1 RELEVANCE OF DOSCST CRIMINOLOGY GRADUATES IN TRI – BUREAU JOREL B. CANATOY DELMAR L. ONTONG RYAN C. SUICO A thesis submitted to the Institute of Business and Public Affairs to the Davao Oriental State College of Science and Technology In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements For the Degree BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CRIMINOLOGY November 2019 2 Chapter I INTRODUCTION Rationale of the Study Criminologists play an important role in the criminal justice system. They conduct research, teach and work with various law enforcement agencies. They study the social and psychological factors that cause people to commit crimes and research which approaches to rehabilitation work and don't work. In essence, they work to develop a society that is less prone to or susceptible to criminal acts (Kokemuller, 2019). Criminology gained reputation as an academic area of study because of the constant threat of crime and the social problems it highlights. Nonetheless, much doubt and criticism exists among professionals within social and human sciences regarding the role, application, value and contributions of criminologists. Criminology is informed by a combination of theory and empirical research enfolded into a body of knowledge on crime as a social phenomenon. In South Africa, criminologists have acquired a more practically oriented role in enhancing service delivery within the criminal justice and private sectors (Herbig and Hesselink, 2014). A graduate of criminology is expected to be prepared for careers in crime prevention, law enforcement, scientific crime detection, and correctional administration, to mention a few. Today, the top brass in the Philippine National Police and other law enforcement agencies are composed of the graduates. The school is responsible for molding the students to be efficient effective professionals in the fields 3 of criminology, law, law enforcement, public safety and criminal justice. And a few of parameters in knowing whether a school is still effective in delivering quality education to its students are the performance of its graduate in the professional board examinations, the graduates employments status and the income level of new graduates (Licudin, et. al. 2012). There are only few studies conducted in our country regarding the relevance of Criminology Graduate in the law enforcement agencies in their academic proficiency and other academic achievements during their college days. Furthermore there is no research regarding to this kind of issue specifically the relevance of Davao Oriental State College of Science and Technology Criminology Graduates in Tri Bureaus which is the Philippine National Police, Bureau of Fire Protection and the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology. Significant of the study The study will focused on the relevance of Davao Oriental State College of Science and Technology criminology graduates in tri bureau. The results of this study will the benefits of the following: Department of Interior and Local Government. This study will be beneficial for department of interior and local government as they will be acquainted of what is the relevance of criminology graduates in tri bureau and its benefits to their future job. This serve as basis of what they do during entering in tri bureau aspect. Peaceful, safe, self-reliant and development-dominated communities. Improve performance of local governments in governance, administration, social and economic development and environmental management Sustain peace and order condition and ensure public safety. 4 TRI BUREAU. This study will benefits of the PNP, BJMP, BFP personnel as what they acquired knowledge, trainings and achievements during college days and the use during their present job. Criminology Graduate. This study will be important in tri bureau subsequently the criminology graduates is having a subject that will fit in the field of PNP, BFP, BJMP like law enforcement, crime detection investigation and criminal sociology. Future Researchers. This will be great guide or source of information for the future researchers who wanted to know the importance of relevance of Criminology Graduates to Tri Bureau. Objectives of the Study This study will be conducted to determine the responsiveness of the Criminology program with the needs of the external stakeholders in terms of the qualification standards set by the following agencies like the Philippine National Police (PNP), Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP), Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP), and any other agency. A questionnaire was formulated to determine the level of proficiency of the respondents in terms of their skills in the six identified areas of the program (Revisa, 2013). The study will focused on the relevance of criminology graduates of Davao Oriental State College of Science and Technology towards the tri Bureau. Specially, this study aimed to determine the followings: 1. To determine socio demographic profile of the respondent in terms of a. age b. sex 5 c. Occupation 2. To determine the relevance of criminology graduates in the tri bureau in term of: a. Faculty b. Curriculum c. Organizational d. Personal skills 3. To examine the significant difference on the perception of the respondents in the relevance of criminology graduates in tri bureau when group according to socio demographic profile. Scope and Limitations This study will be focused only to Criminology Graduates on their relevance to the Tri Bureau. Also this study focused on Davao Oriental State College of Science and Technology (DOSCST) Criminology Graduates who were member of the three Law enforcement agencies specifically PNP, BJMP, BFP which used their academic proficiency and other academic achievements during their college days before and during the performance of their duty. 6 Conceptual Framework Socio Demographic Profile of Respondents Age Sex Length of Service Graduates in the tri bureau in term of: a. b. c. d. e. _________ Faculty Curriculum Organization Student Service Personal skills __________ Difference of the respondents in the relevance of criminology graduates Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study Theoretical Framework This study anchored on the Theory Self – Determination by Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan, psychologists at the University of Rochester, which stated the selfdetermination is an important concept that refers to each person's ability to make choices and manage their own life. Self-determination allows people to feel that they have control over their choices and lives. It also has an impact on motivation—people 7 feel more motivated to take action when they feel that what they do will have an effect on the outcome. The concept of self-determination has been applied to a wide variety of areas including education, work, parenting, exercise, and health. Research suggests that having high self-determination can fosters success in many different domains of life. Self-determination can play an important role in how people function in many different areas of their lives. Feeling in control and intrinsically motivated can help people feel more committed, passionate, interested, and satisfied with the things that they do (Deci and Ryan 2006). Also this study utilized the Holland’s Theory which claimed that both people and work environments can be categorized and then matched to each other. Holland’s theory aims to categories people according to what type of work they are most interested in and then categories occupations under the same scheme to measure their congruence. In Holland’s words, people tend to act on their dominant interests and seek occupations in which their interests can be expressed (Holland 1996). Holland’s actual scheme was based around a six point hexagon which focuses on six types of person and job which are Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional (Holland 1996, Staunton 2015). This theory also reflects to the study in its very common to Tri bureau, because the Tri bureau is the main part of the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) under Republic Act 6975. So the relevance of criminology graduates in Tri bureau is also help of the criminology graduates as member of Philippine National Police (PNP), Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) and Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, in terms of Self-determination and their work performance. 8 Definition of Terms The following terms are used in the study and define operationally by the researchers. Faculty – refers to a person who trained and teaches the respondents during their college days. Curriculum - it refers to academic subjects acquired by the respondents and its relevance their present job. Personal Skills – refers to a skills of the respondents in terms of communication, problem solving and human relation and in investigation. Organization – refers to group activities that develops the respondent’s responsibility towards the organization. Criminology Graduates – it refers to the respondents of the study and one who answer the following questions made by the researchers. Relevance – in this study, it refers relatedness and importance of Criminology Graduate in law enforcement agencies Tri Bureau – in this study, it refers to the agencies of the government which pertain to law enforcement such the Philippine National Police, Bureau of Fire Protection and Bureau of Jail Management and Penology. 9 Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter comprises related studies and literatures on Relevance of Criminology Graduates in Tri Bureau coming from internet (Thesis, Dissertation, Report, Journal, News and etc.) as a main source. Thea following literature was researched to provide related studies on the relevance of DOSCST Criminology Graduates in the Tri Bureau. Foreign Literature Lowe and Schellenberg (2001) pointed out that industries and other business institutions depend so much on the huge contributions of learning institutions in providing human machineries shaped in conjunction with their needs. They firmly believed that successes would primarily depend on the output of these institutions. Universities’ failure to provide the needed learning arid skills among the graduates may result to disequilibrating force in the county’s economy. They further mentioned that, individuals invest time and money in order to become ‘more skilled. Firms and societies typically invest in human capital for the development of their employees and citizens in hopes of a future return on these investments. Ross (2000) mentioned that industries complain that new recruits from schools sometimes do not have the basic tools that are required. The skills mostly in demand by the employers, as measured by the wide range of skills asked of future employees, are typically the least in supply, as measured by the skills, abilities and competencies that university graduates bring to the job. He emphasized that the goal of education is 10 to equip children to the best of their ability, for a lively, constructive place in society, and also to fit them to do a job for work. Cameron and Chickering (1996) pointed out that the notion of employability skills development in the university environment continues to challenge traditional thinking and concepts on higher education and raises the question of the role a university education provides. The rapidly changing economy has fueled the desire for university graduates to adapt according this poses a problem for universities because of growing dichotomy between the purposes of education for employment and education primarily based on content knowledge for its own sake. Current students view the purpose of university education as a step to career preparation. Many faculty members, on the hand continue to uphold the creation of knowledge and the development of intellectual mind while employers, demand highly skilled-workers. This comparative study gathered