Task Analysis Transcript

Task Analysis and Data Driven Results
Good morning Mrs. Maureen and we have with us this morning Dr. Maureen Mitchell who will be
presenting a task analysis and data-driven results for this 60 minute webinar session. During this session
we will be covering -- just to make sure that we get this started off right you actually should be seeing
Dr. Mitchell's picture on your screen as well as the beginning of her PowerPoint and hopefully you hear
me loud and clear [ Indiscernible ] -- Kimberly hears us just find and Kevin how about you? I am seeing a
few more people signing on. Hopefully guys can hear us okay . This is the first lesson we have done on a
Friday and we have a small group today. That is okay that means those of you who are with us will be
able to interact and provide us with feedback as the sessions come on.
You will be using the question box if you have any questions or if you want to have Dr. Mitchell review
something, then you will be able to use that question box and we will be able to respond to that.
It sounds like we are ready to get started if people can hear is okay. I will introduce our speaker briefly
and letter get started. Dr. Mitchell has been an education for over 30 years. Old as a secondary general
education teacher and a special educator both in elementary and secondary school. She is an
administrator, transition specialist, she has taught at Texas University. She has also been -- working with
relation services in different areas. I think her true love these transition services and supporting people
people to go from that will system into the adult world. It is my pleasure to have Dr. Mitchell with us
today to present at this presentation and give some good skills on job task analysis and how to teach
people. Thank you for joining us Dr. Mitchell.
Thank you very much darling. I appreciate it and I am very excited about talking to all of you today about
it -- the task analysis. How many of you in the audience have ever used the task analysis? If you could
enter in the question section a yes or a no, that would be great work --.
And Maureen if you could let me know.
I well. There is usually -- I will that there is usually a little bit of a pause. I will take the fact that we
haven't gotten any responses that maybe we had people who are new to the system and have not used
the task analysis. It is going to be a new group.
Okay. Very good. Don't hesitate to write questions as we go along and we can do that, absolutely. Let
me go ahead and tell you a little bit about task analysis. I have to move this officer for a second and
figure out how to do this. Our plan is by the end of the day that -- or by the end of this our that you will
be able to have a good idea of what exactly a task analysis is called the purpose of using one, at least
two ideas about how we can go about creating a task analysis as well as at least one way that you would
be able to use it. But the big thing is the technology of that copy,'s technology nowadays is making that
so much of the.
The next question is, okay Vicki, what is a task analysis. Let's talk a little bit about that. The first thing
that I would say to do it is that the steps in anything that we do are critical. My sweet precious little
mother me to give away -- used to give away a favorite recipe of hours that she would cook. I am
originally from Louisiana and the recipe was dirty rice. Family members and help Louisiana always one of
my mother's recipe. One day I said to her, it is sweet of you to give away to recipe because I know how
important it is to you. But I noticed that everyone still having trouble having a taste like you have a taste.
And she laughed and said that is because I always leave out one ingredient. That always shocked me
because my sweet little mother would leave out one ingredient which absolutely meant that when the
South Louisiana family did not make -- me dirty rice it didn't taste like my mothers because I was a step
that was left out.
The other thing we do, I know all of these the book is going on right now, when the football game is over
they don't to simply getting ready for the next football game. The first thing that they do is they go
through the game film and they look at it step by step because it doesn't mean that if the team won the
game this week that they will when it next week if they don't know the steps that will be required in
order to meet the expectations of the team that they play next week.
Also to know exactly where it was that they fell apart because you will hear them all the parts they
caught it doesn't matter how good the quarterback is, if the defense can't keep the cornerback -- other
team from scoring, that is the game. That is the idea of task analysis. You are looking at a way to break
down all of the steps that a person has to accomplish in order to complete something. You are breaking
down the task into small steps in order to analyze what is it that I have to do in order to complete this
job? So the purpose of that is number one, if I know all of the steps to make up a bed and I am going to
teach someone to make up a bed, the first thing that I am going to do to know all of the steps as I am
going to watch them. I am not come to teach them everything because they probably know how to pull
the covers up to the top. But it doesn't mean that they know how to talk to she can. Do you -- talk the
sheet in. Do you know what I mean? I need to know every step that they need to compass but I also
need to know what they already know so that I am not wasting their time in my time -- and my time. The
other thing is that I use that task analysis so that I as the job coach and able to figure out not only what
it is that I need to teach but you and I know that sometimes the person just isn't going to get it. I don't
care how hard you when I try. There are things that you and I are not able to do and will just not get.
