Uploaded by Amani Ghrewati

cancer bio notes

Cancer Biology:
Benign: grows locally without invading adjacent tissues.
Malignant: invaded nearby tissues and metastasized.
Adenomas: pre-malignant epithelial growths
*majority of human tumors arise from epithelial tissues.
Basement membrane: beneath the epithelial cell aka as the basal lamina. FUNCTION for
structural scaffolding. Specialized type of ECM assembled by proteins secreted largely by
endothelial cells.
Endoderm: can arise from epithelia of the lungs, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, esophagus,
stomach, and intestines.
Ectoderm: outer embryonic cell layer primarily skin cell types.
Mesoderm: ovaries
Squamous cell carcinomas: Tumors arise from EPITHELIAL cells forming protective cell layers
Nonepithelial cancers arising from various cell types:
Leukemia: malignant derivatives of hematopoetic lineages.
Lymphomas: tumors of the lymphoid lineages
Certain chemical species that entered the human body perturbed tissues and cells and
ultimately provoked the emergence of a tumor.
Ames test: test the mutagenic potency of a test compound.
** All compounds that are mutagenic in human cells are likely to be carcinogenic as well.
 Many cancer cells reply largely on glycolysis- generating lactate as the breakdown
product of glucose. WARBURG EFFECT.
 TUMOR PROGRESSION: normal, hyperplastic, dysplastic, neoplastic, and metastatic.
 POLYPS: adenomatous growths
 TUMORS are considered malignant only after they have breached the basement
membrane and invaded the surrounding stroma.
 Collection of growths both benign and malignant- neoplasms.
 Abnormal cells are dysplastic- abnormal tissue and show abnormal cytology i.e. change
in nucleur size, shape.
 Adenomatous growths do not penetrate the basement membrane and invade
underlying tissues- they are considered benign.
 An early indication of a premalignant change in the esophogagus- metaplastic change
known as Barret’s esophagus- where squamous replaced by secretory epithelial cells.
 Hyperplastic: excessive numbers of cells.
 CHP 1: proteins assemble to form the cytoskeleton
 Exons are fused together during the process of splicing. The final mature RNA goes to
the cytoplasm
*receiving of the signal
villi: mesychymal cells- basement membrane
2types of epithelial cells: goblet cells
crypt: crypts, regenerated. Crypt: where the primordial cells are capable of replicating.
 Crypt: hear signals from above. Cells needing to communicate to the crypt cells.
 Growth factors:
 PDGF: stimulates fibroblast- which makes collagen. PDGFR IS ON FIBROBLAST
Mutagen: causes mutation
Mitogenic: proliferation (TODAY)