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Sleep Deprivation in relation to Senior High School Students Level of Concentration in
Class
Sigmaringen S. Rosal
[email protected]
Senior High School Department
Misamis University, Ozamiz City, Philippines
Maria Quency Mae L. Bari
[email protected]
Senior High School Department
Misamis University, Ozamiz City, Philippines
Charmee Pauline B. Erap
[email protected]
Senior High School Department
Misamis University, Ozamiz City, Philippines
Ericah Mae D. Yatoc
[email protected]
Senior High School Department
Misamis University, Ozamiz City, Philippines
Frances Angel P. Pamatong
[email protected]
Senior High School Department
Misamis University, Ozamiz City, Philippines
Floremel M. Hortilano
[email protected]
Senior High School Department
Misamis University, Ozamiz City, Philippines
ABSTRACT
Sleep deprivation occurs when an individual fails to get enough sleep. The amount of sleep that a
person needs varies from one person to another. This study was conducted to determine the
relationship between sleep deprivation and students level of concentration in class. This study
utilizes the correlational research design. The participants of the study are the Senior High
School students of Misamis University. The data gathered was statistically treated with
frequency, percent, mean, standard deviation,2-sample t test and Pearson’s r correlation. Sleep
deprivation and students’ level of concentration in class does not have significant relationship to
each other and that was tested using Pearson’s r.
Keywords: Sleep Deprivation, Level of Concentration in class, Senior High School Students’,
and relationship
INTRODUCTION
Sleep deprivation occurs when an individual fails to get enough sleep. The amount of
sleep that a person needs varies from one person to another. According to news reporting out of
Hamburg, Germany, by NewsRx editors, research stated, “Sleep loss is associated with increased
obesity risk, as demonstrated by correlations between sleep duration and change in body mass
index or body fat percentage. Whereas, previous studies linked this weight gain to disturbed
endocrine parameters after sleep deprivation or restriction, neuron imaging studies revealed up
regulated neural processing of food rewards after sleep loss in reward-processing areas such as
the interior cingulated cortex, ventral striatum, and insular.” It is usually results to condition of
being unhealthy to your body and mind. In relation to this, according to CGPA, there were
statistically significant differences of means between high and low achievers regarding to
following statements. “Stress of mid-term exams leads me to sleep deprivation.” (3.9 vs. 4.6
respectively i p<0.02), “Stress of final exams leads me to sleep deprivation.” (3.9 vs. 4.6
respectively i p<0.00) and “I’m interested in extracurricular learning activities about healthy
patterns.” (3.2 vs. 4.0 respectively i p<0.00). However, the news reporting out of Brnb, Czeeh
Republic, by NewsRx editor, research stated, “Sleep deprivation has become a relevant health
problem in modern societies. We can be deprived due to lifestyle habits or due to sleep disorders,
such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea and neurological disorders.”
When you get less sleep, it can eventually lead to a whole last of health problems. These
includes: Insomnia, Sleep Apnea and Circadian Rhythms. Insomnia, the inability to get to sleep
or sleep well at night, can be caused by stress, jet lag, and a health condition, the medications
you take, or even the amount of coffee you drink. Insomnia can also be caused by other sleep
disorders or made disorders such as anxiety and depression. Whatever the cause of your
insomnia, improving your sleep hygiene, revising your daytime habits, and learning to relax will
be cure most cases of insomnia without relying on sleep specialist or turning to prescription or
over the counter sleeping pills. The second one is sleep apnea is a common disorders in which
your breathing temporarily stops during sleep, awakening you frequently. If you have sleep
apnea you may not remember these awakenings, but you’ll likely feel exhausted during the day,
irritable and depressed, or see a decrease in your productivity. Sleep apnea is a serious and
potentially life-threatening sleep disorder. We all have an internal biological clock that regulates
our 24-hours sleep-wake cycle, also known as our circadian rhythms. Light is the primary cue
that influences circadian rhythms. At night, when there is less light, your brains triggers the
release of melatonin, a hormone that makes you sleepy. When the sun comes up in the morning,
the brain tells the body that its time to wake up. When your circadian rhythms are disrupted or
thrown off, you may feel groggy, disoriented, and sleepy at inconvenient times. Circadian
rhythms have been linked to a variety of sleeping problems and sleep disorders, as well as
depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal effective disorder (the winter blues).
