Chapter 16: Transformations in Europe, 1500-1750 Culture and Ideas - Latin Church unity broken by theological controversies during Reformation era Caused wars Geco-Roman antiquity increased among well-educated Europeans. Ideas about the motion of planets and the natural world were introduced. Traditional political+social systems challenged. Influenced political and social revolutionary movements after 1750- Early Reformation - 1500: Papacy (central gov. Of Latin Christianity) held a high position as Europe’s authority in education and religion. Popes exercised greater power ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chronology: Politics, Economy, and culture Environment and Technology Warfare 1500❏ 1500s Spain’s golden century ❏ 1519 Protestant Reformation begins ❏ 1540s Scientific Revolution begins ❏ 1545 Catholic reformation begins ❏ Late 1500s Witch-hunts increase ❏ 1590s Dutch develop Flyboats; “Little Ice Age” begins ❏ 1536-1571 Ottoman attack on Hapsburg Empire. ❏ 1546-1555 German Wars of Religion ❏ 1562-1598 French Wars of Religion ❏ 1566-1648 Netherlands Revolt 1600❏ 1600s Holland’s golden century ❏ 1611 First stock exchange built in Amsterdam ❏ 1636-1637 Tulip bubble in Netherlands ❏ 1600s Growing depletion of forests ❏ 1609 Galileo’s astronomical telescope ❏ 1682 Canal du Midi completed ❏ 1618-1648 Thirty Years’ War ❏ 1642-1649 English Civil War ❏ 1652-1678 Anglo-Dutch Wars ❏ 1667-1697 Wars of Louis XIV ❏ 1683-1697 Ottoman Wars 1700❏ 1700s the Enlightenment beings ❏ 1719-1720 Mississippi Company bubble in France. ❏ 1720 South Sea Company bubble in England ❏ 1750 English mine nearly 5 million tons of coal a year ❏ 1755 Lisbon earthquake ❏ 1701-1714 War of the Spanish Succession --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Protestant Reformation- Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. Resulted in the “Protesters” forming several new Christian demonstrations including the lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England. Luther’s denunciation of ostentation and corruption of the church led others to call for a return to what they saw as authentic Christian practices and beliefs. John Calvin - influential protestant leader. Inspired “Calvinism”, “calvinists” The Counter-Reformation and the Politics of Religion - - Campaign against internal reforms by the Catholic Church. 1545-1563: meeting in Italy to distinguish Catholic doctrines from Protestant “Errors” 1540: The society of Jesus, “Jesuits”, created by Ignatus of Loyola. Catholic Reformation/Counter Reformation: Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline. Valois Dynasty- gained military advantage in French Wars of Religion (see chart). Dynasty ultimately accepted Cahtolic faith. New Angleican Church distanced self from Catholic ritual and Theology: English Puritans did the exact opposite. 1603: First Stuart King to be petitioned to eliminate bishops, James I. Local Religion, Traditional Culture, and Witch-Hunts - Religious orthodoxy were not well enforced in small villages and towns. Local religions commonly blended rituals and beliefs Witch-hunts became widespread in modern Europe - Linked to the belief of white and black magic. Widely assumed that some men and women possessed special powers derived from occult knowledge or, in some cases, from a compact with the Devil. Fear of witches swept more dramatically in 16th and 17th century Initial witch-hunts began in Protestant regions of Germany approx. late 16th century. 100,000 tried and 60,000 executed for witchcraft before hysteria ended. Death toll was highest in German states like Wurzburg an Bamberh. Low in comparison to Catholic states such as France and Spain. Believed witch-hunt craze was caused by social tensions, growing rural poverty and environmental strains. The Scientific Revolution - - - Scientific Revolution: The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science. Began in the 16th century many influential intellectuals were Christian (Catholic or protestant respectively) Nicholas Copernicius (1473-1543): Polish Monk and mathematician. Helped initiate new era. Proposed sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) + Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): strengthened Copernicus model Most intellectual and religious leaders suppressed and condemned the heliocentric universe model. Rene Descartes (1595-1650): among the most influential intellectuals. French philosopher and mathematician. Developed physics and calculus. Demonstrated the usefulness of algebra to geometry. Robert Boyle (1627-1691): one of the founders of modern chemistry. Also a missionary Issac Newton (1642-1727): Formed many mathematical laws that governed all physical objects. Ex: “Newton's Laws of Gravity” The Early Enlightenment: - - Enlightenment: a philosophical movement in the 18th century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics. Similar to the Scientific Revolution as they faced bitter opposition from political and religious establishments Influenced by Scientific revolution Voltaire (1694-1778): leading French thinker, “No opinion is worth burning your neighbor for.” Aided in new scientific methods and discoveries changing European society. More a frame of mind, ideology, than a coherent movement. Social and Economic Life The Bourgeoisie: - European cities grew due to expanding trade and rising commercial profits 1500- Paris was the only city with 100,000 inhabitants. 