchy, and
is completely relative
The dichotomy intends to resolve the tension between democracy and bureaucracy (Waldo)
Classical approach – democracy becomes peripheral to administration and hostile to efficiency
Partisan politics VS neutral civil service
Policy making VS policy implementation
Street-Level Bureaucrats
Account for​ 2/3​of bureaucrats
● Influence on citizens’ perception (​ direct POC with government)
● Implementers and concretizing policies (discretion)​and autonomy
Perdurability of the dichotomy
Convenient aberration, multi-layered construct
● A conceptual weapon in the fight for power between legislature and executive
Free market ideology
Right wing neoliberalism
Reduced civil service
Rejected Keynesianism, welfare state, nationalisation of private industries
Orthodox Managerial Approach
Patronage US political system was a necessity to break
Initiated to prevent prevalent politicking by US officials in late 1800s
Create dichotomy between PA and political realms
Politics rejected as basis of hires, fires
PA had to be business like
■ o​ ​What can gov can properly and successfully do
■ o​ ​Do it with most efficiency
■ o​ ​Do with least money and energy
Weberian Orthodoxy
■ o​ ​Functional specialisation for efficiency
■ o​ ​Hierarchy for coordination
■ o​ ​BRC organisation organised along formalistic lines
■ o​ ​Positions classified into rational scheme, pay scales fair and meritocracy
■ o​ ​Impersonal treatment
New Public Management
Individual as customer
Performance standards
■ o​ ​Emphasised to make the worker understand expectations
Output controls – Measured by quantitative performance indicators,
Leadership decentralized rather than unified command
Competitive allocation of resources – maximize value of goods
Short term labor contracts in private-sector management (full awareness of goals and intention
that agencies are trying to reach)
Prone to corruption and corporate inefficiencies
Small yet agile government
● Reduction of civil servants by 22.5%
● Determination for efficiency led to the compromise of British Civil service’s political
Political Approach
■ o​ ​Strong political pluralism amongst administrative staff
Political Responsiveness
■ o​ ​Autonomous for specialization and check and balances
Accountability to citizenry
■ o​ ​Sunshine policies for transparency
I​ ndividual as member of a group and beneficiaries
Decision making depends on political consensus or public opinion rather than facts
Thatcher rejected consensus within her cabinet for her own opinions and thoughts
Business executives took centre stage in her new administration
Legal Approach
Administrative Law – Judicialization – Constitutional Law
Qualified immunity – Public admins are held liable for damages if they violate citizens’
constitutional rights
​ iew of individual as singular and unique person in unique circumstances
Adversarial and adjudicatory
Thatcher – Employment act to end Close Shop trade practices and not needing to be in a
union to get a job
Political vs Managerial
Privatisation of gov service and industries led to loss of gov accountability and loss of jobs
● Profit-maximization led to increase in price of utilities
Legal vs managerial
Employment Act enabled employers to fire striking workers
● Steamrolling of efficiency and disincentivizing workers from unionizing and voicing concerns,
as well as the right to fair dismissal
Hawthorne Effect
● Surveillance increases output
● Workers care about self-esteem, reputation etc
Theory X vs Theory Y
● Theory X managers tend to take a pessimistic view of their people, and assume that they are
naturally unmotivated and dislike work. As a result, they think that team members need to be
prompted, r​ ewarded​or punished constantly to make sure that they complete their tasks.
● Theory X approach tend to have​ several tiers of managers and supervisors to oversee and
direct workers.​Authority is rarely delegated, and ​control remains firmly centralized​.
Managers are more authoritarian and actively intervene to get things done.
● More applicable to organizations with horizontal management structure (large amount of
workers to one administrator, and thus inability to cater to everyone’s psychological needs)
● Theory Y managers have an optimistic, positive opinion of their people, and they use a
decentralized, participative management style. This encourages a more ​collaborative​,
trust-based​relationship between managers and their team members.
● People have greater responsibility, and managers encourage them to develop their skills and
suggest improvements. Appraisals are regular but, unlike in Theory X organizations, they are
used to encourage open communication rather than control staff.
Expectancy Theory
● Proposes that an individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are m
​ otivated​ to
select a specific behavior over others due to what they expect the result of that selected
behavior​ will be.