International studies, has consistently show that high school students chronically sleep deprived.
As a result, public high schools have utilized delaying school start-times in order to increase
sleep duration. Students in Grade 9 through 12 completed an: electronic self-report survey
regarding their sleep on three occasions: pre- intervention (n=349), a post-intervention 1
(n=357), and post-intervention 2 (n=332). Results indicated that, in comparison to preintervention self-reported sleep duration increased significantly across grade levels for postintervention 1 and post-intervention 2. This provides support for the stability of the sleep
intervention across time. Self-reported sleep facilitators and barriers are also discussed. Sleep
deprivation have negative effects on higher order mental process. Individuals who experience
total sleep deprivation show decrements on tasks of executive function-especially the cognitive
performance, motor performance and mood. Moreover, they found that mood is affected by sleep
deprivation than either cognitive or motor performance and that partial sleep deprivation has a
more profound effect on functioning than either long-term or short-term sleep deprivation. The
new reporters obtained a quote from the research from Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation,
“The survey was circulated among 6683 individuals, of whom 481 (7.2%) completed the survey.
80% of the respondents were men and 70% were interventional cardiologist.
For local studies, one group of researchers has found that subclinical depression symptoms
moderate the effect of subjective sleep disturbance on neuron psychological test performance in
older adults (Sutter, Zallig, Allemand, and Martin, 2014). The results suggest that the interaction
of sleep and depression has unique effects on cognitive functioning. Also the interaction of sleep
and depression is not associated with reduced neuron psychological test performance errors and
may contribute explaining behavioral impairments under conditions of sleep deprivation.
Wherefore, sleep deprivation adversely affects brain function and is companied by frequency
dependent and changes EEG. The present study aims to investigate the frequency-dependent
sleep deprivation-related brain oscillatory activity by using the amplitude of low frequency
fluctuation (ALFF) analysis.
Based on existing literature the researchers have read, sleep deprivation has a big impact on
critical thinking especially on cognitive performance and to emotional state of a person. This
study aims to make firm the relation of sleep deprivation in level of concentration in class. This
study will be used as a springboard to understand and elaborate the complex of the sleep
deprivation. The beneficiary of this study will be the; a) students for them to find out what would
be the effect of sleep deprivation in their studies, b) teachers for them to know that sleep
deprivation can affect the performance of a person and c) to other people who suffered insomnia,
sleep apnea and circadian rhythms.
Main Objectives:
This study aims to determine the relationship between Sleep Deprivation and Senior high
School Students Level of Concentration in Class. Specifically it aims to:
1. Determine the profile of Senior High School students in terms of grade level, strand,
sex and age.
2. Determine the level of sleep deprivation of Senior High School students.
3. Determine the level of concentration in class of Senior High School students when
grouped by their profile.
4. Determine the level of sleep deprivation of Senior High School students when
grouped by their profile.
5. Determine the level of concentration in class of Senior High School students when
grouped by their profile
6. Test of difference between sleep deprivation and respondents’ profile.
7. Test of difference between level of concentration in class and respondents’ profile.
8. Test of relationship between sleep deprivation and level of concentration in class.
METHODS
Research Design.
Kumar (1999) stated that a research design is a procedural plan that is adopted by
researchers to answer questions objectively, accurately, economically and with validity. A
quantitative design was followed. Quantitative research involves the use of computational,
statistical, and mathematical tools to derive results. This is a type of research that is dependent on
the collection of verbal, behavioral or observational data that can be interpreted in a subjective
manner. The researchers use correlation research method peculiarly. This is a type of nonexperimental research method, in which a researcher measures the relation of two variables,
understands and assesses the statistical relationship between them with no influence from any
extraneous variable. The intent of this method is to find out the relationship between sleep
deprivation and level of concentration to the students during classes.
Research Setting.
The study was conducted at Misamis University situated in H.T. Feliciano Street Aguada
Ozamiz City, Misamis Occidental. Misamis University is an educational institution that
advocates a progressive and dynamic education that upholds the principle that God is the center
of its existence, that education its service offering to God and country and it aims to be the
leading private non-sectarian institution of learning. This university founded by Dr. Hilarion T.
Feliciano and his wife, Doña Maria Mercado Feliciano in June 1929.
