fdocuments.in airport-runway

Government College Of Engineering,
Presented ByNikhil Pakwanne
• Rectangular-shaped, paved
surfaces on an airport,
designed for the landing or
takeoff of airplanes.
• Runways may be a manmade surface (often asphalt
concrete, or a mixture of
both) or a natural surface
(grass, dirt, gravel, ice, or
Runway Designations
• Based on a runway’s magnetic
heading, using the 360 degree
compass system
• Runways may be used in
two opposite directions
• All runways have TWO
runway designations
Runway Designations
• The pictured runway is
oriented in the northsouth direction
• The pictured runway
would be designated
Runway 18/36
Runway Incursion Avoidance
Definition of a Runway Incursion:
“any occurrence at an airport involving an
aircraft, vehicle, person, or object on the
ground that creates a collision hazard or
results in loss of separation with an aircraft
taking off or intending to land”
 Primarily caused by errors associated with
clearances, communication, airport surface
movement, and positional awareness.
Runway Incursion Avoidance
Examples of an incursion:
an aircraft or vehicle crossing in front of a:
◦ landing aircraft or aircraft taking off
an aircraft or vehicle:
◦ crossing the runway-holding position marking;
◦ unsure of its position and entering an active runway;
◦ passing behind an aircraft or vehicle that has not vacated the
failure to follow an air traffic control instruction
Runway length
• A runway of at least 6,000 ft (1,800 m) in
length is usually adequate for aircraft weights
below approximately 200,000 lb (90,000 kg).
• Larger aircraft including wide bodies will
usually require at least 8,000 ft (2,400 m) at
sea level and somewhat more at higher
Altitude airports.
• International wide body flights, which carry
substantial amounts of fuel and are therefore
heavier, may also have landing requirements
of 10,000 ft (3,000 m) or more and takeoff
requirements of 13,000 ft (4,000 m).
Runway length
• At sea level, 10,000 ft (3,000 m) can be
considered an adequate length to land
virtually any aircraft.
• An aircraft will need a longer runway at
a higher altitude due to decreased
density of air at higher altitudes, which
reduces lift and engine power, requiring
higher take-off and landing speed
Runway Surface Markings
Runway surface markings are white in colour
Runway Surface Markings
The runway centerline is a broken white stripe
which indicates the center of the runway and
provides alignment guidance for aircraft.
Runway Surface Markings
The runway edge-line is an unbroken white stripe
indicating the edges of the runway, and the edges
of the full-strength pavement.
Runway Surface Markings
Runway threshold markings identify the beginning
of the runway which is available for landing.
Runway Surface Marking
• Displaced Threshold:
▫ A threshold that is moved back usually due to
obstructions, such as trees, powerlines, or
buildings off the end of the runway.
▫ This might prohibit you from making a normal
descent to landing on the initial portion of the
Runway Markings
• Displaced Threshold:
Runway Markings
• Blast Pad/Stopway Area:
▫ Sometimes referred to as an overrun, it is different
from the area preceding a displaced threshold
because it cannot be used for landing, takeoff, or
▫ The blast pad is where propeller or jet blast can
dissipate without creating a hazard to others.
▫ The “overrun” aspect comes in the fact that the
blast pad is paved, allowing aircraft more room to
come to a stop after an aborted takeoff.
Runway Markings
• Blast Pad/Stopway Area:
Runway Lighting
Runway Edge Lights:• Single row of white lights bordering each side of runway and lights
identifying the runway threshold
•Three Intensity Levels: High Intensity (HIRLs), Medium Intensity
runway lights (MIRLs), and Low intensity runway lights (LIRLs)
• Elevated edge-lights identify the runway edges during
adverse visibility conditions
•Some are Pilot Controlled, some ATC controlled
Approach Lighting Systems
• REILs (Runway End Identifier Lights)
▫ High intensity white strobe lights that are places
on each side of the runway to mark the threshold.
Approach Lighting Systems
• In-Runway Lighting
▫ Some precision approach lighting systems have lights
mounted flush with the surface of the runway.
▫ The runway centerline lighting system (RCLS) is white
until the last 3,000 ft.
 From the 3,000 ft. point to the 1,000 ft. point, alternating
red and white lights appear.
 The remaining 1,000 ft. are red lights.
▫ Touchdown Zone Lighting
 Two rows of transverse light bars on either side of the
runway centerline starting at 100 ft. from the threshold
and extending 3,000 ft. or to the midpoint of the runway.
Approach Lighting Systems
• In -Runway Lighting:
• A paved surface designed
for the movement of aircraft
from one part of the airport to
Taxiway Surface Markings
ALL taxiway surface markings are yellow.
Taxiway centerline markings indicate the center of the
Taxiway Surface Markings
 Double yellow taxiway edge-lines indicate the
edges of the taxiway as well as the edge of fullstrength pavement
Taxiway Surface Markings
Taxiway Shoulder Markings consist of transverse stripes
extending from the taxiway edge markings into paved
areas which are not intended for aircraft use
 paved areas which are unsuitable for
aircraft may be painted green.
Taxiway Surface Markings
Runway Hold Lines are located on taxiways which
intersect runways
All aircraft and vehicles must hold short of the
runway at the hold line.
Taxiway Surface Markings
Hold Lines are located at the intersection of a taxiway
and a runway.
Aircraft/vehicles must hold on the solid side of
the hold line.
Taxiway Lighting
Taxiway edge-lights are blue
in color
 Taxiway edge lighting
identifies the edge of a
taxiway during periods of
darkness or reduced visibility.
