BACKGROUND Throughout much of history, human populations have been characterized by relative stability―high birth rates and high death rates fluctuating around a low growth equilibrium. For thousands of years, the large number of births were canceled by the large number of deaths. Following the Neolithic Revolution, when agriculture was developed, humans were able to transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a more sedentary lifestyle. The infant mortality rate (infant deaths/1000 live births) was high, which led to an increase in the total fertility rate (the average number of children born to each woman). 1. Identify two likely reasons why the infant mortality rate w as high. 2. Explain why a high infant mortality rate would lead to a higher total fertility rate. Dramatic changes followed the Industrial Revolution 250 years ago, when improvements in food supply and changes in health and hygiene triggered unprecedented population growth. Around 150 years ago, significant improvements were made in the medical field that extended life expectancy. 3. Identify two medical advancements that likely extended life expectancy. A positive rate of natural increase (RNI) is an increase in the number of people because the crude birth rate (or CBR: births/1000 people) exceeds the crude death rate (or CDR: deaths/1000 people). RNI is expressed as a percentage. 4. What does “percent” mean? Express percent as a fraction. 5. What does “crude” mean? Express crude as a fraction. 6. Explain why dividing CRUDE data by 10 results in a percentage. Express this information mathematically. The World Population Data Sheet includes demographic information for every country in the world. 7. Complete the table to the right for the world and for developed countries. 8. In addition to the demographic information on the table to the right, what other useful information is found in this data sheet? PROCEDURE: NIGERIA CALCULATIONS After lurching from one military coup to another, Nigeria now has an elected leadership. But the government faces the growing challenge of preventing Africa's most populous country from breaking apart along ethnic and religious lines. Nigeria's insecurity has added to its economic woes, hindering foreign investment. The former British colony is one of the world's largest oil producers, but few Nigerians, including those in oil-producing areas, have benefited. 1. Based on the above information, identify and describe how Nigeria would compare with the world in each category. a. CBR b. CDR c. Infant Mortality d. TFR Consult the World Population Data Sheet to complete the table to the right. 3. How did your prior predictions compare? 2. Consult the equation for determining % RNI (which is likely in your notes, as one could hope). 5. Calculate the % RNI for Nigeria. Show all work. 4. DOUBLING TIME 6. If a population’s growth rate (%) increases at a constant rate, it is possible to calculate the amount of time it will take for that population to double, known as doubling time. To approximate this quantity in years, divide 70 by the growth rate, according to the formula to the right. 7. Calculate the doubling time for Nigeria. Show all work. PROCEDURE: INDIA CALCULATIONS India is the world's largest democracy and, according to UN estimates, its population is expected to overtake China's in 2028 to become the world's most populous nation. As a rising economic powerhouse and nuclear-armed state, India has emerged as an important regional power. But it is also tackling huge, social, economic and environmental problems. Home to some of the world's most ancient surviving civilizations, India is both vast and varied in terms of people, language and cultural traditions. 8. Based on the above information, identify and describe how India would compare with the world in each category. a. CBR b. CDR c. Infant Mortality d. TFR Consult the World Population Data Sheet to complete the table to the right. 10. How did your prior predictions compare? 9. 11. Consult the equation for determining % RNI (which is likely in your notes, as one could hope). 12. Calculate the % RNI for India. Show all work. DOUBLING TIME 13. If a population’s growth rate (%) increases at a constant rate, it is possible to calculate the amount of time it will take for that population to double, known as doubling time. To approximate this quantity in years, divide 70 by the growth rate, according to the formula to the right. 14. Calculate the doubling time for India. Show all work. PROCEDURE: CHINA CALCULATIONS China is the world's most populous country, with a continuous culture stretching back nearly 4,000 years. Many of the elements that make up the foundation of the modern world originated in China, including paper, gunpowder, credit banking, the compass and paper money. China stagnated for more than two decades under the rigid Communist rule of the founder of the People's Republic, Mao Zedong. But China now has the world's fastest-growing economy and is undergoing what has been described as a second industrial revolution. 15. Based on the above information, identify and describe how China would compare with the world in each category. a. CBR b. CDR c. Infant Mortality d. TFR 16. Consult the World Population Data Sheet to complete the table to the right. 17. How did your prior predictions compare? 18. Consult the equation for determining % RNI (which is likely in your notes, as one could hope). 