Respondents.
The researchers selected the Grade 12 Senior High School students of Misamis
University as their respondents. The survey questionnaires will be given at their respected
classrooms. The researchers used the stratified sampling technique to indicate the number of
respondents in the study. Stratified sampling is a profitability sampling technique wherein the
researcher divides the entire population into different subgroups or strata, then randomly selects
the final respondents proportionally from the different strata.
Research Instruments.
The researchers used the survey questionnaires as the instrument for this study. This
questionnaire is designed to measure the relation of sleep deprivation and level of concentration
of students during classes. This questionnaire is consists of 30 statements. There are 15
statements for the first variable which is the level of sleep deprivation and 15 statements for the
second variable which is the level of concentration of students in class. The first variable was
rated from Always, Often, Rarely and Never. While the second variable was rated from 4Strongly Agree, 3- Agree, 2- Disagree, and 1- Strongly Disagree.
Data Gathering Procedure.
Data Collection is the procedure of collecting, measuring and analyzing accurate insights
for research using standard validated techniques. The following are the data gathering
procedures: a) The researchers looked for information in different reliable sites; b) The
researchers constructed a survey questionnaire that was approved by the research adviser; c) The
researchers then conducted a survey to Grade 12 Senior High School students of Misamis
University.
Ethical Considerations.
This study gives the privilege to hide the personal information of the respondents. The
respondents have their own rights either to write or not their identity on the survey
questionnaires. The researchers considered the confidentiality of the respondents information and
guarantee that the study will bring no harm physically, mentally and emotionally.
Data Analysis.
To derive reliable results, Minitab 17 will be utilized as statistical software and the
statistical methods and techniques will be utilized. Frequency and Percent, this statistical tool
will be used to determine the distribution of the students in each of their profile. Mean and
Standard Deviation, this statistical tool will be used to determine students’ profile in terms of
age, sex and strand. 2-Sample t-test, this statistical tool will be used to determine the significant
difference of the variables to students’ profile. Pearsons Product Correlation. This statistical tool
will be used to determine the significant relationship of sleep deprivation and students’ level of
concentration in class.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Respondents’ Profile
Presented in the table 1.1 respondents profile that grouped into two which are sex and
strand that prattle about the data’s’ frequency and percent. Within the sex, male has the highest
frequency of respondents with 134 and has a percent of 54.25, whilst, female has the least
frequency of respondents with 113 and has a percent of 45.75. On the other hand, table 1.2
represents the respondents’ profile that has been focused on their age. It has a mean of 17.39 and
a standard deviation of 0.75.
Table 1.1 Respondents’ Profile
Profile
Sex
 Male
 Female
Strand





Total
ABM
STEM
HUMMS
PREBACC
GAS
Frequency
Percent
134
113
54.25
45.75
31
95
55
56
13
12.40
38
22
22.40
5.20
497
100
Table 1.2Respondents’ Profile in terms of Age
Profile
Age
Mean
17.39
St. Dev
0.75
Sleep Deprivation
Table 2 shows that the result of student’s level of sleep deprivation were low with the
average of, (SD=0.96, M=2.39). This means that most of the student respondents are sleep
deprived. This is based on the statistical computation in which the highest mean of the data is
3.03 that states “I can’t sleep early because of cell phone and internet”. However, the lowest
mean of the data is 1.83 that states “I’m afraid sleeping in the dark”.
The results are supported by the citation of Sharuna Segaren (2018) states that how a
regular bed time has a significant impact o sleep, not just the number hours of slept. The research
measured sleep and circadian rhythm as well as the association to academic performance among
the students. At the same time Yttwa, Ynt (2005) states that sleep nature is soft nurse and chief
nourishes in life feast, but try telling that today’s high- school and college students who have
embraced the night with a vengeance. Physical and psychological well-being and they can’t
manage their time because of their lot of work at school and at home.
The findings of the study serve as a basis for students’ level of sleep deprivation. This
data implicates that mostly of the students’ was affect by sleep deprivation because of the
internet and other devices such as: cell phone, tablets and etc. It shows here what the effects of
using a cell phone or internet every night. Because of electronic devices they are unable to sleep
properly and unable to perform their tasks very well.
