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A thesis submitted to the Institute of Business and Public Affairs to the Davao
Oriental State College of Science and Technology
In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements
For the Degree
November 2019
Chapter I
Rationale of the Study
Criminologists play an important role in the criminal justice system. They
conduct research, teach and work with various law enforcement agencies. They study
the social and psychological factors that cause people to commit crimes and research
which approaches to rehabilitation work and don't work. In essence, they work to
develop a society that is less prone to or susceptible to criminal acts (Kokemuller,
Criminology gained reputation as an academic area of study because of the
constant threat of crime and the social problems it highlights. Nonetheless, much
doubt and criticism exists among professionals within social and human sciences
regarding the role, application, value and contributions of criminologists. Criminology
is informed by a combination of theory and empirical research enfolded into a body of
knowledge on crime as a social phenomenon. In South Africa, criminologists have
acquired a more practically oriented role in enhancing service delivery within the
criminal justice and private sectors (Herbig and Hesselink, 2014).
A graduate of criminology is expected to be prepared for careers in crime
administration, to mention a few. Today, the top brass in the Philippine National Police
and other law enforcement agencies are composed of the graduates. The school is
responsible for molding the students to be efficient effective professionals in the fields
of criminology, law, law enforcement, public safety and criminal justice. And a few of
parameters in knowing whether a school is still effective in delivering quality education
to its students are the performance of its graduate in the professional board
examinations, the graduates employments status and the income level of new
graduates (Licudin, et. al. 2012).
There are only few studies conducted in our country regarding the relevance of
Criminology Graduate in the law enforcement agencies in their academic proficiency
and other academic achievements during their college days. Furthermore there is no
research regarding to this kind of issue specifically the relevance of Davao Oriental
State College of Science and Technology Criminology Graduates in Tri Bureaus which
is the Philippine National Police, Bureau of Fire Protection and the Bureau of Jail
Management and Penology.
Significant of the study
The study will focused on the relevance of Davao Oriental State College of
Science and Technology criminology graduates in tri bureau. The results of this study
will the benefits of the following:
Department of Interior and Local Government. This study will be beneficial for
department of interior and local government as they will be acquainted of what is the
relevance of criminology graduates in tri bureau and its benefits to their future job. This
serve as basis of what they do during entering in tri bureau aspect. Peaceful, safe,
self-reliant and development-dominated communities. Improve performance of local
governments in governance, administration, social and economic development and
environmental management Sustain peace and order condition and ensure public
TRI BUREAU. This study will benefits of the PNP, BJMP, BFP personnel as what they
acquired knowledge, trainings and achievements during college days and the use
during their present job.
Criminology Graduate. This study will be important in tri bureau subsequently the
criminology graduates is having a subject that will fit in the field of PNP, BFP, BJMP
like law enforcement, crime detection investigation and criminal sociology.
Future Researchers. This will be great guide or source of information for the future
researchers who wanted to know the importance of relevance of Criminology
Graduates to Tri Bureau.
Objectives of the Study
This study will be conducted to determine the responsiveness of the
Criminology program with the needs of the external stakeholders in terms of the
qualification standards set by the following agencies like the Philippine National Police
(PNP), Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP), Bureau of Jail Management and Penology
(BJMP), and any other agency. A questionnaire was formulated to determine the level
of proficiency of the respondents in terms of their skills in the six identified areas of the
program (Revisa, 2013).
The study will focused on the relevance of criminology graduates of Davao Oriental
State College of Science and Technology towards the tri Bureau. Specially, this study
aimed to determine the followings:
1. To determine socio demographic profile of the respondent in terms of
a. age
b. sex
c. Occupation
2. To determine the relevance of criminology graduates in the tri bureau in term
a. Faculty
b. Curriculum
c. Organizational
d. Personal skills
3. To examine the significant difference on the perception of the respondents in
the relevance of criminology graduates in tri bureau when group according to
socio demographic profile.
Scope and Limitations
This study will be focused only to Criminology Graduates on their relevance to
the Tri Bureau. Also this study focused on Davao Oriental State College of Science
and Technology (DOSCST) Criminology Graduates who were member of the three
Law enforcement agencies specifically PNP, BJMP, BFP which used their academic
proficiency and other academic achievements during their college days before and
during the performance of their duty.
