Uploaded by Akshay Jadhav

Climate and Climatic Variables



Introduction to climate and its variables


A region with certain conditions of temperature, dryness, wind, light etc.

An integration in time of the physical states of the atmospheric environment, characteristic of a certain geographical location.

The climate of a location is affected by its latitude , terrain , and altitude , as well as nearby water bodies and their currents.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Change (IPCC) 2001 glossary definition is as follows:

Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the

"average weather," or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period ranging from months to thousands or millions of years.

The classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World

Meteorological Organization (WMO).

To Summarize

Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area. Weather can change from hour-tohour, day-to-day, month-to-month or even year-toyear. A region’s weather patterns, usually tracked for at least 30 years, are considered its climate.

Climate Information –

We as designers are interested specifically in those aspects of climate which affect human comfort and use of the buildings.

 Temperature

 Humidity

 Wind Data

 Sky Clearance

 Annual Precipitation

 Radiation

Measured and documented as averages,

• changes and extremes of temperature, temperature differences between day and night (diurnal), humidity, sky conditions, incoming and outgoing radiation, rainfall and its distribution, air movements and special features such as trade-winds, thunder-storms, dust-storms and hurricanes .

Climate Classification

Climate Classification

According to the Köppen climate classification system, there are five climate groups:

 tropical,

 dry,

 mild,

 continental, and

 polar

These climate groups are further divided into climate types.

The following list shows the climate groups and their types:


Wet (rain forest)


Wet and dry (savanna)






Humid subtropical



Warm summer

Cool summer

Subarctic (boreal)



Ice cap

Climate Classification

Zone Climate ( Zone location at a global scale)

Regional Climate ( geographic unit and topographic unit : rivers, lake , mountains)

Local Climate - Macro Climate ( topographic subunit, settlement patterns, altitude, vegetation, relation to water bodies, development/ density/ traffic)

Micro Climate ( plot/site, topography, soil condition, surface features, vegetation )


 Essential for the designer to be familiar with character and location of climate zones-

8 climatic zones

 Hot and Dry

 Cold and Dry

 Cold and Cloudy

Island Climate

Composite Climate

Moderate Climate

 Hot and Humid

 Warm and Humid

Climate Zones as per


Hot - Dry

Warm – Humid






Name of the City:




Time Zone:



Mean Monthly Maximum

Mean Monthly Minimum

Mean Highest of Month

Mean Lowest of Month


Maximum Ever Recorded

Minimum Ever Recorded


Humidity (%)




Mean Monthly Speed (Km/hr)

Prevailing Directions



Sky Clearance Factor (%)

Sunrise to Sun set

Radiation (W/m2)

Mean Monthly Maximum

Mean Monthly Minimum

Precipitation (mm)

Mean Monthly Rainfall

Mean Annual Rainfall

Heaviest Within 24 hrs

Climatic Zones

Comfort Conditions

Jan May August November

Hot - Dry Climate

Design Criteria

 resisting heat gain by providing shading, reducing exposed area, controlling and scheduling ventilation, and increasing thermal capacity.

 presence of “water bodies” is desirable as they can help increase the humidity, lot of heat in the afternoons and evenings.

Heating should be avoided by appropriate design features.

Warm- Humid

Design Criteria :

 reduce heat gain by providing shading

 promote heat loss by maximizing cross ventilation.

Dissipation of humidity is also essential to reduce discomfort.


Design Criteria:

 resisting heat gain by providing shading, reducing exposed area, controlling and scheduling ventilation, and increasing thermal capacity in summers .

 presence of “water bodies” is desirable to increase the humidity in summers.

 maximizing cross ventilation is desirable in the monsoon period.

 indirect heating in winters.


Design Criteria:

 reduce heat gain by providing shading, and promote heat loss by ventilation.

Cold & Cloudy

Design Criteria:

 resisting heat loss by insulation and infiltration promoting heat gain by directly admitting and trapping solar radiation within the living space.


Cold and Dry / Sunny

Design Criteria:

 resist heat loss by insulation and controlling infiltration.

Simultaneously, heat gain needs to be promoted by admitting and trapping solar radiation within the living space.

Bio Climatic Checklist

Contents of Bioclimatic Checklist

Solar Radiation


Wind Condition

Precipitation/ Humidity


Geological Data

Water Resources

Building Materials

Urban Features

Solar Radiation

Site Inspection

Diurnal Sun path

Seasonal Sun path

Existing vegetation

Topographic figures

Surrounding buildings

Technical Review

Sun angles

Incident radiation

Sunshine hours

No. of days without sunshine

Solar reduction by pollution.


Site Inspection

Shape & Slope in relation to valley, basin, mountains.

Slope location

(bottom, top etc.)

Shading areas

Relations to water

(lake , river)

Technical Review

Site data: altitude,

Meteorological data:

Max. & min temperatures

Diurnal temperatures

Growing seasons

Weather Conditions


Site Inspection

Windward – leeward relationships

Local wind conditions

Wind deformation

Wind barriers, turbulence

Distribution of wind influenced by vegetation, topography, buildings etc.

Technical Review

Wind speed (km/hr, m/s)

Annual frequency

Distribution of wind direction

Days without air movement

Summer Winter

Precipitation & Humidity

Site Inspection

Windward &

Leeward Relationship

Site drainage


Technical Review

Precipitation data – total amount, kind, distribution

Humidity data ( % of humidity : seasonal variations)


Site Inspection

Kind & distribution of covered and uncovered areas

Identification important plants of

Location of trees according to species, no. , ht. age, diameter of trunk. Etc.

Technical Review

Maps of existing vegetation

Location landscapes water bodies

Zoning plans of and

Geological Data

Site Inspection

Inspection topography of

Surface structures

Artificial modeling ground

Soil condition

Traditional building material

Technical Review

Topographical sections

Geological maps

Water Resources

Site Inspection

Underground water

Drainage paths

Quantity & quality of water

Technical Review

Geographical conditions

Seasonal water masses


Building Materials

Site Inspection

Availability of natural building material

(clay, stone, gravel, lime)

Organic building material ( timber, reed etc.)

Traditional architecture.

Technical Review

Ability of application and treatment.


Urban Features

Site Inspection

Kind & density of buildings

Kind, density & distribution of planted

& natural vegetation.

Distance to roads

Noise disturbance

Air pollution

Traffic yield

Technical Review

Checks – air & water pollution

Noise & sound level measurements

Utility infrastructure

Frequency of traffic & future increases

Additional information of dense urban areas