Table 2.Respondents’ Level of Sleep Deprivation
Statement
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
I go to bed at the same time at night.
I’m afraid of sleeping in the dark.
I’m afraid of sleeping alone.
I woke up because of a frightening dream.
I’m having a trouble to sleep back when awakens
middle of the night.
6. I wake up, during the night choking.
7. I am tired, fatigued or sleepy during the day.
8. I fall asleep at inappropriate time or places.
9. It takes me 30 minutes or more to fall asleep.
10. I wake up frequently during the night for no
reason.
11. I can’t sleep early because of cellphone and
internet.
12. I have difficulty falling asleep at night.
13. I’m awake for long periods during the night.
14. I get up a lot to go to the toilet at night.
15. I wake up early in the morning and unable to sleep
back.
Average
Mean
Interpretation
2.82
1.83
1.87
2.29
2.35
St.
Dev
0.88
1.07
1.09
0.95
0.97
1.95
2.54
2.34
2.53
2.39
0.95
0.88
0.96
0.99
0.95
Low
High
Low
High
Low
3.03
0.96
High
2.45
2.60
2.29
2.51
0.96
0.96
0.91
0.92
Low
High
Low
High
2.39
0.96
Low
High
Low
Low
Low
Low
Level of Concentration
Table 3 shows that the result of student’s level of concentration in class were high with
the average of, (SD=0.84, M=2.51). This means that most of the student participants are good in
staying their focus in class but there are some that are easily distracted. This is based on the
statistical computation in which the highest mean of the data is 2.76 that states “I’m easily
distracted by internal thoughts”. However, the lowest mean of the data is 2.17 that states “I’m
easily distracted by the people”.
This result is supported by University of Nebraska-Lincoln (2016) states that “distraction
is nothing but internal intension of the mind towards involves of a person”. On second, APA
Journals Article Spotlight (2013) cited that “A wandering mind can also derail the train of
thought that is supposed to be taking priority. In some cases, the inattention resulting from a
wandering mind may lead to minor annoyances”.
This study implicates that there are many students who are good in staying their focus in
class but there are also some students who are easily distracted by visual stimulations. Students’
must enhance their self more for them to not easily distracted by the other implements. And give
more attention their academic performances.
Table 3. Respondents’ Level of Concentration in Class
1.
Statement
Mean
Interpretation
2.34
2.40
2.27
2.75
2.76
2.17
2.58
2.71
2.53
2.64
St.
Dev
0.87
0.81
0.92
0.93
0.81
0.82
0.85
0.93
0.82
0.78
1. I lack attentiveness during classes.
2. I felt tired during discussion.
3. I’ve been daydreaming during discussion.
4. I’m easily distracted by background noise.
5. I’m easily distracted by internal thoughts.
6. I’m easily distracted by the people.
7. I’m easily distracted by visual stimulation.
8. I’m easily distracted by gadgets.
9. I am not able to keep my mind focus on discussion.
10.
I have trouble to listen up after have been
interrupted.
11.
I can easily focus on a talk and immerse myself
into what the teacher says.
12.
I’m able to ignore everything else when talking to
someone.
13.
I’m having problems of shifting my attention from
one thing to another.
14.
My study area is cluttered or disorganized.
15.
I procrastinate on projects and papers.
Average
2.28
0.78
Low
2.42
0.78
Low
2.63
0.80
High
2.50
2.61
2.51
0.93
0.83
0.84
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
High
High
Low
High
High
High
High
Sleep Deprivation when Grouped by their Profile
Table 4 shows that the result of students’ level of sleep deprivation when grouped by
their profile. In order to interpret the level of sleep deprivation they were calculated to indicate
the extent of deviation for a group as a whole, and their average or mean. Male were found to
affect low level of sleep deprivation with standard deviation of 0.984 and a mean of 2.396.
Female were also found to affect low level of sleep deprivation with standard deviation of
0.931and a mean of 2.374. Additionally, PREBACC strand has the highest mean with 2.396
where as ABM strand got the lowest mean with 0.500. This totally means that the PREBACC
students are usually not much affected to sleep deprived and the ABM students are not totally
affected to sleep deprived.
