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AR method

The action research as a design can be applied to improve the teaching and learning process as it
is a planned investigation to acquire and apply specific information and knowledge in practical
situations. It is a process where the outcomes of fact finding are applied to practically solve the
educational problems within a social context to improve the quality of the education (Burns,
2000). Through the process of action research the situation is analysed before taking the action
steps in the context in order to make meaningful decisions for designing the stages of the cyclical
process. Dick (2000) stated that an enhanced responsiveness due to the cyclical action process
helps to design the later stages of the activity in such a way that previous understandings will be
The process of action research starts with a general idea of improving the situation and ends at an
interactive independent professional practice by research participants. During the research
process, significant insights are obtained to plan learning activities on the basis of reflection on
findings in the situation. Also, Kumar (2005) stated that action research provides enough
flexibility to allow unclear beginnings while progressing towards the precise ending. The
cyclical process also provides an opportunity to learn from the experiences which are gained
from the reflection on the process and its outcomes. Queries related to the teaching and learning
process are focussed during the action research. Burns (2000) was of the opinion that during the
process of action research, questions are raised due to the observation in a specific social setting.
The unique feature of action research is the researcher’s direct participation in the research by
planning, implementing, observing and reflecting on the process (Burns, 2000; Gay & Airasian,
2003). The researcher is an integral part of the change process during the action research playing
multiple roles of planner, executer, observer and reflective practitioner throughout the process of
action research. Resultantly a change is brought about in the situation and an understanding of
the complex nature of change as a process is developed (Cohen et al., 2002).
The entire process of action research revolves around the critical reflections of the practitioners
regarding their practices and these reflections contribute towards the development of the
situation (Gay & Airasian, 2003). During the action research process, reflective practice is
carried out regarding the process and product through reviewing the academic stuff developed by
the research participants followed by feedback and the learning while improving the reviewed
academic stuff is applied by the participants which improves the situation.
Action research as a process takes time to introduce a change through planning, implementing,
observing and reflecting. The participants need to know this characteristic of action research and
make a commitment to take part in the research project throughout the process (Gay & Airasian,
2003). When the process of action research starts, the researcher needs to inform the research
participants about the action research process and they participate in the process throughout the
research study willingly and voluntarily.