● Desirability of outcome as main motivator
Policy/Decision Making
Rational Approach:
● Decision making process is a system that processes inputs to produce outputs
● Efficiency as the highest value
● Minimize input, maximize output
● It is paradoxically most rational to conduct a limited analysis to a few alternatives
● To weigh one’s values along with the evidence instead of holding them separate
● Concentrate on the immediate problems to be solved rather than the broader goals to be
● Bargaining among decision makers with different views leads to the final decisions
Public vs Private Sector Management
● 1. Functions should be governmental if they
○ • Involve coercion
○ • Must be relatively permanent
○ • Not subject to bankruptcy
○ • Should be relatively free from lawsuits
○ • May require the condemnation of private property
○ • Need an assured income from taxes
○ • Must not be able to escape being held politically accountable
○ Examples: armies, prisons (private prisons in the US), police, drug control forces,
immigration service, customs, and other tax gathering services
● 2. Some public good provision
○ • Scarce resources such as water, when competition is absent
○ • Safety, intelligence, national security (war)
○ • Disaster relief
● 3. Quality of life
○ • Civil rights, diversity and non-discrimination
● 4. Market essentials
○ • Obviously there must be a market—a goodly supply of things of value
○ • There must be a stable banking and monetary system providing ample media of
○ • There must be a good supply of buyers and sellers—all buyers or sellers won’t work
○ • Property rights must be exclusive and transferable by voluntary exchanges privately
or through markets
○ • There must be lots of trustworthy information easily available to interested parties
○ • There must be few negative externalities (side effects) involved in or as a result of
○ • There must be few so-called transaction costs: e.g., it must not be too hard to
discover relevant information, the supply must be easily reachable, other business costs
must be low, etc
○ • An acquisitive psychology, obsessed with greed and seeking profit, is assumed on the
part of everyone as the motivational grease for the system’s gears
○ • And, absolutely essential, is a control system composed of rules, as previously
discussed, and applied by referees with real powers of coercion if need be
Main functions of Public Organizations
● Essential Characters of G
​ overnment
○ “Government is different because government is ​politics​”. President’s top job is to
perform the art of politics (statesmanship) (Paul Appleby, 1945)
○ Public and private management has a fundamental ​constitutional difference
(Graham Allison, 1979)
■ Others: time horizon, media relations, career system, performance evaluation,
implementation, etc
● Purposes of Public Organizations
○ Economic logic: Government acts to c​ orrect market failures
○ Public goods and free riders​(national defense)
○ Individual incompetence (medicine safety)
○ Externalities or spillovers​(pollution)
○ Political logic: Government operates to promote ​social values​, i.e., to maintain law,
justice, equity, individual rights and freedom, national security, social stability, general
prosperity, etc
● Public values: values providing normative consensus about
○ Services and outputs citizens desire and express through representative government
(Mark Moore, 1995)
○ The rights, benefits, and prerogatives to which citizen should (and should not) be
○ The o
​ bligations of citizens to society,​the state, and one another
○ The principles on which governments and policies should be based (Bozeman, 2007)
● The meaning and nature of public organizations and management
○ Multiple dimensions
■ Public interests (hard to define and measure)
■ Ownership (increasingly a mix of both)
■ Funding sources (increasingly a mix of both)
○ Agencies and enterprises as points on a continuum (Dahl & Lindblom, 1953)
■ Different in goals, incentives for cost reduction, etc
■ Various forms of organizations in the continuum
Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
Social equity and representation
§​Definition of and values underlying New Public Administration
§Representative bureaucracy: why and how
§Costs of promoting social equity and representation through implementing policies such as affirmative
action act
New Public Administration (NPA)
● A movement since the 1970s to revisit the values underlying PA
● Emphasizes social equity as an additional value
○ Government systematically discriminate some minority groups
○ Equity is to enhance the political power and economic well-being of these minorities
● Seeks to change the policies and structures that systematically inhibits equity
Civil service reflects the basic inequalities of social structure
● UK civil service
○ Clerical Class (<secondary school)
○ Executive Class (secondary-high school)
○ Administrative Class (university graduates)
● Education opportunity is more related to economic status than one’s ability
Representative Bureaucracy
● Definition
○ As posited by Samuel Krislov, representative bureaucracy is a notion that “broad ​social
groups​ should have spokesman and officeholders in administrative as well as ​political
positions”. With this notion, representative ​bureaucracy​ is a form of representation
that captures most or all aspects of a society’s p
​ opulation​ in the governing body of the
● Active Representation
○ Active representation is a function that concludes represented groups benefit from
representative bureaucracies. Most active representation is concerned with how
representation influence ​policymaker​s​and implementation and assumes that
bureaucrats​will act purposely on behalf of their counterparts​in the general
Passive Representation
○ The degree to which the social characteristics of the bureaucracy reflect the social
characteristics of the populations the bureaucracy serves. Studies of passive
representation examine whether the composition of bureaucracies m
​ irrors the
demographic​composition​of the general population.
