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3D wire bending machine 2019

Ibra College of Technology , 26-28 November. 2029,Ibra
Editors: Ramesh Vellaichamy
Arduino 3D wire bending machine
Fakher Rashid Al-rashdi , Faisal said al-musallami , Nawaf juma salim al-sharji , Tariq hamed al-hashmi
,mohammed ali al-hajri ,and Mr Ramesh vellaichamy
Started project at 30 Apr /2019 finished project at 13 Dec /2020
Ministry of manpower (Mechanical Engineering, ICT, Ibra, Oman)
Arduino Wire Bending machine is process which is most commonly used in processing
and manufacturing at different industrial. This manufacturing is usually used to deform or
bend wire metals. The development and optimization of auto wire bending machine of
these processes are useful for many industrial , also according to the research of wire
bending machines has archived many goals for organization and factory based on the
material selections, productions cost, productivity and control of quality . In addition of that
a lot of factories need to reduce their cost in manufacturing of goods with high quality and
less time. The condition in engineering, wire bending machine means bending of a metal
parts, by apply some amount of force pressure, into a curved shape or angular shape, or the
stretching or flanging of it along a curved path. Bending of wire metal for a required shape
by pressure .based on the material properties. Bender primary aims are to provide accuracy,
repeatability, and interchange ability in the manufacturing of products. This metal bender
shows the reduction in electrical power, machining time, manufacturing cost etc.
The gear is a tooth element these teeth are mounted on a wheel which rotates and
transmit motion. An electric DC motors are known as an electrical elements which
converted an electrical energy into mechanical energy also Stepper motors have different
sizes and capacity or power and styles and electrical characteristics which has same function
of DC motor. This 3D wire bending machine is
controlled by an Adriano Nano, which
controls one DC motor and three servo motors for wire manipulation via DRV8825 driver
boards. A servo motor is also implemented in order to push a piece of copper tubing into
place to physically bend the wire.
3D wire bending machine, wire bending mechanism, self-operation or bending,
controlled by Arduino, Arduino programming
There are a lot of machines manufactured for bending the wires, my project is to be
design Adriano 3D wire bending machine, this machine used to bend wires into curvature
shape. It works with electricity it has gears that make linear, vertically, semi rotary and
rotary movement to bend the wires.
The 3D wire bending machine is powered by an Adriano Nano, which controls one DC
motor and three stepper motors for wire manipulation via DRV8825 driver boards. A servo
motor is also implemented in order to push a piece of copper tubing into place to physically
bend the wire
Here’s the main function of this 3D wire bending machine. So first, the wire goes through
a series roller, or straighteners. Using a stepper motor the wire is precisely fed to the wire
bending mechanism which also uses a stepper motor as well as a small servo for the
bending process…
2. Working principle of 3D wire bending machine.
First of all the wire will be inserted in square (box number 1) then will pass between the
four grooves bearings as shown in number in the picture (2) ,the use of these grooves are to
keep flow of wire straight . Step (3) then will passing between anther box, bearing and pipe
which rotated by DC motor all these components will make the wire flow at exact center of
shaft and with no curves then will pass inside the shaft until the end of shaft which has a
nozzle also the nozzle will control the flow of wire .(4) the servo motor will connected with
super gear which drive the other super gear which mounted on the shaft .(5) the two blocks
will support the stand of rack and pinion gears and servo motor. Stepper motor with its gear
(A) which drives the super gear (B). super gear (B) is responsible for the angle of bends
which is 170 degrees .(6) pinion gear will be mounted on the servo motor which rotates the
pinion to drive the rack gear ,The end of rack gear has a small pipe which push the wire up
to have some degree . All these working principle of motors (DC, stepper and servo) will be
controlled by Arduion, as the codes for Arduino program is bit longer, it's not explained ….
Figure 2.1
Figure 2.2
3. Arduino Uno:
The three stepper motors are using the three DRV8825 stepper drivers. For power
the steppers and the full project we will use 12 V power supply with leastways 3A of
current ratio. For power the servo, we use the 5V coming from the Arduino, but the
MG996R servo can be powerless and the 5V voltage governor of the Arduino might not
be qualified to handle it. We decided to use a separate 5V voltage governor, the
LM7805, which is good enough to power the servo for this project. There is also a limit
switch for the bender which to pull up resistor it is joint to a digital pin of the Arduino
Figure -3.1: Arduino Uno
3 .Features of the Adriano UNO
Table 3. 1: Features of the Adriano
Operating Voltage
Input Voltage (limits)
Digital I/O Pins
14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
Analog Input Pins
DC Current per I/O Pin
40 mA
DC Current for 3.3V Pin
50 mA
Flash Memory
32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by boot
2 KB (ATmega328)
1 KB (ATmega328)
Clock Speed
16 MHz
Table3. 2: Pin Description
Pin Category
Pin Name
Vin: Input voltage to Arduino when using an external
power source.
Vin, 3.3V, 5V,
microcontroller and other components on the board.
3.3V: 3.3V supply generated by on-board voltage
regulator. Maximum current draw is 50mA.
GND: ground pins.
Resets the microcontroller.
Analog Pins
A0 – A5
Used to provide analog input in the range of 0-5V
Digital Pins 0 –
0(RX), 1(TX)
Used to receive and transmit TTL serial data.
2, 3
To trigger an interrupt.
3, 5, 6, 9, 11
Provides 8-bit PWM output.
Can be used as input or output pins.
10 (SS), 11
(MISO) and 13
Used for SPI communication.
Inbuilt LED
To turn on the inbuilt LED.
A4 (SDA), A5
Used for TWI communication.
To provide reference voltage for input voltage.
Table-3: (The Greek alphabet)
Letter name
Number of teeth
Diametral pitch
Outside diameter
Pitch diameter
Using this equations to find specification of super gears Eq.1,2
4. Conclusion
The main advantage 3D wire bending machine which controlled by Arduino with
that it is very easy to operate. It helps to bend wire automatically
. before
people who bend the wires are facing problem of getting the exact angles and different
shapes also it was difficult to bend more than 10 wires in the same time because of weight
of the material and its need more effort and time, so that’s why we design and manufacture
this mechanism or machine to reduce the risk of worker in work place. It is easy to control
the parts by setting Arduino program.
In future they should develop 3D wire bending machine with different movement in
directions that it overcomes the limitations of this bender by controlling the machine parts
by GSM network.
[1} Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide, Industrial Press Inc., 1994
[3] Khurmi, R. S., & Gupta, J. K. (1976). Theory of Machines (14th ed.). New Delhi, India: S. Chand
[6] ] https://www.enhancedradio.com/products/arduino-uno-r3-with-atmega328p