Conceptual Framework
Socio Demographic Profile
of Respondents
Length of Service
Graduates in the tri bureau in
term of:
Student Service
Personal skills
Difference of the
respondents in the relevance
of criminology graduates
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study
Theoretical Framework
This study anchored on the Theory Self – Determination by Edward L. Deci and
Richard M. Ryan, psychologists at the University of Rochester, which stated the selfdetermination is an important concept that refers to each person's ability to make
choices and manage their own life. Self-determination allows people to feel that they
have control over their choices and lives. It also has an impact on motivation—people
feel more motivated to take action when they feel that what they do will have an effect
on the outcome.
The concept of self-determination has been applied to a wide variety of areas
including education, work, parenting, exercise, and health. Research suggests that
having high self-determination can fosters success in many different domains of life.
Self-determination can play an important role in how people function in many different
areas of their lives. Feeling in control and intrinsically motivated can help people feel
more committed, passionate, interested, and satisfied with the things that they do
(Deci and Ryan 2006).
Also this study utilized the Holland’s Theory which claimed that both people and
work environments can be categorized and then matched to each other. Holland’s
theory aims to categories people according to what type of work they are most
interested in and then categories occupations under the same scheme to measure
their congruence. In Holland’s words, people tend to act on their dominant interests
and seek occupations in which their interests can be expressed (Holland 1996).
Holland’s actual scheme was based around a six point hexagon which focuses
on six types of person and job which are Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social,
Enterprising and Conventional (Holland 1996, Staunton 2015).
This theory also reflects to the study in its very common to Tri bureau, because
the Tri bureau is the main part of the Department of Interior and Local Government
(DILG) under Republic Act 6975. So the relevance of criminology graduates in Tri
bureau is also help of the criminology graduates as member of Philippine National
Police (PNP), Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) and Bureau of Jail Management and
Penology, in terms of Self-determination and their work performance.
Definition of Terms
The following terms are used in the study and define operationally by the researchers.
Faculty – refers to a person who trained and teaches the respondents during their
college days.
Curriculum - it refers to academic subjects acquired by the respondents and its
relevance their present job.
Personal Skills – refers to a skills of the respondents in terms of communication,
problem solving and human relation and in investigation.
Organization – refers to group activities that develops the respondent’s responsibility
towards the organization.
Criminology Graduates – it refers to the respondents of the study and one who
answer the following questions made by the researchers.
Relevance – in this study, it refers relatedness and importance of Criminology
Graduate in law enforcement agencies
Tri Bureau – in this study, it refers to the agencies of the government which pertain to
law enforcement such the Philippine National Police, Bureau of Fire Protection and
Bureau of Jail Management and Penology.
Chapter II
This chapter comprises related studies and literatures on Relevance of
Criminology Graduates in Tri Bureau coming from internet (Thesis, Dissertation,
Report, Journal, News and etc.) as a main source. Thea following literature was
researched to provide related studies on the relevance of DOSCST Criminology
Graduates in the Tri Bureau.
Foreign Literature
Lowe and Schellenberg (2001) pointed out that industries and other business
institutions depend so much on the huge contributions of learning institutions in
providing human machineries shaped in conjunction with their needs. They firmly
believed that successes would primarily depend on the output of these institutions.
Universities’ failure to provide the needed learning arid skills among the graduates
may result to disequilibrating force in the county’s economy. They further mentioned
that, individuals invest time and money in order to become ‘more skilled. Firms and
societies typically invest in human capital for the development of their employees and
citizens in hopes of a future return on these investments.
Ross (2000) mentioned that industries complain that new recruits from schools
sometimes do not have the basic tools that are required. The skills mostly in demand
by the employers, as measured by the wide range of skills asked of future employees,
are typically the least in supply, as measured by the skills, abilities and competencies
that university graduates bring to the job. He emphasized that the goal of education is
to equip children to the best of their ability, for a lively, constructive place in society,
and also to fit them to do a job for work.
Cameron and Chickering (1996) pointed out that the notion of employability
skills development in the university environment continues to challenge traditional
thinking and concepts on higher education and raises the question of the role a
university education provides. The rapidly changing economy has fueled the desire for
university graduates to adapt according this poses a problem for universities because
of growing dichotomy between the purposes of education for employment and
education primarily based on content knowledge for its own sake. Current students
view the purpose of university education as a step to career preparation. Many faculty
members, on the hand continue to uphold the creation of knowledge and the
development of intellectual mind while employers, demand highly skilled-workers.