feedback on the importance of employability capabilities from a range of stakeholders including graduates, employers and teaching staff. Data was collected from the same group of stakeholders about the proficiency of graduates in relation to each of the employability capabilities as a result of graduating from a degree program. Teaching staff, graduates and employers of graduates from two large undergraduate programs at Curtin University in Western Australia were surveyed (Ferns, 2012). In line with this period of globalization, the higher education has been concerned with the development of the whole person as well as knowledge, attributes, and skills which any educated person should expect to have by the time of graduation. It further aims to inspire and enable individuals to develop their capabilities to the highest potential levels throughout life so that they grow intellectually, contribute 11 effectively to society, achieve personal fulfillment and are well- equipped for work (Abas, 2016). Graduate surveys provide rich experience about the whereabouts of graduates, which might help to broaden perspectives among administrators, faculty and students. Such information like the income, economic sector, current job title, working time, duration of search for the first job, methods of job search, values develop and practice in work, skills acquired are relevant for higher education institutions to note. In the study conducted by Lalican (2007) she emphasized that the acquisition of knowledge in the undergraduate specialization, skills and competencies will also promote productivity, efficiency and expertise in the graduates’ present job (Guadamor, 2017). Faculty The roles and responsibilities of college and university faculty members are closely tied to the central functions of higher education. One primary formal description of these functions was contained in the 1915 "Declaration of Principles" formulated by a representative committee of faculty members including members of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) (Hamrick, 2019). According to the Declaration, the functions of colleges and universities are "to promote inquiry and advance the sum of human knowledge, to provide general instruction to the students, and to develop experts for various branches of the public service" (Joughin, pp. 163–164). Correspondingly, college and university faculty members undertake research, teaching, and service roles to carry out the academic work of their respective institutions (Hamrick, 2019). Faculty members teaching professional courses shall be holders of at least masters and baccalaureate degrees in criminology and other related degrees, 12 registered professionals, with credentials duly authenticated by the Commission or as may be allowed by the rules, practitioners for at least three (3) years and preferably with at least one (1) year teaching experience. Faculty members in technical fields of Forensics such as Questioned Documents, Forensics Ballistics, Forensic Photography and Personal Identification shall have at least two (2) years’ experience and / or related training in such field (CMO No. 5, 2018). Each of these roles enables faculty members to generate and disseminate knowledge to peers, students, and external audiences. The balance among teaching, research, and service, however, differs widely across institution types and by terms of the faculty member's appointment. The major portion of this article will deal with these kinds of differences while latter sections will focus on the faculty as collective entities and related trends within higher education (Hamrick, 2019). Curriculum The curriculum of subject is described as a burning pulse of a nation. By viewing curriculum one can judge the stage of development and its pace of socio-economic development of a nation. With the advent of new technology, the world has turned into a global village. In view of tremendous research taking place world over new ideas and information pours in like of a stream of fresh water, making it imperative to update the curricula after regular intervals, for introducing latest development and innovation in the relevant field of knowledge (Ali, 2012). This programme is developed to provide the young graduates with job oriented skills to augment employability in particular and producing young professionals to reshape the policies to prevent crime in Pakistan in general. The major objective of this programme is to provide the students with hands-on-training in the specialized fields 13 of criminology such as forensic criminology, criminal and juvenile justice systems, criminal investigation, geographic crime analysis, crime mapping and security related issues through its extensive internship programme. Special focus has been given on developing research skills. Students are required to carry out research project/thesis to uncover the major issues related to the field of criminology (Ali, 2012). In June 12, 1961, the Philippine College of The goal is for students to demonstrate proficiency in all the identified competency areas to complete the course or program (Public Agenda, 2015a,b). During the design process, faculty members identify competency statements or outcomes, develop assessments, and create learning materials to support students in the mastery of identified competencies (Cleary, 2015). The curriculum is patterned after the leading curricula of the CriminologySchool and Universities of the United State, United Kingdom and other standardrecommended by the international society of Criminology. These, however, are modified to suit the standard requirements of the police, NBI, NISA and NAPOLCOM. As of June 11, 1956 the Philippine College of Criminology was already, offering a fourth year course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Criminology (BS-Crim.). Among the subjects offered in its baccalaureate program were Police Science or Criminalistics (which include Questioned Documents, Dactyloscopy, Investigative Photography, Ballistics, Polygraphy, and Criminal Investigation), and the acquire liberal arts subjects for the two (2) years in college (Licudine, et. al 2012). 