● Positive Effects
○ In government programs, o​ fficials​ are thought to favor those they can relate to and
discriminate​ against others. This can d
​ iscourage certain ethnicity from applying
or receiving benefits.
○ Representative bureaucracy helps to​ prevent the bias​that is associated with
○ Eg. Studies show that having “...a greater presence of black teachers does yield more
beneficial outcomes for minority students…” due to the fact that teaching consists of
two distinct roles
● Negative Effects
○ Representative bureaucracy may be too f​ ocused on representation instead of
productivity​.​A focus on if everyone is equally represented could lead to a lack of
quality out of fear of not being able to achieve ​equal representation​.
Affirmative Action
Ensures representation in public sector
Allows for platform to prevent tyranny of majority
Sense of social inclusion and equity
Goes against meritocracy, allocation and representation by virtue of gender and race, not
● Quotas are arguably an arbitrarily defined number
● Redistributive policies? Eg. Malaysia’s NEP
● Consociationalism lmao
New Public Management
New Public Management
New Public Administration
Hands on approach
Anti-hierarchical, Anti-positivist​[20]
Explicit standards
Democratic Citizenship
Emphasis on output control
Internal regulations
Disconnection of units
Importance of the private sector
Importance of public citizens
Improve timing
Greater usage of money
○ Representative bureaucracy to improve social equity and ethics
○ Revival of managerial approach
○ Emphasis on the 3Es
○ More results and customer oriented
○ Push for an entrepreneurial government
● The root problem
○ Industrial-era bureaucracies in an information age
○ Bureaucracies built in 1930s-1960s are large, top-down, centralized, monopolies of
○ The emphasis on process control overshadows the goal of serving the customer
○ As such, the goal of [traditional] government is not to achieve results, please
customers, or save taxpayers’ money, but to avoid mistakes and innovation
● New Public Management Reforms
○ “A broad conclusion is that while some success has been achieved with regard to ​lower,
first-order goals​ ​(downsizing, reducing administrative cost)​, only limited progress
has been made toward ​critical, higher second- ​(decentralizing authority,
empowering front-line workers)​and ​third-order (​ improving the quality of
public services and efficiency of work procedu res) r​einvention objectives. Thus,
downsizing and cost reduction objectives have been substantially achieved…but there is no
evidence of any significant, systemic improvement in quality of services or culture​”
Case Study: Thatcher’s Privatisation Reforms in the UK
● The good:​Since the privatisation of the 10 state-owned regional water authorities in 1989, the
number of customers at risk of low water pressure has fallen by 99%
● The bad: R
​ ailway service. Train travel in the UK was the most expensive in the world
● The ugly: T
​ he most damaging legacy has been job losses. In the decade after the miners' strike
of 1985, more than 200,000 jobs were lost as a result of coal privatization
Assumptions about performance measurement:
● 1) What gets measured gets done
● 2) Synecdoche (taking a part for the whole)
In ​performance management​, gaming the system is finding ways to achieve good scores on p​ erformance
metrics​ (for employees or departments) w
​ ithout achieving the aims of the corporation which the
metrics were instigated to promote.​This is related to the well-known problem inherent in ​incentive
system​ design, sometimes known as ​perverse incentive​, in that people will tend to pursue incentives, even
by means that make no common sense, should the incentive be naively constructed.