This comparative study gathered feedback on the importance of employability
capabilities from a range of stakeholders including graduates, employers and teaching
staff. Data was collected from the same group of stakeholders about the proficiency
of graduates in relation to each of the employability capabilities as a result of
graduating from a degree program. Teaching staff, graduates and employers of
graduates from two large undergraduate programs at Curtin University in Western
Australia were surveyed (Ferns, 2012).
In line with this period of globalization, the higher education has been
concerned with the development of the whole person as well as knowledge, attributes,
and skills which any educated person should expect to have by the time of graduation.
It further aims to inspire and enable individuals to develop their capabilities to the
highest potential levels throughout life so that they grow intellectually, contribute
effectively to society, achieve personal fulfillment and are well- equipped for work
(Abas, 2016).
Graduate surveys provide rich experience about the whereabouts of graduates,
which might help to broaden perspectives among administrators, faculty and students.
Such information like the income, economic sector, current job title, working time,
duration of search for the first job, methods of job search, values develop and practice
in work, skills acquired are relevant for higher education institutions to note. In the
study conducted by Lalican (2007) she emphasized that the acquisition of knowledge
in the undergraduate specialization, skills and competencies will also promote
productivity, efficiency and expertise in the graduates’ present job (Guadamor, 2017).
The roles and responsibilities of college and university faculty members are
closely tied to the central functions of higher education. One primary formal description
of these functions was contained in the 1915 "Declaration of Principles" formulated by
a representative committee of faculty members including members of the American
Association of University Professors (AAUP) (Hamrick, 2019).
According to the Declaration, the functions of colleges and universities are "to
promote inquiry and advance the sum of human knowledge, to provide general
instruction to the students, and to develop experts for various branches of the public
service" (Joughin, pp. 163–164). Correspondingly, college and university faculty
members undertake research, teaching, and service roles to carry out the academic
work of their respective institutions (Hamrick, 2019).
Faculty members teaching professional courses shall be holders of at least
masters and baccalaureate degrees in criminology and other related degrees,
registered professionals, with credentials duly authenticated by the Commission or as
may be allowed by the rules, practitioners for at least three (3) years and preferably
with at least one (1) year teaching experience. Faculty members in technical fields of
Photography and Personal Identification shall have at least two (2) years’ experience
and / or related training in such field (CMO No. 5, 2018).
Each of these roles enables faculty members to generate and disseminate
knowledge to peers, students, and external audiences. The balance among teaching,
research, and service, however, differs widely across institution types and by terms of
the faculty member's appointment. The major portion of this article will deal with these
kinds of differences while latter sections will focus on the faculty as collective entities
and related trends within higher education (Hamrick, 2019).
The curriculum of subject is described as a burning pulse of a nation. By viewing
curriculum one can judge the stage of development and its pace of socio-economic
development of a nation. With the advent of new technology, the world has turned into
a global village. In view of tremendous research taking place world over new ideas
and information pours in like of a stream of fresh water, making it imperative to update
the curricula after regular intervals, for introducing latest development and innovation
in the relevant field of knowledge (Ali, 2012).
This programme is developed to provide the young graduates with job oriented
skills to augment employability in particular and producing young professionals to reshape the policies to prevent crime in Pakistan in general. The major objective of this
programme is to provide the students with hands-on-training in the specialized fields
of criminology such as forensic criminology, criminal and juvenile justice systems,
criminal investigation, geographic crime analysis, crime mapping and security related
issues through its extensive internship programme. Special focus has been given on
developing research skills. Students are required to carry out research project/thesis
to uncover the major issues related to the field of criminology (Ali, 2012).
In June 12, 1961, the Philippine College of The goal is for students to
demonstrate proficiency in all the identified competency areas to complete the course
or program (Public Agenda, 2015a,b). During the design process, faculty members
identify competency statements or outcomes, develop assessments, and create
learning materials to support students in the mastery of identified competencies
(Cleary, 2015).
The curriculum is patterned after the leading curricula of the CriminologySchool
standardrecommended by the international society of Criminology. These, however,
are modified to suit the standard requirements of the police, NBI, NISA and
NAPOLCOM. As of June 11, 1956 the Philippine College of Criminology was already,
offering a fourth year course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in
Criminology (BS-Crim.). Among the subjects offered in its baccalaureate program
were Police Science or Criminalistics (which include Questioned Documents,
Dactyloscopy, Investigative Photography, Ballistics, Polygraphy, and Criminal
Investigation), and the acquire liberal arts subjects for the two (2) years in college
(Licudine, et. al 2012).