The question is got does it mean that a person can't get it done? No, it doesn't mean that because they
might be able to get the task done if they have the right support or if they have an accommodation. For
example, when you are training someone as a job coach, you are paid to do that. You won't always be
with them. Is going to be the people that they were quick. The question is, is there someone within that
job environment who is another employee that has a good relationship with the person that you are job
coaching. And they the natural support? They would not be paid to do this but be a natural support that
says, don't forget you have to put those boxes away when you finish. I am stacking them up on one side.
Sometimes we expect more of our young adults and adults with disabilities and we do individuals that
don't. The reason why is because you will hear people say all the time, I can't have people reminding
them all the time and get you and I and our work environment that we will have our own colleagues
help us to remember something or we help each other to remember something. It is okay to have a
natural supports and develop doesn't teach those, but the way that we do that is to the task analysis.
We don't want somebody to remind them about everything, only when it is needed. The question is,
when is it needed.
Sometimes a task analysis tells me after I have continue to try and teach it and the client that I am
working with did not get it, it could be that I can put in an accommodation there. Like the young man
who was working in a manufacturing company and he had to put everything together to be shipped in
packets of one dozen. But he could not count to one dozen. The job coach probably understood he did
not get it through school he is not getting a now. I will put in a -- an accommodation. He went to the
dollar store and he purchased a dish rack and he brought it back to where the young man was working
any put newspaper in everyone of the dish slots except for 12 of them. He no longer had to come to talk
because he could just put an item in each one of those dish slots and once all of those 12 dish thoughts
were filled up -- slots were filled up he then-number that he had to wrap in a big rubber bands and
throw it in the box for shipment. The task analysis can help us with a lot of things.
The next question is, I see the point. I understand what task analysis is and some of the information
about it but how do I develop it. I will tell you that over the years that I have been doing this, one of the
first thing that I always here is -- hear, I understand it. This is great. When in the world do you have time
to develop the task analysis? Remember the task analysis is a list of the steps. If I am teaching an adult
client to use a commercial dishwasher then it is all of the steps from finding a location where the
dishwasher is to understanding the knobs and the buttons that are on the left-hand side, understanding
how to load the dishwasher, how to tell when it is done, how to open it up so that the steam doesn't
come out and burn me. Or if I am working in a retail store, understanding how to zone a shelf. Each of
the steps that can feel like it is time-consuming. I will tell you that one of the first things that I did was
one, you will find out that many businesses have job disruptions of what they expect of their employees.
So if you go to that business manager and ask him if he has a job description, a lot of times it will have a
list of all of the things that the individual is supposed to do. This is important for a lot of reasons, not
only for the task analysis, but as job coaches sometimes we have a tendency to teach what it is we think
that needs to be taught and yet the person still struggles to complete the expectations of the job. One of
those reasons is because we never got the list of what's all that person is supposed to be able to do in
addition to zone the shelves, for example, or whatever it is that we are thinking.
The other thing is that norming and I were talking about this a little bit before the webinar. We need to
start sharing the information because if I've already put together a task analysis on how to zone a shelf
at a grocery store then why would you also have to do it. Because if you have put together a task
analysis on how to use a commercial dishwasher or how to use the commercial lodging machine -laundry machine at a La Quinta, if we share, now I have two task analyses when I only developed one.
And if there are many of us sharing I could wind up developing just two or three but I have a toolbox of
because we were all sharing.
That doesn't mean that the one that you did will work on anything for me. Because if you were teaching
the client how to use the commercial dishwasher send dryers -- washing machines and dryers at La
Quinta, it doesn't mean that it is pointed look at the one that is at the local drycleaners where I just got
a job. But I don't have to start from scratch. That is the benefit.
I will tell you that one of the best ways that I have learned for developing a task analysis is to develop it
would be client, in other words, me describe to you [ Indiscernible ] there are two choices I could always
develop that task analysis on my own. If I do it is because I am usually out with clients. I am going to end
up doing it at night or on the weekends. There comes a point where you and I need a break. I quickly
learned that if I do it with the client it serves a lot of great purposes.
For example when I was at a store where it was a retail store , and a job coach that was there had been
meaning to put together the task analysis for the client on how to zone the shelves and had not had
time. I said to the person, I said one of the best ways to do this is the first time you go with someone to
a job training site or a job site, then say to the employer, when we come, the first day what we're going
to do is we are going to do it for the purpose of orientation and learning the expectation of the job and
putting together our training tools.