● 1) Its occurrence depends on a mixture of motive and opportunity
● 2) Four types of motivation among service providers under the PM system
○ a. Saints: may not share goals with target setters, and voluntarily disclose weaknesses
○ b. Honest triers: broadly share the goals, but do not attempt to game
○ c. Reactive gamers: broadly share the goals, but game when possible
○ d. Rational maniacs: do not share the goals, and intentionally manipulate data
NHS Case in UK
● 1) Reported performance data show impressive improvement (Figures 3, 4, 5)
● 2) Gaming
○ a. A&E waiting-time targets: cancelling of operations scheduled; asking patients to
wait in queues of ambulances outside A&E Departments; turning trolleys into beds,
○ b. Response times: manipulation of records to be less than 8 minutes; less serious cases
in A-category emergencies are given priority than more serious cases in other categories
○ c. Waiting time for first outpatient appointment and elective admission: cancellation
of appointments; manipulation of waiting list
○ d. Publication or mortality data results in a reluctance by surgeons to operate on high
risk cases
Legitimacy of the governance-by-targets regimes is not justified in NHS case
● 1) Saints and honest triers became the minority
● 2) Performance measurement produced a significant shift from Saints and Honest triers to
Reactive gamers or Rational maniacs
Bureaucratic era
● Bureaucracy as main authority, self expanding
● Weberian bureaucracy (orthodoxy),
● Entrepreneurial bureaucracy (NPM),
● Representative bureaucracy (NPA)
Post-bureaucratic era
● Collaborative governance
Bureaucracy is one of the authorities
Shared authority, centreless society
Self organizing and autonomous networks
Eg. Grab/Gojek? Gov being reactive to these networks, not creating them
● Institution
● T
​ he activity or process of exercising governance
● C
​ ondition of ordered rule (eg. polyarchy)
● Duty and onus of governance of those in charge
● Regime type
New​process of governing
New​condition of ordered rule
New ​method by which society is governed
Local Power -> Central Power -> People Power
Bureacratic age (industrial revolution) – public welfare
People power (information revolution)
Six uses of governance (RHODES 1996)
● Minimal state
● Corporate governance
● N
​ PM – ​less rowing, more steering​(less government, more governance)
○ ​Intra vs interorganizational focus (NPM focuses more on inter)
○ Targets or relationships?
○ Competition or steering?
● “​ good governance”
○ ​Efficient public service
○ Independent judicial system
○ Accountable administration of public funds
○ Representative legislature
○ ​Respect for human rights
○ Free Press
○ Socio-cybernetic system
○ Eg. Facebook
● Self organizing
○ AirBNB, Uber, Grab etc
Shared Characteristics
○ Interdependence between orgz
○ Continuing interactions between network members
○ G
​ ame-like interactions, rooted in trust
○ Significant degree of autonomy from the state
○ Eg. Britain and China
Governance in Britain
○ Reducing size of public sector
○ Tremendous scale of privatization and contracting out
■ Contracting out was made compulsory for many services
■ During 1979-1992, over 50% of public sector
○ Dramatic cut and erosion of civil service
■ Dropped 24% during 1979-1992
○ Reduced public spending
○ S​ elf organizing networks in service delivery
o​ ​Policy networks emerged: central dept, local authorities, agencies, private business,
voluntary groups
o​ ​Agencies become increasingly independent and r​ eluctant to accept central guidelines,
and distance ministers and top civil servants from operational matters
-​ ​Eg. NHS reform
o​ ​Thatcher wanted​ ​(state retreat)
o​ ​Buyer-provider split , multiple buyers and multiple providers (networks)
o​ ​Health authorities buy services from providers in the public, private and voluntary sectors
(market competition)
o​ ​Hospitals become self-governing NHS trusts (autonomy)
o​ ​GPs have a big say in buying services from hospitals (empowering front-line workers)
o​ ​Patients became customers (people power)
-​ ​Transnational policy networks
o​ ​EU supranational law, ultimate veto over UK’s parliament
o​ ​Sectoralization of policy-making and vertical alliance of interest groups
Governance in China:
-​ ​“Good Governance” 善治
-​ ​Returning power to society from the state 还政于民
o​ ​A more developed civil society, the development of unofficial, non profit, voluntary, non
political, and non religious and indpt organizations
o​ ​Eg. Wechat as central Smart Nation proponent
-​ ​Government
o​ ​IECLG Programme
● o​ ​Information transparency (政务公开)
● -​ ​Governance