Personal Skills
The Bachelor of Science in Criminology program is designed to provide
students with knowledge and skills in the study of historical and contemporary patterns
of crime, responses to crime of the society, the causes of criminality in the society and
study of delinquency. It focuses on the processes involved and the functions of the
criminal justice in the country. Regardless of the sophistication of and predictive
validity of selection program, it is almost always necessary to expose newly hired
employees to some kind of training before they can be maximally effective on a new
job, even if the employees are already experienced with the machinery or equipment
they will be operating (Anoyo, 2015).
The purpose of which is to increase the employee’s productive efficiency and
to enhance organizational goal. Training requirements are made more complicated
when the workers had a little actual job experience or being hired for a type of work
they have never performed. The organization’s selection procedures ideally ensure
that new employees have sufficient intelligence, aptitude, skills and attitude to learn a
job (Anoyo, 2015).
The employability skills refer to attributes of employees, other than technical
competence, which make them an asset to an employer. The employability skills have
varied classifications like basic academic skills, higher-order thinking skills and
personal qualities with more detailed skill sets these generic employability skills are
useful across all levels of positions from job entrants to chiefs of offices. Gregson &
Bettis asserted that many employers require applicants to have these skills to be
seriously considered for employment. Similarly, these skills are crucial for employment
and workplace success and serve as basis for lifelong learning needed by graduates
to find a job (Imam, 2016).
The significance of employability skills in work settings is then recognized. The
employability skills adopted in the study are categorized into three areas such as
fundamental, personal management and teamwork skills. The call of the time now is
for employees to enrich and sustain these skills in their work setting and be motivated
in lifelong learning. It is important that they are able to upgrade the skills and to
anticipate and prepare for the future skills required of the workforce. In other words,
they have to achieve competence on the use of employability skills. Such competence
on skills denotes the degree to which an employee demonstrates proficiency and
mastery on the different acquired employability skills (Imam, 2016).
Criminology is a relatively new field, having developed from the broader study
of sociology in the 19th and 20th centuries. Though the job of a criminologist is new,
society in general, and philosophers, clergy and community leaders in particular, have
been studying and learning how to deal with crime throughout human history. Even
though it may not hold the same glamor and excitement of other jobs in criminal justice,
a career as a criminologist is no less important. In fact, for those who are of a more
academic mind, it may present the best opportunity to contribute to the prevention and
treatment of crime (Roufa 2019).
This is showing that criminology graduates are more important in relation to
this circumstances because they were already aware about this kind of situation
and they are knowledgeable since they were fully equipped and trained during
their college days through the academic subjects which divided into six division
such as criminalistics, criminal sociology, criminal jurisprudence, criminal law,
correctional institution and law enforcement agency (Caño, 2010).
Organization roles and responsibilities are the foundation of a successful
business. As the leader of your company, it’s your job to ensure that the organization
roles and responsibilities are well defined so every department and division fits
together as a whole. Employees that understand their roles in a business organization
are more likely to perform their jobs well and feel secure in what they’re doing.
Entrepreneurs that believe in defining organization roles and responsibilities typically
make organizational charts available to their people so that everyone has a clear
picture (Feigenbaum, 2018).
Organizational structure pertains to the way in which companies arrange their
departments. Smaller companies tend to have flatter organizational structures with few
management levels. Larger companies use tall organizational structures with many
echelons of management and employees. Companies use several types of
organizational structure for specific roles. For example, companies using a geographic
organizational structure decentralize various functions like marketing because of
varying regional needs (Suttle, 2018.)
Many companies encourage a team environment. Team members help each
other succeed to accomplish the company's goals and provide their expertise on
different projects and duties. Each team has specific roles and are typically structured
in a functional way. Companies create structural charts that clearly define the types of
roles within departments. In a functional structure, it's designed by hierarchy, which is
when the roles of each group are ranked one above another based on responsibility
(Hollie, 2015).
From time to time, you will have to revisit your organizational structure to ensure
it is still achieving all your objectives. This is especially true when your company
experiences rapid expansion or changes in the work process. Small, startup
companies often avoid formal organizational structures at first, which allows them to
adapt quickly during the early stages of growth. However, as organizations add
employees, confusion and tension can set in without the clarity of an organizational
structure (Feigenbaum, 2018).