In-pavement: Taxiway centerline lights are
green in color
Taxiway Lighting
Runway Guard Lights
•Two Types: Elevated and In-Pavement
• Elevated Runway Guard Lights consist of two
alternating, flashing yellow lights
Taxiway Lighting
Runway Guard Lights
• In-pavement Runway Guard Lights
consist of flashing yellow lights, which
extend across the taxiway, parallel to the
hold line
Taxiway Lighting
In-pavement Runway Guard Lights
Extend across hold line
Taxilanes (Alleys/Alleyways)
A paved surface used for access
between taxiways and
Ramp (gate) areas
Taxilane Surface Markings
Taxilanes have either solid white or yellow
lead-in lines
Ramp/Apron Area Surface
Wing-clearance lines are white or red.
Active Runway
• The active runway is the runway at an airport
that is in use for takeoffs and landings. Since
takeoffs and landings are usually done as close
to "into the wind" as possible, wind direction
generally determines the active runway.
• Selection of the active runway, however,
depends on a number of factors. At a nontowered airport, pilots usually select the runway
most nearly aligned with the wind, but they are
not obliged to use that particular runway.
• At controlled airports, the active is usually
determined by a tower supervisor.
Active runway
• At major airports with multiple runways,
the active could be any of a number of
• At major airports, the active runway is
based on weather conditions (visibility and
ceiling, as well as wind, and runway
conditions such as wet/dry or snow
covered), efficiency, traffic demand and
time of day
Section of runway
• The Runway Safety Area is the cleared,
smoothed and graded area around the
paved runway. It is kept free from any
obstacles that might impede flight or
ground roll of aircraft.
• The Runway is the surface from threshold
to threshold, which typically features
threshold markings, numbers, centerlines,
but not overrun areas at both ends.
Runway safety
 Types of runway safety incidents include:
• Runway excursion - an incident involving only a
single aircraft, where it makes an inappropriate exit
from the runway.
• Runway overrun - a type of excursion where the
aircraft is unable to stop before the end of the
• Runway incursion - an incident involving incorrect
presence of a vehicle, person or another aircraft on
the runway
• Runway confusion - an aircraft makes use of the
wrong runway for landing or take-off
• The choice of material used
to construct the runway
depends on the use and the
local ground conditions.
• For a major airport, where
the ground conditions
permit, the most satisfactory
type of pavement for longterm minimum maintenance
is concrete.
• Although certain airports have used
reinforcement in concrete pavements, this is
generally found to be unnecessary, with the
exception of expansion joints across the runway
where a dowel assembly, which permits relative
movement of the concrete slabs, is placed in the
• Post-tensioning concrete has been developed
for the runway surface. This permits the use of
thinner pavements and should result in longer
concrete pavement life.
Pavement surface
• Runway pavement surface is prepared and
maintained to maximize friction for wheel
• To minimize hydroplaning following heavy
rain, the pavement surface is usually
grooved so that the surface water film flows
into the grooves and the peaks between
grooves will still be in contact with the
aircraft tires.
Surface Type Codes
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter
The most common hard surface types are Asphalt and Concrete. The most
common soft surface types are Grass and Gravel.
ASP: Asphalt
BIT: Bituminous Asphalt or Tarmac
BRI: Bricks (no longer in use, covered
with Asphalt or Concrete now)
CLA: Clay
COM: Composite
CON: Concrete
COP: Composite
GRS: Grass or earth not graded or
COR: Coral (Coral reef structures)
GRE: Graded or rolled earth, Grass
on graded earth
GVL: Gravel
LAT: Laterite
ICE: Ice
MAC: Macadam
PEM: Partially Concrete, Asphalt or
Bitumen-bound Macadam
PER: Permanent Surface, Details
PSP: Marsden Matting (Derived from
Pierced/Perforated Steel Planking)
SAN: Sand
SNO: Snow
U: Unknown surface
Runway markings
• There are runway markings and signs on most
large runways. Larger runways have a distance
remaining sign (black box with white numbers).
This sign uses a single number to indicate the
thousands of feet remaining, so 7 will indicate
7,000 ft (2,134 m) remaining. The runway
threshold is marked by a line of green lights.
Runway markings
 There are three types of runways:
• Visual runways are used at small airstrips and are usually just a
strip of grass, gravel, asphalt or concrete. Although there are
usually no markings on a visual runway, they may have threshold
markings, designators, and centerlines. Additionally, they do not
provide an instrument-based landing procedure; pilots must be
able to see the runway to use it. Also, radio communication may
not be available and pilots must be self-reliant.
• Non-precision instrument runways are often used at small- to
medium-size airports. These runways, depending on the surface,
may be marked with threshold markings, designators,
centerlines, and sometimes a 1,000 ft (305 m) mark (known as
an aiming point, sometimes installed at 1,500 ft (457 m)). They
provide horizontal position guidance to planes on instrument
approach via Non-directional beacon (NDB), VHF omnidirectional
range (VOR), Global Positioning System, etc.
Runway markings
• Precision instrument runways, which are found at
medium- and large-size airports, consist of a blast
pad/stopway,threshold, designator, centerline, aiming
point, and 500 ft (152 m), 1,000 ft (305 m)/1,500 ft
(457 m), 2,000 ft (610 m), 2,500 ft (762 m), and
3,000 ft (914 m) touchdown zone marks. Precision
runways provide both horizontal and vertical
guidance for instrument approaches.
• Airport Planning & Design
by Khanna & Arora
• http://en.wikipedia.org