If you have already started job coaching someone, then just simply say to the employer, one of the days
that we come next week what we're going to do is does with your permission is we are going to going to
use update for the purpose of reevaluating where we are in this job and in developing our tools.
Be manageable typically say, yes, that is not a problem. The result is going to be that you will be able to
teach this person a whole lot faster because you were going to be teaching specific tasks that they need
and not just a hit or miss teaching everything. So what I said Tuesday to the job coach, I said let's talk to
the manager. Now let stand your together and here is what I would like you to do. I said to the job
coach, if you will go and zone the shelf and I am going to stand here with your client and we're going to
watch everything that you do.
Together we are going to figure out step-by-step what you do and we are going to write down the list.
What happened was when we finished that we now had a task analysis but it was actually even better
than that, because what happens as we were watching the job coach go through the steps and we were
identifying each skill that he did perform, that client was also seeing a whole vision of what it looked like
to do the task they were expected to perform. And so it really broke down the learning for them.
It broke it down in a way that I know you will recognize, because many of us in this audience today go on
to YouTube to look at a video about how to fix the kitchen sink or how to with the bicycle rack on the
back of the car because it is been so long since we have done it. We have forgotten how to do it. Many
people go into Pinterest to look at step by steps.
We know that in learning if we can see it being done and broken down into steps so that we can go back
and look at it, then we are going to understand it better and be able to mimic that ourselves. This is
what we're talking about and the easiest way to develop that task analysis is, don't do it on your
personal time because I guarantee you you will never at around to it. Make it a part of the training with
the client which together you will develop the task analysis.
So let's talk. One of the first things that you would do in order to start developing, if you have a task
analysis and there is one that has been supplied for you with this training, or sometimes I just use a
blank piece of paper when I get to where it is that we are doing the training and I don't have the
document with me. Have the client stand by you what you both observe a worker. It might be that you
are simply talking to one of the typical workers who works in the business and you ask them, can you
watch them. You may even stop and ask them questions because this is an opportunity to teach as well
as develop your data collection tool .
And then have the client describe it with you. You and I both know that sometimes there are clients who
get it faster than others. And there are some that get it but they can't really describe it. That is okay. The
skill becomes part of the teaching if you are the one who was helping to lead the discussion on what the
person is doing, that individual who is standing there very quietly beside you trying to catch on is still
going to understand better than if you had not actually done this.
So the first thing is to identify the skill set. Yes you can definitely go and get the copy of the job
description from the manager as we were talking about the don't use that with the client --, but don't
use that with the client. Use that as a reference. If you want the client to understand, your best bet is to
get them involved in helping to develop the task analysis themselves.
Here is an example. For instance, I was telling you that this was a retail store. This is the shoe
department. Sometimes what you will find is they will have shoe departments that it is just simply a
Department and a large star like a Walmart. But there are many shoe departments like shoe depot,
namebrand shoes, famous footwear. There are many of them that just sell shoes. This particular place
was a shoe depot where the young adult had just gotten a job and they were trying to job coach her. We
observed the worker and basically what the worker had to do was define the shoes -- to find issues that
had the paper and him and throw the paper out in the trashcan. Locate issues that have the shoe laces
hanging out of them and then put them back in because what they were trying to do was make the hole
left shoes to look appealing.
And then of course to make sure that when people have gotten out boxes of shoes to look at our try on
and they push them back in, but they weren't just all sticking out but rather they were all pushed in and
everything looked very clean and very uniform. When you looked at those pictures that we had taken at
that job site, what you saw was all of those steps that I just described for you. That becomes a list of
each of the steps within a task that that individual had to complete . You can see in front of you on the
slides of that those are basically all of the steps that I just described to you and that you saw in this
Now I'm going to explain to a little bit about why it would be beneficial to take pictures. The steps that
you saw were just the identifying issues that had paper in them, removing the paper from the shoes,
throwing the paper into the trash. Here is what you have to be careful about. You will see that in this
particular picture you are only seeing the hands of the individual throwing it into the trashcan. The
reason why is because if you were working with clients who are under the age of 18 which doesn't
typically happen for you but sometimes we all do, you cannot take pictures of them without the
permission of their parent or guardian. If this individual client is over 18, then you can certainly do it
with their permission. Some of the best ways to take the pictures is the if you can take pictures of the
client completing the task. That is even better. The second best is taking a picture of another worker.
The reason why it is beneficial for the client is that then if you use the pictures as a reminder before the
individual goes into work, then it is easier for them to see themselves doing something.