Chapter III
This chapter provides an overview of the method that will be used in this
research study, research design, source of data, sampling technique, data gathering
and analysis of data will be applied. The respondents of this study will the relevance
of DOSCST criminology graduate as identified by the researchers.
Research Design
A descriptive research design method will be employed in this study to describe
the relevance of criminology graduates in Tri bureau utilizing survey questionnaire in
the gathering the primary data. According to Fraenkel & Wallen (2003), quantitative
research can be classified as either descriptive or experimental research. The purpose
of using descriptive research is to become more familiar with the phenomena, to gain
new insight, and to formulate a more specific research problem or hypothesis.
However, in descriptive researchers do not have direct control over the independent
variables because their manifestations have already occurred or become they are
inherently not manipulatable (kerlinger & Lee, 2000).
This study use a descriptive quantitative research design, since this identifies,
analyze and describe the extent of relevance of Davao Oriental State College Of
Science And Technology Criminology Graduates in Tri bureau. Furthermore, this study
used a quantitative research design as this study requires any statistical treatment to
validate the result.
Sampling Technique
A sampling technique will be employed by the researcher in the selecting the
respondents using heterogeneous by utilizing the stratified random sampling has
several advantages over simple random sampling (Hayes, 2019). For example,
suppose a research team wants to determine the Employment of Criminology
Graduates in DOSCST. The research team has difficulty collecting data from all 2,000
criminology graduates; it decides to take a stratified random sample of the population
by using 500 Criminology graduates (Hayes, 2019).
Data Gathering
Upon gathering the data, appropriate statistical tools will be based on the data
gathered to answer the specific objectives of this research study.
Specifically, the researchers will go through the following procedures in data
1. Asking permission to conduct study. The researchers will ask permission
from the research panels and will provide the letter of endorsement to the
officials/personnel in the selected tri bureaus.
2. Constructing and validating the questionnaire. The researchers will consult
and add some of the suggestions and ideas of the panels to make the
instrument of the study easier and more valid. Letters are also will go to the
respondents prior to the administration of the survey.
3. Explaining the consent of agreement. When going on the survey, the
consent agreement form will be formulated to safeguard the identity of the
respondents will be comprehensively explained to them. This entails that
researchers will include no person in this study without his/her consent.
4. Administering the survey in the area of study. The researchers, by using
purposive-quota sampling will administer the survey to the personnel in an area
where the researchers will conduct the study. Respondents will be informed
about the proper ratings to the given questionnaires and were briefed to
respond with full honesty. Respondents will be also given enough time to
answer during the survey.
5. Analyses and interpretation. After the questionnaires will be retrieved, the
gathered data will be scored, recorded and classified with the guidance of the
statistician. Results will be analyzed and interpreted based on the purpose of
the study.
Analysis of Data
The researchers will make a set of questions thru constructed questionnaire for
the respondents to answer. The researchers will gather data from the respondents by
personally asking them efficiently specific questions. The researchers must get those
pertinent data from the respondents. After collecting such data, the researchers will
estimate those data and information to evaluate those information and data which will
be very important to answer the objectives of the study.
In coming up with the first objective of this study, the data gathered from the
survey questionnaire will used in order to profile the respondents. The researchers will
formally meet the officials/personnel of selected review centers upon asking
permission to conduct the study regarding the relevance of DOSCST criminology
graduate in Tri Bureau. Right after getting the authorization to conduct such study, the
researchers will automatically provide the questionnaire for the clients to answer the
set of questions in order to determine the socio demographic profile of the
respondents. They will be profiled according to age, sex, and length of service. While
the respondents will answer the questionnaire for their profile, the researchers will
watch them to ensure that the respondents are answering. After the cross tabulation,
the researchers will be able to show the socio-demographic profile of the respondents.
The second objective of the study will determine the level of relevance of the
criminology graduates to Tri bureau in terms of Commitment of Work, Knowledge of
Work, Faculty, Curriculum, Organization, Student Service, and Study Personal Skills.
The researchers will analyses the table that contains interpretation.
For the third objective, in order to examine the significant difference on the
relevance of criminology graduates to tri bureau when grouped across their sociodemographic profile, ANOVA formula will be used. Hence to determine whether any
of difference between the means is statistically significant, compare the p-value with
the significant level to assess the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis states that the
population means were equal and has no significant difference. Usually, a significant
level (denoted as α or alpha) of 0.05 works well. A significant level of 0.05 indicates a
5% risk of concluding that difference exists when there had no actual difference.