noun-noun compound: note + book → notebook adjective-noun compound: blue + berry → blueberry verb-noun compound: work + room → workroom noun-verb compound: breast + feed → breastfeed verb-verb compound: stir + fry → stir-fry adjective-verb compound: high + light → highlight verb-preposition compound: break + up → breakup preposition-verb compound: out + run → outrun adjective-adjective compound: bitter + sweet → bittersweet preposition-preposition compound: in + to → into Fore-clipping The final part is retained: Examples: Clipping advertisement – ad alligator – gator examination – exam gasoline – gas gymnasium – gym influenza – flu laboratory – lab mathematics – math memorandum – memo photograph – photo public house – pub raccoon – coon reputation – rep situation comedy – sitcom memo = memorandum pub = public house pop = popular music chute = parachute coon = raccoon gator = alligator phone = telephone Middle clipping The middle part is retained. Example: flu = influenza fridge = refrigerator Complex clipping telephone – phone spec = speculation vet = veteran Back clipping In this type the beginning is retained: Examples: ad = advertisement cable = cablegram doc = doctor exam = examination fax = facsimile gas = gasoline gym = gymnastics, gymnasium Clipping may also occur in compounds. In complex clipping, one part of the original compound most often remains intact. But sometimes both halves of a compound are clipped: Examples: cablegram= cable telegram op art = optical art org-man= organization man linocut = linoleum cut navicert = navigation certificate Blending advertisement + entertainment → advertainment biographical + picture → biopic breakfast + lunch → brunch chuckle + snort → chortle cybernetic + organism → cyborg guess + estimate → guesstimate hazardous + material → hazmat motor + hotel → motel prim + sissy → prissy simultaneous + broadcast → simulcast smoke + fog → smog Spanish + English → Spanglish spoon + fork → spork telephone + marathon → telethon web + seminar → webinar Blended words are also referred to as portmanteaus. broccoli (3) + cauliflower (4) → broccoflower (4) breakfast (2) + lunch (1) → brunch (1) camera (3) + recorder (3) → camcorder (3) education (4) + entertainment (4) → edutainment (4) information (4) + commercial (3) → infomercial (4, exception) motor (2) + hotel (2) → motel (2) simultaneous (5) + broadcast (2) → simulcast (3, exception) smoke (1) + fog (1) → smog (1) spoon (1) + fork (1) → spork (1) stagnation (3) + inflation (3) → stagflation (3) Back clipping Back clipping or apocopation is the most common type, in which the beginning is retained. The unclipped original may be either a simple or a composite. Examples are: ad (advertisement), cable (cablegram), doc(doc tor), exam (examination), fax (facsimile), gas (gasoli ne), gym (gymnastics, gymnasium), math (mathematics), memo (memorand um), mutt(muttonhead), pub (public house), pop (popular concert), trad (traditional jazz). Fore-clipping Fore-clipping or aphaeresis retains the final part. Examples: chute(parachute), coon (raccoon), gator ( alligator), phone (telephone), pike(turnpike), varsity (university). Middle clipping In middle clipping or syncope, the middle of the word is retained. Examples are: flu (influenza), jams or jammies (pajamas/pyja mas), polly (apollinaris),shrink (headshrinker), tec (detective). Complex clipping Clipped forms are also used in compounds. One part of the original compound most often remains intact. Examples are: cablegram (cabletelegram), op art (optical art), orgman (organization man), linocut(linoleum cut). Sometimes both halves of a compound are clipped as innavicert (navigation certificate). In these cases it is difficult to know whether the resultant formation should be treated as a clipping or as ablend, for the border between the two types is not always clear. According to Bauer (1983), the easiest way to draw the distinction is to say that those forms which retain compound stress are clipped compounds, whereas those that take simple word stress are not. By this criterion bodbiz, Chicom, Comsymp, Intelsat, midcult, pro-am, sci-fi, and sitcom are all compounds made of clippings.