So just a little bit of information. Basically observing another worker is certainly one way that you can do
this. One of the times that I was at a job site and we were helping a client with the job coaching, it was
one of the times and I did not have a task analysis with me. So I just got out a piece of paper and stood
there with the client. We watched another worker from the restaurant to see what it is they were doing
which was basically setting the tables. He told them -- him what we were trying to do to see all of the
states. He was delighted because he was very happy to turn bussing the tables over to another person.
As you can see we basically wrote down step by step what the person was supposed to do . They had to
have the cleaning cart with them. They had to identify the tables that needed to be cleaned. They had to
place the food from the plates into the trash. Put the plates into the cards. Put the food into the balls.
For some individuals that you are job coaching you don't have to go into great detail whereas others you
have to be much more specific. It you can also see on the right-hand side, I have put together a column
where I had a client start after we put together the task analysis. We watched this man do this work and
we wrote down what all he did and then we went back and reviewed it. Than the client took one of the
cart and -- carts and started bussing the table himself.
So I started writing down what he was doing. He understood that as he did everything independently,
placing the Bulls in the container which -- bowls in the container which was a pocket, I had to remind
him about that. This was a list of everything you needed to do in order to buffet table. And then by
having him bus one and we began to watch what it was he was doing. I know what it is that need to be
taught and what he already knows. Instead of teaching him 11 steps, maybe I only need to teach and
seven steps. No need to waste his time in my time. We will honor the fact that there are some things
that he can already do. That is a little bit about the purpose of a task analysis.
We do it instinctively with YouTube and recipes. But also how you would put one together and how you
can make it easier on yourself by involving the client to develop the task analysis in addition to, it
becomes a teaching tool , which it just gives them a little bit more information for learning the job.
On the slide you can see this task analysis that has a bar graph. When you are doing task analysis, it
could be that the majority of the task analysis that you have seen -- you can see my cursor right here. Of
those task analyses that you have seen, only have the bottom part right here. This is the way it is been
for decades. Task analysis is what is called a research-based practice. It means is a particular strategy,
text analysis tools -- it has had decades worth of research that says if I use this I am going to be much
more successful, not only as a job coach but with the client learning the skill and being able to
remember the skill all the time -- over time.
We know this. I was very excited one time when I saw this part added. I will tell you why. I will tell you
what you can and can't do to make this easier on yourself. The reason why is you can see all of these
letters here, which basically is a symbol that this client was able to do this part independently. On this
part I had to gesture and remind them to do it, not verbally but just with a gesture. Whereas the X
meant that they asked -- absolutely couldn't do it. Whenever I completed this with all of the symbols
that tells me the level of a compass meant that they had every time I would look at it I would have to
remind myself, the big picture [ Indiscernible - low volume ] when I first saw the chart I got so excited
because now I no longer had to go back and analyze this every time I looked at it. I could just look and
see what the bargraph Toby. How are they doing? They are accomplishing -- told me. How are they
doing? They are accomplishing 90% of what they need to do down here. Appear they accomplished
eventually 60%. Now at a glance I can tell what it is that they are learning.
That excited me because I didn't have to keep going back and figuring it out. Then you can also see it at
as a glance -- at a glance where went down to 20%. In this particular case, it was because it was a Friday
and this individual just simply didn't like to be anywhere on a Friday. To them that was the start of the
weekend. You can also see that down here where this individual, the client was not able to locate the
section where the items were that he had to get, which was bananas. I was able to put together a
picture schedule for this student. The student was a non-reader so it was not like I could just give them a
list of what to do. I took pictures which is similar to what you saw before but it was pictures that would
have to do with the grocery store. Down here after continuously having to verbally say, don't forget
condo forget, again we went to a picture --, don't forget, again we went to a picture schedule and with
the picture schedule the individual was able to remember it.
The purpose of this particular site issues show you -- slide is to show you what a task analysis looks like.
You can get a task analysis on the Internet. Your organization may have a task analysis one that you may
want to use, or you can use the one that is applied with this that has the bargraph appear that you can
Let's talk a little bit about if you use the one for the bargraph. But even if you don't how you use the task
analysis to make instructional decisions with the client. I inserted this particular example because it is a
very simple one. This was in a classroom where independent living skills were being taught, how to
brush teeth. Of course you can see over on the left-hand column over here all of the steps of the
individual has to complete, gathering the toothbrush and to taste and removing the top, placing the
toothpaste on the tube, etc.
