Monette/ Sullivan/ DeJong/Hilton, Applied Social Research: A Tool for the Human Services, 9e Test Bank Chapter 1: Research in the Human Services Multiple Choice 1. The notion that scientific research and human service practice are totally distinct enterprises is disappearing because: a. there really are no substantial differences between the two enterprises. b. there are strong parallels between the conduct of research and the conduct of practice. c. the goals of research and the goals of practice are the same. d. all of these answers are correct. ANS: B PG: 2-3 2. The textbook emphasizes the and between social research and human service practice. a. parallels…possibilities b. parallels…linkages c. divergences…linkages d. oppositions…linkages ANS: B PG: 2-3 3. One of the parallels between social research and human service practice that is mentioned in Chapter 1 is that: a. both use statistical tools. b. both seek the goal of description. c. both are based on observation. d. both are based on pilot studies. ANS: C PG: 2 4. The motivation to define the human services as a scientific discipline has arisen from the effort to: a. replace scientific researchers with human service researchers. b. replace human service practitioners with behavioral scientists in the intervention process. c. clearly distinguish the boundaries between science and practice. d. enhance the accountability of the helping professions. ANS: D PG: 7 5. As used in the social and behavioral sciences, the term “social research” includes all of the following EXCEPT: a. a systematic examination or reexamination of empirical data. b. a strategy for intervention that will be effective in alleviating the personal or social problems confronting a client. c. data collected by someone at first hand. d. data that concerns the social or psychological forces operating in a situation. ANS: B PG: 3 6. When we say that social research is systematic, we mean that: a. all aspects of the research are carefully planned in advance and nothing is done in a casual fashion. b. there will be no bias or error in the research if it is done properly. c. it will accomplish the explanatory goals of science. d. it focuses on basic research rather than applied research. ANS: A PG: 3 7. “Empirical” data are based on: a. thoughts and ideas. b. speculation. c. sensory experiences. d. theories. ANS: C PG: 3 8. All of the following are goals of research described in the text EXCEPT: a. evaluation. b. accountability. c. description. d. prediction. ANS: C PG: 3-4 9. Which of the following would most clearly be an illustration of predictive research? a. a study whose goal is to assess the amount of child abuse in a particular community b. a study whose goal is to determine why some teenagers are more likely than others to abuse alcohol or drugs c. a study whose goal is to project how many children will suffer from malnourishment if funding for some social program is reduced d. a study designed with a practical outcome in mind and with the assumption that some group or society will gain some benefit from it ANS: C PG: 3-4 10. Which of the following would be the BEST illustration of explanatory research? a. a study of the extent of juvenile delinquency in a community b. a study of the reasons why juvenile delinquency occurs in a community c. a study to determine the amount of juvenile delinquency that will occur in a community in future years d. a study to assess the effectiveness of delinquency prevention programs ANS: B PG: 4 11. Research whose purpose is to advance our knowledge with little concern for any immediate, practical benefits is called: a. applied research. b. evaluation research. c. descriptive research. d. basic research. ANS: D PG: 4 12. Which of the following statements is true of applied research? a. It is designed with a practical outcome in mind. b. It assumes that some group or society as a whole will gain specific benefits from the research. c. It is mostly concerned with the advancement of our knowledge about human behavior. d. It is designed with a practical outcome in mind, and it assumes that some group or society as a whole will gain specific benefits from the research. ANS: D PG: 4 13. Which of the following statements is true? a. There is a clear cut line that distinguishes between basic and applied research. b. Basic research can have applications in the human service field. c. The research that is of most use to the human services is research that combines both basic research and applied research. d. Basic research is rarely of use in the human service field. ANS: B PG: 4 14. Which of the following is NOT one of the focal areas in which the linkage between research and the human services occurs? a. understanding human functioning in social environments b. policy planning and development c. pilot testing d. program evaluation ANS: C PG: 5-6 15. Which of the following would be the best illustration of the “assessment of client functioning” focal area? a. a study of sub-cultural values among American adolescents to assist in the delivery of services to pregnant teenagers b. a comparison of the effectiveness of two different forms of psychotherapy as a way of dealing with feelings of inadequacy c. a study of how a particular couple communicates and manages child behavior problems d. a study of whether intensive foster care is more effective than institutional placement in dealing with the problems of emotionally disturbed preadolescents ANS: C PG: 5 16. “The use of scientific research techniques to assess the results of a program and evaluate whether the program as currently designed achieves its stated goals” refers to which of the following focal areas? a. program evaluation b. practice effectiveness evaluation c. assessment of client functioning d. pilot studies ANS: A PG: 6 17. Which of the following types of research is most clearly linked in the text with the focal area of “practice effectiveness evaluation”? a. pure research b. explanatory research c. program evaluation d. single system design ANS: D PG: 6 18. Which of the following is true regarding the comparison of program evaluation and practice effectiveness evaluation? a. They are interchangeable research methodologies. b. Practice effectiveness involves the evaluation of a whole program. c. Program evaluation focuses on the outcome of entire programs while practice evaluation focuses on a particular aspect of a practice situation. d. Program evaluation emphasizes the assessment of limited aspects of a practice situation. ANS: C PG: 5-6 19. According to the approach to human-service practice known as “evidence-based practice,” the best evidence for use in practice is that which: a. is consistent with the practitioner’s intuition. b. is helpful to most clients. c. has been gained via the research process. d. utilizes statistical tools. ANS: C PG: 6 20. According to the text, evidence-based practice has emerged because: a. the human services now place less emphasis on accountability. b. human service practice has been shown to be highly effective. c. there is a growing body of social-science research evidence that can guide practice. d. human-service practice has modeled itself on the biological sciences. ANS: C PG: 6, 8 21. A