19. Calculate the % RNI for China. Show all work. DOUBLING TIME 20. If a population’s growth rate (%) increases at a constant rate, it is possible to calculate the amount of time it will take for that population to double, known as doubling time. To approximate this quantity in years, divide 70 by the growth rate, according to the formula to the right. 21. Calculate the doubling time for China. Show all work. PROCEDURE: MEXICO CALCULATIONS Mexico is a nation where affluence, poverty, natural splendour and urban blight rub shoulders. It has the second-largest economy in Latin America, and is a major oil exporter. But prosperity remains a dream for many Mexicans, and the socio-economic gap remains wide. Rural areas are often neglected, and huge shanty towns ring the cities. Many poor Mexicans have sought to cross the 3,000-km border with the US in search of a job, but in recent years more Mexicans immigrants have returned to Mexico than migrated to the US. 22. Based on the above information, identify and describe how Mexico would compare with the world in each category. a. CBR b. CDR c. Infant Mortality d. TFR 23. Consult the World Population Data Sheet to complete the table to the right. 24. How did your prior predictions compare? 25. Consult the equation for determining % RNI (which is likely in your notes, as one could hope). 26. Calculate the % RNI for Mexico. Show all work. DOUBLING TIME 27. If a population’s growth rate (%) increases at a constant rate, it is possible to calculate the amount of time it will take for that population to double, known as doubling time. To approximate this quantity in years, divide 70 by the growth rate, according to the formula to the right. 28. Calculate the doubling time for Mexico. Show all work. PROCEDURE: FRANCE CALCULATIONS France is known the world over for its cuisine, fashion, culture and language. A key player on the global stage and a country at the political heart of Europe, France paid a high price in both economic and human terms during the two world wars. The years which followed saw protracted conflicts culminating in independence for Algeria and most other French colonies in Africa, as well as decolonisation in south-east Asia. France was one of the founding fathers of European integration as the continent sought to rebuild after the devastation of the Second World War. 29. Based on the above information, identify and describe how India would compare with the world in each category. a. CBR b. CDR c. Infant Mortality d. TFR 30. Consult the World Population Data Sheet to complete the table to the right. 31. How did your prior predictions compare? 32. Consult the equation for determining % RNI (which is likely in your notes, as one could hope). 33. Calculate the % RNI for India. Show all work. DOUBLING TIME 34. If a population’s growth rate (%) increases at a constant rate, it is possible to calculate the amount of time it will take for that population to double, known as doubling time. To approximate this quantity in years, divide 70 by the growth rate, according to the formula to the right. 35. Calculate the doubling time for India. Show all work. PROCEDURE: UNITED STATES CALCULATIONS The USA is the world's foremost economic and military power, with global interests and an unmatched global reach. America's gross domestic product accounts for close to a quarter of the world total, and its military budget is reckoned to be almost as much as the rest of the world's defence spending put together. The country is also a major source of entertainment: American TV, Hollywood films, jazz, blues, rock and rap music are primary ingredients in global popular culture. 36. Based on the above information, identify and describe how the United States would compare with the world in each category. a. CBR b. CDR c. Infant Mortality d. TFR 37. Consult the World Population Data Sheet to complete the table to the right. 38. How did your prior predictions compare? 39. Consult the equation for determining % RNI (which is likely in your notes, as one could hope). 40. Calculate the % RNI for the United States. Show all work. DOUBLING TIME 41. If a population’s growth rate (%) increases at a constant rate, it is possible to calculate the amount of time it will take for that population to double, known as doubling time. To approximate this quantity in years, divide 70 by the growth rate, according to the formula to the right. 42. Calculate the doubling time for the United States. Show all work. PROCEDURE: DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION In your own words, describe DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. DIRECTIONS: During this section, you will complete the graphing activity for the country you graphed during 2.6 AGE STRUCTURE DIAGRAM Lab. I NDICATE YOUR COUNTRY: 43. Consult the GLOBAL POPULATION DATA chart and highlight the appropriate column for your country. 44. On the grid to the right, construct a graph with three distinct lines: a. CBR b. CDR c. Total Population (scale on right) 45. Make a key for your graph in the margin. 46. Considering that crude birth rates above 30 are considered high, and rates of less than 18 are considered low, how would you describe the CBR of your country? a. in 1950? b. in 2015? 47. Considering that crude death rates above 20 are considered high, and rates of less than 10 are considered low, how would you describe the CDR of your country? a. in 1950? b. in 2015? 48. Based on what you read about demographic transition, identify and describe the phase of demographic transition of your country in both 1950 and 2015. E xplain why or why not a transition occurred. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………