And then in the second column you can see right here, the baseline. They had to be reminded to get the
two rush -- toothbrush and all of that out. There was a prompt which meant -- it was hand over hand
showing them had to open the toothpaste. Of all the things that were expected of them in this column,
this very first column, dated October 12, they were able to complete 20% of what was expected. You
can see in column number two, they were still at 20%. However now I am looking to see if I am having to
remind them, is there a way that I can help them not need me. That is the whole purpose of using the
task analysis. The whole purpose as a job close -- coach is if I want this individual to get this job and keep
this job I need them to not need me. So the task analysis not only helps them to know what it is they
have to do, it not only helps me have a way of tracking their progress and what I still have left to teach
them but it also gives me a specific way to look and see what am I still doing for them that they need to
do for themselves and how can I help them not need me.
As you can see on the very top one, where I was having to verbally remind him one of the first things
that we did was decided we needed to always keep the materials in the same location. Putting the
toothpaste on the toothbrush was very difficult. We finally figured out, if we put in an accommodation
with some kind of a magic marker, put a dot in the middle of the toothbrush, now that individual knows
exactly where to put the toothpaste and also not to put too much because you only put enough to cover
the.. -- dot.
There are ways to put together the strategies for the person to complete the tasks without you.
Probably where the measuring cup came from, when it was first invented, it was probably because
people cannot simply fix a dish, most of us, without any kind of recipe for measuring cups or something
like that. There are others that do. They do it by site. -- sight. We are talking about putting tools and
strategies and tips -- for the strategies. I need to constantly look at this and say to myself, what I might
still having to show them and verbally remind them to do.
Can I fix this by teaching, teaching teaching, and they still don't get it. Can I put in some kind of
accommodation in their like the -- in here like the student of the manufacturing company who may -used it be dish rack and followed all the slots and fill them all except 12. That way he could start the
What you are looking at is constantly trying to figure out what you need to teach and what you can
accommodate. But also do you know that as this person learns the skills more, you are always going to
raise the bar. For example, in the first column as you can see on the left-hand side, you are verbally
prompting, hand over hand, showing him how to do it. There is nothing that is independent. I am not
going to set my grading scale or my scoring scale at independent because they are nowhere near that.
But eventually I want to raise the bar and have more things that are independent like you can see over
here in this fourth column. Let's move on and let me show you some other ideas for scoring the task
The first time that you use the task analysis, you were going to simply have this individual do with all by
themselves so that you can know what it is that they are doing and they are not doing. And you can see
in this one , this is one where we were at the issue depot where you saw the pictures. I simply watched
him to see what he was able to do and I scored it. I want to show you right over here on the left-hand
side, this is a student -- a young adult who was 21. He was able to do quite a few things. I didn't put
every single solitary step but just some of them.
One of the things that you will see when you are doing a task analysis is that when you are doing -- if you
do use the bargraph what you don't have to, but if you do, I have found that it is easier to have 10 steps.
The reason why is because it is easier -- we all were trained on how to do something with 100 being the
maximum you could get. On the left-hand side where you see 40%, 60% cost -- 50%, 60%, the new from
seven steps it was 40% of seven steps and 40% doesn't sound very good. 40% of seven steps is over 50%
but that doesn't even make sense because that takes up too much time to break it up , if you know what
I am saying. Look over on the right. What I did was I went ahead and I added in the steps even
something that he already knew so that it gave me 10 steps that he had to do.
Now when I use the graph at the top of actually shows that he accomplished 70% of what it is that he
had to do. That is just a little bit of information on using the test analysis with the graph. But you will
also see sometimes that graph goes down and it looks like, oh my goodness, he is not doing so well. He
actually is doing well. What happened in column number three is I raised the bar . He was doing so well
that I had a higher expectation of not having to show him so much. I am now wanting just to be able to
verbally remind him or point to it for him to do it independently.
So when it down to 60% in column 3 after having gone up to 90%, it was because I raise the
expectations. And trying to make it more and more where he doesn't need me. So basically what you
are doing is you are increasing the level of support. You can see that I basically am using the pictures on
the iTouch so that he can look at what he needs to do before he goes into the store which is helping -- it
is like watching YouTube on how to fix the sink. Is easier to repeat, replicate, imitate something that you
have seen instead of something that someone told you about.
Those are some of the ways to develop task analysis. What about how to use it? This is a traditional task
analysis that as I said, you may have one already -- have one that you already use in your organization.