This result is supported by North University (2005) states that current high school start
times deprived teens of sleep and affect their academic performance; these start times face the
students to perform academically early in the morning, or a time of day when they are at their
worst. At the same time, News RX (2017) states that both sleep loss and pathogens can enhance
brain inflammation, sleep, and sleep intensity as indicated by electroencephalogram delta (d)
power. The pro-inflammatory interleukin-1 beta (1L-1b) is increased in the cortex after sleep
deprivation (SD) and in response to the Gram-negative bacterial all-wall component lip
polysaccharide (LPS), although the exact mechanisms governing these effects are unknown.
The implication of this study is all about the level of sleep deprivation when they are
grouped by their profile. In many instances male students are mostly affected with sleep
deprived. Their academic performances are affected and so is their health condition. Because of
that they cannot focused on their classes properly.
Table 4. Level of Sleep Deprivation of the Respondents when they are grouped by their profile
Profile
Sex
 Male
 Female
Strand





ABM
STEM
HUMMS
PREBACC
GAS
Mean
Standard Deviation
2.396
2.374
0.984
0.931
0.500
2.362
2.377
2.396
2.272
0.939
0.978
0.917
0.989
0.918
Interpretation
Low
Low
Very Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Level of Concentration when they are grouped by their Profile
Table 5 shows the students’ level of concentration in class when grouped by their profile.
In order to interpret the level of concentration in class they were calculated to indicate the extent
of deviation for a group as a whole, and their average or mean. Male were found to stay high
level of concentration in class with standard deviation of 0.865 and a mean of 2.534. Female
were also found to perform high level of concentration in class with standard deviation of 0.823
and a mean of 2.550. Additionally, ABM strand lay hold the highest mean with 2.607 where as
GAS strand laid hold the lowest mean with 2.428. This totally means that the ABM students are
not easily distracted.
As cited by Kobraol Aligol bandi, Hasan Siaman, and Omol banin Naeimi (2015) that
distraction is nothing but internal intensions of the mind towards involvement of the person. On
the other hand, Caitrin Blake (2016) cited that “Students enter the classroom with divided
attention. Beyond daily distractions such as smart phones or other devices, students have lives
outside the four walls they occupy for a short time.”
As seen below, the study implicates towards the students’ level of concentration in class
when they are grouped by their profile. The result of the data shows that female and ABM
students has more centralized to their class than male and GAS students. Thus, both female and
male results a high level of concentration in class. For ABM students’ it resulted a high level of
concentration in class where as, GAS students’ results a low level of concentration in class.
Table 5. Level of Concentration in Class of the Respondents when they are grouped by their
profile
Profile
Sex
 Male
 Female
Strand
 ABM
 STEM
 HUMMS
 PREBACC
 GAS
Mean
Standard Deviation
Interpretation
2.534
2.550
0.865
0.823
High
High
2.607
2.571
2.602
2.437
2.428
0.738
0.865
0.796
0.895
0.807
High
High
High
Low
Low
Sleep Deprivation and Respondents’ Profile
Presented in the table 6 is the test of significant relationship between sleep deprivation
and respondents' profile. It clearly shows on the table that all profile such as: sex and strand of
first variable are not significantly related. The sex has a p-value of 0.496 and the strand has a pvalue of 0.496. Since their P-value is less than 0.05 it really shows that they are not significantly
related to each other.
The findings are supported by the citation of Yusuf Patrick, Alice Lee and James Moss
(2017) states that, “The sleep deprivation is common among university students, and has been
associated with physical dysfunction.” On the other hand, Guest Contributor (2013) cited that
sleep deprivation affects every aspects of the person’s life, from their health to their daily
behavior. Studies have shown that sleep deprived have difficulty focusing and staying the
attention on task. However, they may also have more impulsive or defiant behavior.
This data made to ensure the statistical computation about the significant difference
between sleep deprivation and to the respondents’. So the findings of this study implicates that
sleep deprivation can’t completely affect the student’s academic performance. But it indicates
that it can affect to the health and daily behaviors of each individual. So students can’t really
focus to their studies not completely because of sleep deprivation but also because of the other
implements.
