Practical #3 STUDY GUIDE – by Lily Practice with phylogenetic tree (phyla for this practical circled in red): Complete the phylogenetic tree using the skeleton provided on the following page for the phyla we have covered thus far this semester. Fill in either the missing character state or phylum on the phylogenetic tree. Some phyla and a character state has been provided already. Three character states are used twice (indicated next to the character). Phyla must be written on the phylogenetic tree and the character states can either be squeezed into the phylogenetic tree or can be identified by number in the “Which hashmark?” column in the table below (recommended). Phyla Porifera Characters (in no particular order) Acoelomate (use twice in your tree) Which hashmark? 6, 16 Cnidaria Bilateral symmetry 4/5/6/7 Ctenophora Platyhelminth es Nemertea Chitinous cuticle 24/25 Ciliated tentacular feeding structures 19 Cnidae 2 Mollusca Coelomate 8/9 Annelida Comb rows 3 Gastrotricha Complete gut 8/9 Rotifera Corona 14/15 Chaetognatha Diploblastic 1 Nematoda Nematomorph a Tardigrada Dorsal spines 17 Ecdysis 21 Grasping spines 18 Onychophora Locomotory cilia 13 Phoronida Only longitudinal muscles present 22 Bryozoa Oral papillae 26 Brachiopoda Proboscis 10 Entoprocta Protostome 4/5/6/7 Pseudocoelomate (use twice in your #23 (< free answer!), tree) 14/15 Segments (use twice in your tree) 12, 24/25 Triploblastic 4/5/6/7 True lophophore 20 Visceral mass, foot, mantle 11 Brachiopoda Entoprocta Tardigrada Annelida Mollusca Ctenophora Nemertea Platyhelminthes Porifera Chaetognatha Nematamorpha Phylum Class Subclass Bdelloidea Hemirotatoria Acanthocephala Rotifera Eurotatoria Monogonanta Gastrotricha Chaetognatha Key Body Plan Other facts Characteristics Habitat (locomotion, (draw!) cryptobiosis?) Compare and Contrast: Lophophorata vs. Entoprocta Nematoida vs. Panarthropoda Edysozoa vs. Spiralia (see phylogenetic tree slides) Phylum Phoronida Bryozoa Brachiopoda (careful! Do NOT confuse with Branchiopoda / water fleas!) Entoprocta Body plan with focus on distinguishing characteristics Solitary or Colonial? If colonial, describe / draw zooid forms Phylum Nematoda Nematomorpha Tardigrada Onychophora Body Plan (cross section if applicable) Habitat, Feeding, Locomotion Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: Crustacea Class Order Body Plan Drawing (crab and crayfish dissection!) Decapoda Malacostraca Isopoda Amphipoda Locomotion (how to distinguish in live organisms?) Development / life cycle, Habitat Branchiopoda Ostracoda Copepoda Thecostraca Understand tagmosis, and how different tagmata appear in each organism group. Be able to identify the carapace (or lack thereof) in different organism groups. Do not only know what different anatomical features are – be sure to also understand how the organism uses them. Remember, all terms on the handouts are fair game! Good luck studying!!!