More than likely it does not have a graph on it, which will make the analysis of it easier. But as I said of
the disadvantage is later you have to keep analyzing it every time you look at it rather than just looking
at the bargraph to be able to see how you are doing. You can use it for a lot of different things, teaching
by developing task analysis with clients, collecting data. [ Indiscernible - low volume ] to monitor
themselves, how they think they did. And also where the items -- the steps where they are doing it not
as well, what is a trick that can be put into place. Sometimes the client will be able to tell you. The client
to is not able to read, for them, they can use the task analysis as their to do list if they are a reader. But
if they are a non-reader, I can put those pictures together and a list and in the individual consent Lisi all
of the steps.
But again, nonreaders can still do self-monitoring. We also talked a little bit about using technology.
What you see here is where I have now taken all of those pictures and put them into a video. Let me
show you what it is that I am talking about here.
When we put this together, I can do this in a PowerPoint format. I put this together on my phone
because I had all of these pictures that I had taken on my phone. And as you can see, I simply put it into
a PowerPoint and then had each of these lights -- the slides where they drift in and out . And if you
remember that very first list at the beginning of this webinar where I said the student had to find issues
with the paper in it and take the paper out and throw it in the trash, the shoelaces back in, find the
boxes that were sticking out and shove all of the boxes in so that they are even, this is a video that I can
show these clients -- this client before we go into the store reminding him of what he is going to do.
I have two choices. If I don't use this model been if I am going into the retail store with this client then I
am job coaching, then I am going to be reviewing with them, what is it you are supposed to do today.
Describe for me all of the steps. What are you responsible for? They are having to search back there in
their brain. In the beginning it takes a while for them to remember all of this. This is where I go back to
the you tube in the Pinterest. -- And Pinterest. We know how much technology has become part of our
world and we use it to make our learning faster, information more accessible to us. We use it in order to
learn how to do something like fix the sink without having to go to a Saturday morning lesson at Home
You can accomplish those same great things by using video modeling with your clients that you are job
coaching, because if I had taken these pictures with that individual the very first day that we started the
job coaching, or next week as I have been doing this a long time -- I'm going to try to pick up the learning
take. Where putting this together. Now that individual has a list of what all they have to do from the
task analysis. I took actors and we put it into a video modeling so that before they go into the job
vacancy a sharp video click reminding them -- clip reminding them of what is going to look like. But I also
use the task analysis to evaluate how they are doing -- but also out -- let them evaluate themselves. Are
you starting to get the drift of where we are going with this?
Let me say another thing. I was up in the Dallas area last week and I was helping to train some students - these were young adult students ages 19 through 22, who were actually working at a T.J. Maxx. They
were doing nonpaid training at a T.J. Maxx for the purpose of getting a job at the T.J. Maxx in the area
that they lived in. One of the things that we did was use the smart phone of a job coach who could then
videotape the young adults who were taking items coming in from shipment and hanging them on
hangers. Before they could hang them on hangers they had to stretch a piece of foam over each of the
hangers. You know how a hangar has foam on it so that items won't fall off? That is the first thing they
had to do was take these Hankerson pull foam over it and then hang of the garment. -- And then hang -take these hangers and pull the foam over them and then hang up the garment.
So we took pictures of what a typical worker was doing and we showed it to the young adults that they
were doing the job coaching on so that they could watch it over and over until they had a better
understanding of what was a had to do. Then they would use the video clip to look at when they got
stuck and weren't sure what steps you next.
One of the things you can do with those video clips is to have it on the smart phone of the client or if
possible, use it in some other ways. Let me show you some of that.
Before we move on to a little bit more on the video, because the video that I just showed you was
where we took those steps of a tax -- task analysis and turned it into a video. The task analysis, when
you are doing it, let's say that that client learned the steps to the task analysis . They are not going to be
able to get or keep the job if they aren't going to be able to do it at least close to the amount of time it
takes the nondisabled worker to complete the task.
I think that is one of the things we fall short on in our field is the fact that we do not look at productivity.
You have to look at how quickly, how much can a nondisabled worker do within X amount of time. And I
need to not only help that person not need me but I need to help them pick up the pace. Someone of
the things that we added to the task analysis is that when you are charting -- helping a client to see how
much they can do on the task analysis, be think -- be thinking about how long it is taking. Once you get
to the point where they can do many of the steps, looking at the productivity.