central part of the evidence-based approach to the human services is to: a. critically evaluate research studies to determine how much confidence we have in their conclusions. b. base practice decisions on intuition rather than research. c. collaborate with other practitioners but not with researchers. d. none of the other answers are true. ANS: A PG: 6, 8 22. In regard to conducting research on minorities and women, the text states that: a. affirmative action requires the same research methods used on non-minorities be used on minority groups. b. most human service research is conducted on minorities. c. standard research methods can at some times result in misleading conclusions when used with minorities. d. standard research methods rarely produce misleading results when used with minorities. ANS: C PG: 8 23. The first step in conducting social research is: a. research design development. b. problem formulation. c. literature review. d. data collection. ANS: B PG: 9 24. The detailed plan developed by a researcher to outline how observations that are a part of a research project will be made is called: a. a research design. b. a pretest. c. an intervention strategy. d. clinical science. ANS: A PG: 9 25. A pretest relates most closely to which stage of social research? a. problem formulation b. problem assessment c. data collection d. drawing conclusions ANS: C PG: 9 26. Two aspects of the data collection stage of research that show how careful scientists are about data collection are called pretests and: a. statistics. b. pilot studies. c. hypotheses. d. predictions. ANS: B PG: 9 27. The purpose of a pretest is to: a. get an early determination of whether the research results will turn out as you anticipate. b. notify people that they will be a part of a research project. c. determine whether the statistical procedures to be used in the data analysis stage are appropriate. d. determine whether the data gathering techniques to be used are adequate. ANS: D PG: 9 28. A researcher has a group of people complete a preliminary version of a questionnaire in order to determine whether any revision in the questionnaire is called for. This researcher has conducted a/an: a. pilot study. b. pretest. c. applied research project. d. needs assessment. ANS: B PG: 9 29. Statistical tools would be applied to a research project during which of the following stages? a. data collection b. evaluation c. data analysis d. drawing conclusions ANS: C PG: 9-10 30. During which stage of the research process would you assess how much support exists for the hypotheses stated in the research? a. a pilot study b. drawing conclusions c. public dissemination of results d. evaluation ANS: B PG: 10 31. The final stage in the process of social research is: a. data analysis. b. drawing conclusions. c. public dissemination of results. d. closure. ANS: C PG: 10 32. The “implementation” step in human service practice would be most equivalent to which stage of social research? a. data analysis b. research design development c. data collection d. drawing conclusions ANS: C PG: 11 33. The stage of “drawing conclusions” in social research would be parallel to which stage in human service practice? a. closure b. documentation and dissemination c. evaluation d. implementation ANS: A PG: 11-12 34. At the evaluation stage of practice intervention, the evidence-based model would emphasize the employment of: a. single-system designs. b. systematic assessment strategies. c. public dissemination of results. d. single-system designs, and systematic assessment strategies. ANS: D PG: 11 35. The _______________ stage of social research is the parallel to the _______________ step of human service practice. a. research design development …formulation of intervention strategy b. data collection …evaluation c. data analysis …implementation d. research design development …problem assessment ANS: A PG: 11 36. At the implementation stage of human service practice, practitioners are primarily concerned with: a. developing a strategy for intervention that will be effective in alleviating a problem. b. carrying out an intervention strategy that will produce some change in clients. c. collecting data that are the means of testing hypotheses in the research. d. assessing the effectiveness of the intervention strategy in bringing about change in a client. ANS: B PG: 10-11 37. Which of the following would be a part of the “closure” step of human service practice? a. determine the extent to which intervention has been effective b. determine the degree to which the goals of intervention cannot be achieved c. suggest other sources of help that a client could use to cope with problems still unresolved by the intervention d. all of the other answers represent parts of “closure” ANS: D PG: 11-12 38. During the practice stage of “documentation and dissemination,” a human service practitioner would be most likely to: a. use statistical tools to conduct data analysis. b. prepare treatment plans and case closing reports. c. use pretests and pilot studies. d. assess how much support exists for hypotheses. ANS: B PG: 12 39. Regarding the core practice competencies discussed in Research in Practice 1.2, the text suggests that: a. the competencies are useful only during the data collection stage of research. b. a student’s mastery of the competencies can be assessed during the pilot study phase of research. c. the competencies are relevant to practice but have little to do with research. d. research is an integral part of some of these competencies. ANS: D PG: 13 40. Which of the following statements best reflects the current role of information technologies in human service practice and research? a. Computers and other information technologies are used only for data analysis functions in large scale research projects. b. Computers and other information technologies are used to store data on clients, but this data is not appropriate for research purposes. c. Computers and other information technologies have become an integral part of both practice and research activities. d. While computers and other information technologies are commonly used in research, there are no practical applications available today for human service delivery purposes. ANS: C PG: 14 Essay Questions 1. Identify the characteristics that constitute “scientific practice.” 2. What characteristics distinguish social research from other activities that are sometimes called “research”? 3. Define and give examples of the four goals of social research. 4. Distinguish between basic and applied research and give an example of each. 5. Define and give examples of the five focal areas of research in the human services. 6. Describe the approach of evidence-based practice in the human services. Explain some of the reasons for why it has emerged. 7. Identify the five steps in conducting research and describe what happens at each step. 8. Identify the five steps in human service practice and describe what happens at each step. 9. Describe the six core practice competencies that, according to the text, have the most direct parallels and linkages to research. 10. Discuss how modern information technologies are being applied to both human service research and practice.