1700- Both Paris and London had populations over 500,000, 11 other European cities contained of 100,000 people. Bourgeoisie: In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing finance, commerce, and allied professions. 1700- Amsterdam largest city in Holland, 200,000 inhabitants 1600- new ship design introduced, fluit/flyboat Amsterdam was Europe’s financial center Joint stock companies and stock exchanges were introduced from dutch banks. Peasants and Laborers: - Great plague of the 14th century aided in the decline of “Serfdom” Populations were recovering in Western Europe Brief expansion of African slaves in Europe during the 1500's, almost all African slaves were sent to America in the 1600’s. Forced labor increased in Eastern Europe Little Ice Age- Century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable. Deforestation began to occur due to overuse of wood fuel in Europe. England's coal-mining increased twelvefold. Women and the Family: - Social and economic status of women were closely tied to that of their husbands. Women everywhere ranked below men at the time Young men and women in modern europe could choose their own spouses in contrast to other arranged-marriage centered cultures at the time. Europeans married later than other cultures Political Innovations State Development - City-states and principalities abounded, either independently or bound together in federations. - - Small number of republics Number of strong monarchies emerged and developed national identities. Habsburg- powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled 16th and 17th cent. Spain. Charles V (1519-1536): emperor in 1519. Aided in the Counter-reformation Philip’s effort to seal Spain off from the Protestant REformation and the intellectual tumult of the Scientific Revolution also imposed Economic costs. Spain enjoyed success in promoting national political unification and religious unity. The Monarchies of England and France: - - England and France faced conflict with powerful rivals in the 17th century Religion was a constant issue King Charles I ruled for 11 years without summoning Parliament English Civil War- Conflict over royal versus parliamentary rights, caused by King Charles I’s arrest of his parliamentary critics and ending with his execution. Its outcome checked the growth of royal absolutism and, with the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the English Bill of Rights in 1689, ensured that England would be a constitutional monarchy. Louis XIV moved his court to infamous palace Versailles. Most contemporary European rulers admired and imitated the centralized powers and apparent absolutist authority of the French monarchs. John locke: disputed monarchical claims to absolute authority by divine rights, arguing that rulers derived their authority from the consent of the governed and were subject by law. Warfare and Diplomacy - European states fought numerous international conflicts provoked in park by efforts to protect or extend colonial empires. Wars led to dramatic improvements in the skill and weaponry of European armed forces Made European forces among the most powerful in the world. Larger armies required more effective command structures. Balance of Power: The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the 18th century, the major European states acted to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful. Paying the Piper - Euorpean nations struggled to pay heavy military costs while at the same time funing expanded bureaucracies, infrastructure improvements and the growing extravagance of monarchs. - Governments collected taxes indirectly using tax farmers System allowed governments to avoid creating expensive new bureaucracies. Guaranteed corruption, limited revenue growth. French government used Law’s bank to print more paper money as it was allowed to issue on the promise to exchange bills at face value for silver or gold coin. ❏ Greater political centralization enabled early modern monarchs to exert increased influence on economic, religious, and social life ❏ While the Holy Roman Empire fragmented along religious and political lines, Spain, France, and England achieved the grater centralization and religious unity. ❏ Spain enforced Catholic unity through the inquisition and France through Bourbon policy, while in England the church became an arm of royal power. ❏ In both England and France, monarchs struggled with rival over the limits of royal authority. ❏ Armies grew larger and more sophisticated while European powers strove to maintain a balance of power.