Cancer Biology: Benign: grows locally without invading adjacent tissues. Malignant: invaded nearby tissues and metastasized. Adenomas: pre-malignant epithelial growths *majority of human tumors arise from epithelial tissues. Basement membrane: beneath the epithelial cell aka as the basal lamina. FUNCTION for structural scaffolding. Specialized type of ECM assembled by proteins secreted largely by endothelial cells. Endoderm: can arise from epithelia of the lungs, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Ectoderm: outer embryonic cell layer primarily skin cell types. Mesoderm: ovaries Squamous cell carcinomas: Tumors arise from EPITHELIAL cells forming protective cell layers Nonepithelial cancers arising from various cell types: Leukemia: malignant derivatives of hematopoetic lineages. Lymphomas: tumors of the lymphoid lineages Certain chemical species that entered the human body perturbed tissues and cells and ultimately provoked the emergence of a tumor. Ames test: test the mutagenic potency of a test compound. ** All compounds that are mutagenic in human cells are likely to be carcinogenic as well. Many cancer cells reply largely on glycolysis- generating lactate as the breakdown product of glucose. WARBURG EFFECT. TUMOR PROGRESSION: normal, hyperplastic, dysplastic, neoplastic, and metastatic. POLYPS: adenomatous growths TUMORS are considered malignant only after they have breached the basement membrane and invaded the surrounding stroma. Collection of growths both benign and malignant- neoplasms. Abnormal cells are dysplastic- abnormal tissue and show abnormal cytology i.e. change in nucleur size, shape. Adenomatous growths do not penetrate the basement membrane and invade underlying tissues- they are considered benign. An early indication of a premalignant change in the esophogagus- metaplastic change known as Barret’s esophagus- where squamous replaced by secretory epithelial cells. Hyperplastic: excessive numbers of cells. CHP 1: proteins assemble to form the cytoskeleton Exons are fused together during the process of splicing. The final mature RNA goes to the cytoplasm *receiving of the signal villi: mesychymal cells- basement membrane 2types of epithelial cells: goblet cells crypt: crypts, regenerated. Crypt: where the primordial cells are capable of replicating. Crypt: hear signals from above. Cells needing to communicate to the crypt cells. Growth factors: PDGF: stimulates fibroblast- which makes collagen. PDGFR IS ON FIBROBLAST Mutagen: causes mutation Mitogenic: proliferation (TODAY) EGFR IS ON EPITHELIAL CELLS.