You will see on this particular chart, this is an example of a particular adult that we were training for a
job at Walmart. One of the things that the client was going to be resizable for was sweeping all of the
Isles. -- Responsible for was sweeping all of the Isles. What we looked at was what was one of the steps
that -- how long did it take for a typical worker to do all of the steps. There were eight steps and how
long did it take be typical worker to do -- the entire aisle? It turned out that the student was only able to
do two steps but be worker was able to do eight steps. And it took the client one hour to do one aisle
and it took one hour for the worker to do six Isles. When we looked at this, it was the idea that the client
didn't know what to do next -- he was now able to do at least three of the steps and then we figured out
-- the next place on the task analysis where he was having trouble was removing the cover to the
sweeper and so then by instructing that he was able to do for of the eight steps and we were teaching
him strategies to do smaller piles and we were able to show them how to do it. He was not able to do it
the was used to moving slow -- is was a systematic way of picking up the pace but you are using it as a
complement to the task analysis -- now let's talk a little bit about the video modeling. Believe we have
got your appetite with a little bit -- with a little bit about how we can use that.
I don't know how many of you use Google Docs. It is a great place to share the tools that you have
developed, these task analysis -- there are apps you can use to develop some of these videos or some
other things that you use. The devices that you use, you can use computers, iPads, smart phones, almost
all of these young people now have some kind of foam that they can use -- telephone that they can use.
What I'm going to do now -- Dr. Ryan [ Indiscernible ] is epic in my nonuniversity -- Brigham Young
University and is considered the foremost authority in the United States on video modeling and the use
of video modeling.
If you go to the Internet and Google Dr. Ryan Callan, you will see these videos. [ Background Noise ] [
Video Playing ]
I taught young adults with autism in community-based employment. Basically what that means is I
worked with four individuals that all had autism and they were all working out in the community. So I
networked them and their employers and we figured out what tasks needed to be done that weren't
being done correctly or what the employer wanted them to learn. So I worked with an individual who
worked at voting Holly -- bowling alley doing cleaning tasks. I worked with another individual at a
community-based museum where he did different skills. One of them was cleaning the display cases.
The museum cases that have the different artifacts and things, he learned how to clean them off. Some
of them were cleaning restrooms and things.
The video modeling was found to be very effective. I was able to go through and we establish a baseline.
What they were doing prior to them using those watching the videos was very minimum . Someone at
0% summer of 20% completing the task correctly.
Once I introduce the videos there was an immediate significant gain where they went from completing
0% of the task to maybe 80% of the task. That was simply by them watching the video prior or during -prior to or during the task. It was not definitively concluded that you could never do that but there was a
general effect by having them do the videos.
One of the things that you will see when you are looking at some of the things that Dr. Callum has put
together is quite a list of ways that you can use it. As he talked you probably noticed down on the righthand side where they took a video, a typical worker who was explaining the tools that were going to be
used in the staff as it went along. If you have young adults that you are also needing to do some training
with or you have some adults that you are also involved in the independent living -- I know some of the
agencies are now getting [ Indiscernible ] you can now use video analysis to teach any skills Windows
environment -- it is a way of bringing technology into the world because we know that the client that we
work with they are all using their telephones -- their smart phones to text each other and look at
YouTube clips and -- clips and play games. We know that we are able to do this and -- they are able to do
this independently for us. What is this that they are needing us to do four things that we are still
teaching in the ways that we are -- I met a young man the other day in central Texas and he was literally
being job culture everything. But do you know what? In good lady accordingly and he taught himself on
YouTube -- he can play the accordion and he taught himself on YouTube. If he can use YouTube to learn
to play the accordion, we can use video modeling to teach him other things.
Also in your packet art two articles -- rather one article in one document in teaching professional
children, which is a professional journal for school districts but it includes young adults in the age of 22
or in some states 24 -- the whole journal that came out in October that came out in October 2014 was
full of articles about how to use and video-based instruction for areas of transition which in this case
was vocational education. It is the job coaching. It is the teaching the independent living skills that the
client needs in order to be successful in the world of work, to have a job and to need no support can be
able to use the national -- natural supports so they would not need you and I who are paid to do this.
I concluded -- included one of the articles that has video instruction using the iPad. I also put together
one that you will see on the right-hand side which is how to use video modeling to teach job skills .
