SUPPLY Supply Supply may be defined as the quantity of a good that producers wish to produce and sell over a period of time at a given price, other things being equal. It therefore depicts a relationship between quantity supplied and price. Laws of Supply Ceteris Paribus, a greater quantity will be supplied at a higher price, because at a higher price costs can be covered. At lower prices less will be supplied. The relationship between price and quantity supplied is therefore said to be a positive one. Supply Schedules This shows the relationship between quantity supplied of a product and the price of the product, other things being equal. Price in $ 1 2 3 4 5 6 Quantity Supplied 10 20 30 40 50 60 Supply Curve This is a graphical representation of the supply schedule. It shows the relationship between quantity supplied and price. The positive slope indicates that as price increases, quantity supplied also increases. Slopes upwards from left to right Supply Curve Determinant of Supply There is only one determinant of supply and that is its price. As such changes in price leads to a movement along the supply curve. Price: increases in price of a product, assuming ceteris paribus, would lead to more being supplied, because at a higher price firms can cover their variable costs. As such there is a movement from one point to the next (contraction/ expansion) A movement along the Supply Curve Conditions of Supply These causes a shift of the entire supply curve, resulting from a fall/ increase in supply. Price of inputs or factors of production: inputs are the materials such as labor and machinery that are used to produce outputs. As the price of these materials, assuming ceteris paribus, increase so to does the firms cost of production, this leads to a decrease in profits. Conditions of Supply Therefore firms would produce and offer fewer products for sale. A rise in price of inputs causes a leftward shift of the supply curve. A fall in the price of inputs causes a rightward shift of the supply curve. This occurs as the cost of production falls. A Leftward shift of the Supply Curve A rightward shift of the Supply Curve Conditions of Supply Technology: at any given point in time, what is produced and how it is produced depends on our technological know how. Advancements in technology that decreases the costs of production will lead to increases in profits and would lead to a rightward shift of the supply curve. This shift indicates, producers increased willingness to produce and sell more at every given price. Conditions of Supply Number of suppliers: for any given set of prices and technology, how much is supplied depends upon the number of firms producing that product and putting it on the market for sale. An increase in the number of suppliers will shift the supply curve to the right; conversely a decrease would shift the curve to the left. Market Supply Curves To determine the market supply curve, we simply add the quantities of each individual firm at each given price. The market supply curve is an aggregation of the individual firms supply curves. Market Supply Curves Elasticity of Supply This measures the degree of responsiveness of quantity supplied to changes in the price of products. Es = % ∆ in Qs % ∆ in P OR ∆ Qs * P Qs ∆P Categories Elastic: Es > 1 Changes in quantity supplied are more than responsive to changes in price, all other things remaining constant. Inelastic: Es < 1 Changes in quantity supplied are less than responsive to changes in price, all other things remaining constant. Categories Unit Elasticity: Es = 1 Changes in quantity supplied are proportionate to the changes in price, assuming ceteris paribus. Determinants Time: In the long run elasticity of supply may be greater, because firms can react to price changes. Entrepreneurial risk taking: the more that investors are willing to risk, by producing more goods and services, the greater the elasticity. Determinants Production process constraints: some firms face limits on what they can produce, in some instances large factories may be needed to produce the goods and services, therefore suppliers may not be able to quickly increase/ decrease their production of goods and services as price changes. Exercise Explain the difference between a change in quantity supplied and a change of supply. Distinguish between a movement along the supply curve and a shift of the supply curve. Discuss the effects of a hurricane/ natural disaster on the production of sugarcane in the Caribbean.