Table 6. Test of Significant Difference between Level of Sleep Deprivation and respondents’
Profile
Variable
Profile
Test Statistics
Computed
Value
P value
Remarks
Sex
-0.43
0.665
Not Significant
Strand
0.85
0.496
Not Significant
Sleep
Deprivation
Note: Significant if p value ≤0.05; Highly Significant if p value ≤ 0.01
Sleep Deprivation and Respondents' Profile
Presented in the table 7 is the test of significant relationship between sleep deprivation
and respondents' profile. It clearly shows on the table that all profile such as: sex and strand of
first variable are not significantly related. The sex has a p-value of 0.767 and the strand has a pvalue of 0.179. Since their p-value is less than 0.05 it really shows that they are not significantly
related to each other.
The findings are supported by the citation of Mehralizadeh et al (2014) states that,
“studied about the factors affecting student’s concentration in the classroom.” Observed the
impact of teaching time on attention and concentration and found that 46% students had average
concentration. On second citation by Bedewy & Gabriel (2015) cited that the factors that
influence the new knowledge of the learning material of the students are concentration problems,
lecturers’ lack of teaching skills, lighting and ventilation in the audience, lack of time for
preparation for the upcoming workshops. In fact, students’ level of concentration may also have
effects in their performance behavior.
This data measures the students’ level of concentration in class. And it implicates that the
students has no problem from concentrating their selves from the class. So the students can’t
easily distract their selves from visual stimulations and to the other implements that can distract
them.
Table 7. Test of Significant Difference between Level of Concentration in Class and
respondents’ Profile
Variable
Level
of
Concentration in
Class
Test Statistics
Computed
Value
Profile
Sex
Strand
P value
Remarks
0.30
0.767
Not Significant
1.58
0.179
Not Significant
Note: Significant if p value ≤0.05; Highly Significant if p value ≤ 0.01
Sleep Deprivation and Level of Concentration in Class
Presented in Table 8 is the relationship between sleep deprivation and students level of
concentration in class. The Pearson’s r Correlation was utilized to determine the significant
relationship between sleep deprivation and students’ level of concentration in class. It shows that
the Pearson’s r value is 0.060 which gives the strength of correlation of slight positive
correlation. The test also returned the p-value of 0.348 which gives a remark of not significant
which means that there is no significant relationship between sleeping deprivation and students’
level of concentration in class.
The results of an investigation supported by the citation of Yang G, Lai CS, Cichon J, Ma
L, Li W, Gan WB (2014) states that, “Sleep promotes branch specific formation of dendrite
spines after learning.” On second, Healthy People (2014) cited that the effects of sleep
deprivation on autonomic and endocrine functions throughout the day and on exercise tolerance
in the evening. Studies have shown that sleep deprivation have impact of cognitive performance
of the students. Hence,Megan L.Zeek,PharmD,Matthew J. (2015) cited that obtaining more than
7 hours of sleep per day for adults is essential for optimum health and well-being. Inadequate
sleep is a public health problem, and getting adequate sleep was deemed critical enough to be an
objective by Healthy People 2020 to improve national health.
This study implicates that sleep deprivation can’t really affect students level of
concentration in class. Most students probably know that depriving themselves from sleep is bad.
Regular bed time has a significant impact on sleep, not just the number of hours slept. So the
relationship between sleep deprivation and students’ level of concentration in class is manifested
proves that there is no really significance. This goes to show that it’s not always the hours of
sleep you’re getting but rather the fact you’re not sleeping regularly, that can affect your daily
living.
Table 8. Test of Significant Relationship between Sleep Deprivation and Level of Concentration
in Class
Test Statistics
Strength of p
r value
Correlation value
Sleep Deprivation and Level of 0.060
Slight
0.348
Concentration in Class
Positive
Note: Significant if p value ≤0.05; Highly Significant if p value ≤ 0.01
Variables
Remarks
Not Significant
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The current study’s purpose was to determine the relationship between sleep deprivation and
students’ level of concentration in class. Derived from the table above, it sought to test the
relationship between the variables and to respondents’ profile. Since their p-value is less than
equal to 0.05, it means that there is no significant relation between sleep deprivation and
students’ level of concentration in class to students’. So the researchers conclude that there is no
relationship between sleep deprivation and students’ level of concentration in class. Future
researchers are encouraged to go through further researches about sleep deprivation and its
relation to students’ level of concentration in class to support this study and this study will serve
as a platform in the future researches of future researchers pertaining to sleep deprivation and
students’ level of concentration in class.