14 Personal Skills The Bachelor of Science in Criminology program is designed to provide students with knowledge and skills in the study of historical and contemporary patterns of crime, responses to crime of the society, the causes of criminality in the society and study of delinquency. It focuses on the processes involved and the functions of the criminal justice in the country. Regardless of the sophistication of and predictive validity of selection program, it is almost always necessary to expose newly hired employees to some kind of training before they can be maximally effective on a new job, even if the employees are already experienced with the machinery or equipment they will be operating (Anoyo, 2015). The purpose of which is to increase the employee’s productive efficiency and to enhance organizational goal. Training requirements are made more complicated when the workers had a little actual job experience or being hired for a type of work they have never performed. The organization’s selection procedures ideally ensure that new employees have sufficient intelligence, aptitude, skills and attitude to learn a job (Anoyo, 2015). The employability skills refer to attributes of employees, other than technical competence, which make them an asset to an employer. The employability skills have varied classifications like basic academic skills, higher-order thinking skills and personal qualities with more detailed skill sets these generic employability skills are useful across all levels of positions from job entrants to chiefs of offices. Gregson & Bettis asserted that many employers require applicants to have these skills to be seriously considered for employment. Similarly, these skills are crucial for employment 15 and workplace success and serve as basis for lifelong learning needed by graduates to find a job (Imam, 2016). The significance of employability skills in work settings is then recognized. The employability skills adopted in the study are categorized into three areas such as fundamental, personal management and teamwork skills. The call of the time now is for employees to enrich and sustain these skills in their work setting and be motivated in lifelong learning. It is important that they are able to upgrade the skills and to anticipate and prepare for the future skills required of the workforce. In other words, they have to achieve competence on the use of employability skills. Such competence on skills denotes the degree to which an employee demonstrates proficiency and mastery on the different acquired employability skills (Imam, 2016). Criminology is a relatively new field, having developed from the broader study of sociology in the 19th and 20th centuries. Though the job of a criminologist is new, society in general, and philosophers, clergy and community leaders in particular, have been studying and learning how to deal with crime throughout human history. Even though it may not hold the same glamor and excitement of other jobs in criminal justice, a career as a criminologist is no less important. In fact, for those who are of a more academic mind, it may present the best opportunity to contribute to the prevention and treatment of crime (Roufa 2019). This is showing that criminology graduates are more important in relation to this circumstances because they were already aware about this kind of situation and they are knowledgeable since they were fully equipped and trained during their college days through the academic subjects which divided into six division such as criminalistics, criminal sociology, criminal jurisprudence, criminal law, correctional institution and law enforcement agency (Caño, 2010). 16 Organization Organization roles and responsibilities are the foundation of a successful business. As the leader of your company, it’s your job to ensure that the organization roles and responsibilities are well defined so every department and division fits together as a whole. Employees that understand their roles in a business organization are more likely to perform their jobs well and feel secure in what they’re doing. Entrepreneurs that believe in defining organization roles and responsibilities typically make organizational charts available to their people so that everyone has a clear picture (Feigenbaum, 2018). Organizational structure pertains to the way in which companies arrange their departments. Smaller companies tend to have flatter organizational structures with few management levels. Larger companies use tall organizational structures with many echelons of management and employees. Companies use several types of organizational structure for specific roles. For example, companies using a geographic organizational structure decentralize various functions like marketing because of varying regional needs (Suttle, 2018.) Many companies encourage a team environment. Team members help each other succeed to accomplish the company's goals and provide their expertise on different projects and duties. Each team has specific roles and are typically structured in a functional way. Companies create structural charts that clearly define the types of roles within departments. In a functional structure, it's designed by hierarchy, which is when the roles of each group are ranked one above another based on responsibility (Hollie, 2015). 17 From time to time, you will have to revisit your organizational structure to ensure it is still achieving all your objectives. This is especially true when your company experiences rapid expansion or changes in the work process. Small, startup companies often avoid formal organizational structures at first, which allows them to adapt quickly during the early stages of growth. However, as organizations add employees, confusion and tension can set in without the clarity of an organizational structure (Feigenbaum, 2018). 