Hopefully both of those will be useful to you and a little more information. Again you can go to any of
these links that are on the Internet and be able to find more information. Usability.gov as he how to
tools for task analysis [ Indiscernible ] for paraprofessionals has some great information on how to do
task analysis for video modeling. You will see the notation that I used YouTube clips of Dr. Robert
Also [ Indiscernible ] has great articles on task analysis and also on video modeling. This hopefully has
given you some ideas on the task analysis, one of which is what it is, what it is used for , it is a list of
steps that a person has to learn in order to complete a task. They have to be able to do that task if they
are going to have a job. They have to be able to do the job without you and me there. How do I help
them not need me? I am going to help them by teaching them each of the steps, very specifically, and
the task analysis that is used to identify the steps. This will help us to show the progress being made. But
I will add technology to this to use it as a teaching tool, as well as a self-monitoring tool for the
individual .
I will tell you as Noreen said in the beginning, I have been doing this for a long time and I didn't learn this
overnight. You are going to want to keep going along in your quest to learn more about technology and
the task analysis but make it easy on yourself. Don't do this on your own time. Do it within the context
of the day job where you are developing the task analysis with the student, with the client. Add
technology so that they can use it just like you would use YouTube to learn something. I hope that this
has been helpful. We have a few minutes if any of you have some questions you would like to enter.
Aspiring --
Noreen, I will turn this part over to you for the question-and-answer section so that if you see any
questions pop up you can let me know. If you don't cut you can wrap this up for us.
I actually do have a couple of questions. The first one goes back to earlier in the presentation. You talked
about job descriptions. It is just a clarification, is there to be a job description such as customer service
which is very generic. It sound like which were talking about was something that was much more job or
task specific. The question is if that employer would have that level or that specific information
available? What should we ask them
That is good question. I learned a long time ago that not every business will have it but you will never
know if you don't have the business. You go to the manager and you ask if they have a job description.
And then also ask them if they had a task analysis for the job. Here is what we have learned in our field
of job coaching is that task analysis -- analyses do exist in some world of work and some operations and
large businesses, especially sometimes and small businesses. We had no clue that that is what they used
to train the typical worker who does not have an agency job coach coming in to help them .
So the first thing that you are going to do whatever business it is that you are going into do top coaching
for -- job coaching for is going and ask the manager if you can get a copy of the job description.
Sometimes they are generic. But just like the job you have has a list of things that you needed to do in
the job description in order to perform the job. It might've been somewhat generic but it gave you a list
of what you are expected to do while going and getting that --. Going and getting that job discretion will
help those description will help you get the job at this point. Some are detailed and some are not. But
also ask them if they have a task analysis. Some do and some don't but you will never know if you ask
them. That is what I mean by that.
And see if somebody already has this stuff for you before you start from scratch and create something
that may already exist.
And on the second question has to do with keeping the data. Is the data something that you obtain
while you are watching the person or is it something that you do after you -- after the task is completed?
You can do it while you are watching the person, because you need to know how they are doing and
what it is you need to teach next. If I don't ever collect this data until I have been doing the top coaching
for three or four weeks I might have been able to teach this a whole lot faster if I had stopped and
analyzed where the breakdown was, where was it that he was falling apart.
Like the worker in the factory that couldn't count 12. I could've job coach Tim for six weeks and I never
would've known that he couldn't put things into stacks of a dozen. When I was doing the task analysis
that is when I finally figured out, he can't count to 12. You will never be have to come to 12. Let's put an
accommodation in there so that he can put something into 12 slot and then package it up in the second
box -- shipping box. You are going to do with the very first time you develop the task analysis. You will
do it one time just having them do all of the steps. Sometimes they won't know when you will have to
remind them. You need to get a baseline, starting point of what they know and what they don't know.
And now I am going to start the job coaching. The question is, how much do I -- how many times do I
collect the data from that point forward. Maybe one time per week or if you don't see them every day
for a week you only see them a couple of times, maybe every three or four times that you are doing it,
that you are job coaching them. One time you can stop and collect data and see what they are doing
now without you. Are we doing better than we were before? If we aren't, I need to figure out what to
teach next or if I need to accommodate. I need them not to need me.
That is a great way of saying it. I have a couple of comments from Kimberly want to share. She says this
is very helpful and she is looking forward to using some of your suggestions. She also mentions [
Indiscernible ] as a great resource for jobs that are generic and let you know more about. You can review
some of the previews for the task that you know your consumer will be performing . Dr. Mitchell thank
you for spending time with us today. I want to remind everyone that you will receive a survey to
complete online. Once you complete that survey your information will be uploaded into the UMT portal
-- UNT portal for your certificate. Have a wonderful weekend. We have beautiful weather ahead of us.
Thank you all. Thank you Dr. Mitchell.
You all have a great day. [ Event Concluded ]