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Cognitive Function in Humans. NC State Cals. https://www.cals.ncsu.edu.com
Pilcher J. and Huffcutt A. (1996). Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Performance: A MetaAnalysis. American Sleep Disorders Association and Sleep Research Society.
https://academic.oup.com
Segaren S. (2018). Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive and Physical Performance in
University Students. Ritsumeikan University. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
Yttwa, Ynt (2005). Sleep Deprivation. American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
www.aasmnet.org
Yusuf P., Lee A. and Moss J. (2017). Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive and Physical
Performance in University Students. Creative Commons Attribution.
www.academia.edu.com
APPENDIX
I. Student Profile
Grade Level: __________________________
Sex: _____________
Strand: ______________________________
Age: _____________
This study is being conducted by Misamis University students’ as part of practical
research. This is a survey questionnaire about Level of Sleep Deprivation and Students’
Level of Concentration in Class. This survey is done to help Grade-12 students’ who
suffered sleep deprivation and to improve their level of concentration in class. This
questionnaire will take you around 10 minutes.
II. Sleep Deprivation
Directions: Please check and rate yourself honestly based on what you actually do given
the statement using the following scales:
4- Always
3- Often
2- Rarely
Statements
1. I go to bed at the same time at night.
2. I’m afraid of sleeping in the dark.
3. I’m afraid of sleeping alone.
4. I woke up because of a frightening dream.
5. I’m having a trouble to sleep back when awakes middle of
the night.
6. I wake up, during the night choking.
7. I am tired, fatigued or sleepy during the day.
8. I fall asleep at inappropriate time or places.
9. It takes me 30 minutes or more to fall asleep.
10. I wake up frequently during the night for no reason.
11. I can’t sleep early because of cell phone and internet.
12. I have difficulty falling asleep at night.
13. I’m awake for long periods during the night.
14. I get up a lot to go to the toilet at night.
15. I wake up early in the morning and unable to sleep back.
1- Never
1
2
3
4
III. Level of Concentration in Class
4- Strongly Agree
3- Agree
2- Disagree
Statements
16.
1. I lack attentiveness during classes.
2. I felt tired during discussion.
3. I’ve been daydreaming during discussion.
4. I’m easily distracted by background noise.
5. I’m easily distracted by internal thoughts.
6. I’m easily distracted by the people.
7. I’m easily distracted by visual stimulation.
8. I’m easily distracted by gadgets.
9. I am not able to keep my mind focus on discussion.
10. I have trouble to listen up after have been interrupted.
11. I can easily focus on a talk and immerse myself into what the
teacher says.
12. I’m able to ignore everything else when talking to someone.
13. I’m having problems of shifting my attention from one thing
to another.
14. My study area is cluttered or disorganized.
15. I procrastinate on projects and papers.
1- Strongly
Disagree
4
3
2
1
APPENDIX B
LETTER OF PERMISSION
Misamis University
Ozamiz City
Basic Education Department
CERTIFIED: ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management System DNV GL, Australia
ACCREDITED: Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities Commission on
Accreditation (PACUCOA)
Date:
MRS. ANALYN S. CLARIN
Principal, Basic Education Department
Misamis University
Ozamiz City
Dear Ma’am Clarin:
The undersigned is presently conducting a study on Sleep Deprivation in relation to Senior
High School Students Level of Concentration in Class, in partial fulfillment of the course
requirements in Research Project.
Anent to this, we would like to ask permission from your good office to allow us conduct our
study in this prestigious university. Our university is equipped with the amenities needed for
such study. Thus, the result of this study will be beneficial concerning to health of our beloved
community. Any data gathered from several tests will be treated with utmost confidentiality and
for research purposes only.
Thank you in anticipation of your favorable response on our request.
Very respectfully yours,
SIGMARINGEN S. ROSAL
CHARMEE PAULAINE B. ERAP
Student Researcher
Student Researcher
MARIA QUENCY MAE L. BARI
FLOREMEL M. HORTILANO
Student Researcher
Student Researcher
ERICAH MAE D. YATOC
FRANCES ANGEL P. PAMATONG
Student Researcher
Student Researcher
Noted by:
Approved by
ROJ Z. COMPO, LPT
Research Instructor
ANALYN S. CLARIN, LPT, MAEd
Principal, Basic Education Department
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