18 Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter provides an overview of the method that will be used in this research study, research design, source of data, sampling technique, data gathering and analysis of data will be applied. The respondents of this study will the relevance of DOSCST criminology graduate as identified by the researchers. Research Design A descriptive research design method will be employed in this study to describe the relevance of criminology graduates in Tri bureau utilizing survey questionnaire in the gathering the primary data. According to Fraenkel & Wallen (2003), quantitative research can be classified as either descriptive or experimental research. The purpose of using descriptive research is to become more familiar with the phenomena, to gain new insight, and to formulate a more specific research problem or hypothesis. However, in descriptive researchers do not have direct control over the independent variables because their manifestations have already occurred or become they are inherently not manipulatable (kerlinger & Lee, 2000). This study use a descriptive quantitative research design, since this identifies, analyze and describe the extent of relevance of Davao Oriental State College Of Science And Technology Criminology Graduates in Tri bureau. Furthermore, this study used a quantitative research design as this study requires any statistical treatment to validate the result. 19 Sampling Technique A sampling technique will be employed by the researcher in the selecting the respondents using heterogeneous by utilizing the stratified random sampling has several advantages over simple random sampling (Hayes, 2019). For example, suppose a research team wants to determine the Employment of Criminology Graduates in DOSCST. The research team has difficulty collecting data from all 2,000 criminology graduates; it decides to take a stratified random sample of the population by using 500 Criminology graduates (Hayes, 2019). Data Gathering Upon gathering the data, appropriate statistical tools will be based on the data gathered to answer the specific objectives of this research study. Specifically, the researchers will go through the following procedures in data gathering: 1. Asking permission to conduct study. The researchers will ask permission from the research panels and will provide the letter of endorsement to the officials/personnel in the selected tri bureaus. 2. Constructing and validating the questionnaire. The researchers will consult and add some of the suggestions and ideas of the panels to make the instrument of the study easier and more valid. Letters are also will go to the respondents prior to the administration of the survey. 3. Explaining the consent of agreement. When going on the survey, the consent agreement form will be formulated to safeguard the identity of the respondents will be comprehensively explained to them. This entails that researchers will include no person in this study without his/her consent. 20 4. Administering the survey in the area of study. The researchers, by using purposive-quota sampling will administer the survey to the personnel in an area where the researchers will conduct the study. Respondents will be informed about the proper ratings to the given questionnaires and were briefed to respond with full honesty. Respondents will be also given enough time to answer during the survey. 5. Analyses and interpretation. After the questionnaires will be retrieved, the gathered data will be scored, recorded and classified with the guidance of the statistician. Results will be analyzed and interpreted based on the purpose of the study. Analysis of Data The researchers will make a set of questions thru constructed questionnaire for the respondents to answer. The researchers will gather data from the respondents by personally asking them efficiently specific questions. The researchers must get those pertinent data from the respondents. After collecting such data, the researchers will estimate those data and information to evaluate those information and data which will be very important to answer the objectives of the study. In coming up with the first objective of this study, the data gathered from the survey questionnaire will used in order to profile the respondents. The researchers will formally meet the officials/personnel of selected review centers upon asking permission to conduct the study regarding the relevance of DOSCST criminology graduate in Tri Bureau. Right after getting the authorization to conduct such study, the researchers will automatically provide the questionnaire for the clients to answer the set of questions in order to determine the socio demographic profile of the respondents. They will be profiled according to age, sex, and length of service. While 21 the respondents will answer the questionnaire for their profile, the researchers will watch them to ensure that the respondents are answering. After the cross tabulation, the researchers will be able to show the socio-demographic profile of the respondents. The second objective of the study will determine the level of relevance of the criminology graduates to Tri bureau in terms of Commitment of Work, Knowledge of Work, Faculty, Curriculum, Organization, Student Service, and Study Personal Skills. The researchers will analyses the table that contains interpretation. For the third objective, in order to examine the significant difference on the relevance of criminology graduates to tri bureau when grouped across their sociodemographic profile, ANOVA formula will be used. Hence to determine whether any of difference between the means is statistically significant, compare the p-value with the significant level to assess the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis states that the population means were equal and has no significant difference. Usually, a significant level (denoted as α or alpha) of 0.05 works well. A significant level of 0.05 indicates a 5% risk of concluding that difference exists when there had no actual difference.