PERSUASIVE SPEECH PORTFOLIO ANIMAL TESTING NAME: NURSYAKIRA BINTI MARWAN ID NUM: 2017193461 LECTURER NAME: MS DIANE SIMA GROUP: EH220-1 SUBMISSION DATE: MAY 4, 2018 ELC 590 PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE Student’s Name: Nursyakira binti Marwan Matric Number: 2017193461 Faculty/Group: Faculty of Chemical Engineering/ EH2201 Lecturer: Ms Diane Sima anak Douglas Telajan Title: Animal Testing General Purpose: To persuade Specific purpose: To persuade the audience that animal testing is cruel and unnecessary. Central idea: INTRODUCTION I. Each Year, over 100 million animals are used for animal testing worldwide. Animals are being used from all over for animal testing that ranges from drugs to our simple everyday shampoo. Almost every medicine or treatment you have ever used has been tested on innocent animals for your benefit. II. I have a cat at home that I absolutely love, and would never want to see her get hurt, or see something bad happen to her. Most of us all have pets at home, and if we don't, we definitely know someone that a beloved pet. Could you imagine seeing your pet get tortured for your own sake? Animal testing has become the sole method to testing products and medications prior to human use. III. We need to work together to stop animal testing. IV. To fully understand the terrible act of animal testing, I will first answer what animal testing is exactly, then I will explain how it affects both the animals and us, and finally we will learn how to take steps to stopping animal testing, and the alternatives to animal testing. BODY 1) Animal testing is a cruel procedure, and there are many things that we need to know about it to fully understand it. A. It is inhumane/ cruel. 1. They are forced to endure chemicals and products being put on their skin, eyes, stomach, and lungs. 2. Animal testing isn’t even 100 % accurate, because animal’s biological makeup is different than our own, and the results are usually misleading. 3. According to the website Peta.org’s Animal Testing 101 article, “Monkeys are addicted to drugs and have holes drilled into their skulls, sheep and pigs have their skin burned off and rats have their spinal cords crushed. Tiny mice grow tumors as large as their own bodies, kittens are purposely blinded, and rats are made to suffer seizures. B. Secondly, we should stop supporting animal testing because there are non-animalbased alternatives available. 1. Non-animal research methods, including human-based micro-dosing, in vitro technology, human-patient simulators, and computer modelling are available. Transition: Next, we will visit the effects that animal testing has on both animals and humans. 2) Animal Testing is a cruel, unnecessary act that negatively affects both animals and humans. A. Animals are not the best method to test chemical products on, because their biological makeup differs from ours, like I stated earlier. 1. All of the side effects of animal testing are negative to them, and include conditions such as Illness, skin irritation, pain, genetic mutation, and almost always result in death. >(Visual ) In Time Magazine’s article How Much Does Animal Testing Tell Us? By Laura Blue, a significant point is mentioned, “We often hear you can't give aspirin to cats because it's toxic to them, or you shouldn't give chocolate to dogs. Chocolate, which is very safe in humans, is not safe in dogs.” B. Next, it has also been scientifically proven that animal’s feel pain and emotion cognitively as well. 1. The animals come from many places such as zoos, compounds, and breeders. Although the animals may be suffering physically from the pain and torture, they are also suffering by being taken away from their home environment’s and family’s. Transition: Let me tell you how you can be part of the change to prohibit animal testing. 3) One of the things we can do to stop animal testing, is buy cruelty-free products A. Cruelty free companies are businesses that do not support animal suffering. 1. Example of cruelty free companies are Urban Decay, The Body Shop, KleanSpa, Marc Anthony, Too Faced B. Along with our efforts to put an end to animal testing, it is also important to know the alternatives to it. 1. An in vitro human skin equivalent was created to directly mimic all the characteristics of human skin. 2. According to the article Human Skin Equivalent as an Alternative to Animal Testing by Heike Mertshing and Michaela Weimer “The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing.” Transition: By learning all about the cruelties of animal testing, it is time for us to make a change and to put a stop to it once and for all Conclusion I. Now that we know how cruel and unnecessary animal testing is, we can take steps to putting it to an end. II. We now know what animal testing is, how it affects us and the animals, and what we can do to stop it. III. If you can't imagine seeing your innocent pet getting tortured day in and day out why should any other similar animal have to do the same? Articles How Much Does Animal Testing Tell Us? By Laura Blue Tuesday, June 17, 2008 Not a week goes by without news of a lab breakthrough using rats or mice. But of all the promising medical interventions that make it to animal trials, only a fraction seem to translate into major breakthroughs for humans. Frankie Trull, president of the non-profit Foundation for Biomedical Research (a promoter of responsible animal testing), explains the promise and the pitfalls of pre-clinical trials. China Photos / Getty A worker feeds white rats at an animal laboratory of a medical school on in Chongqing Municipality, China. Q: What do animal trials really tell us about humans? A: Animals are surrogates for humans. The basic reason for animal trials is to determine two issues before any new compound is introduced into a human: safety and efficacy, whether a compound is safe for human ingestion and also whether or not a product works for its intended purpose. Really that process begins way before we get to animals. But at some point in the process it is critical to understand how a compound, let's say, a hypertension medication, works in a whole living system. You can't just determine how it works on blood pressure or the heart. You need to know how it would affect all the organs. That really is the whole purpose of using a complex biological system known as an animal. There is no question that, despite the excellent results that come out of lots of preclinical trials, the human is the ultimate animal model — and sometimes a potential downside to a new compound is not identified until it gets to a human. We often hear you can't give aspirin to cats because it's toxic to them, or you shouldn't give chocolate to dogs. Chocolate, which is very safe in humans, is not safe in dogs. But when you go back and look at how many compounds fail before they ever get to humans, [it's clear] animals do play a really important role in at least giving early signals — and it's a constantly evolving science. Over the past 60 years, scientists have figured out what works best in what models. The vast majority of animal testing [today] is in rodents, either rats or mice. Rodents, particularly mice, have very short life spans, so you can see how a compound would react in a young animal, then in the same geriatric animal, and then in the next-generation animal, all in a time frame that is reasonable. Then if a product or a compound is determined to be safe in a rodent, another species is used. For example, if it's a neurological compound, oftentimes the cat is the preferred model because the neurological system of the cat more closely mimics that of a human. If it's a cardiovascular study, it might be a dog (although dogs are not used as frequently as they might have been a decade ago, since scientists have determined that pigs also serve as excellent models for some cardiovascular work). Scientists really do try to go that extra mile to find the species that will most accurately mimic how the compound would work in a human. We're focusing right now in one of our programs on the horse. It has very similar osteoarthritis conditions to humans, but it shows them in a much more compressed period of time. Many, many species [are used in trials]. Of course, science is always making progress. You read a lot about these very special rodents, animals we call "transgenic animals." [That means] if you're studying diabetes, the mice have diabetes, so you can go right to specific disease targets in a much more expeditious way that you could in the old days. In the old days you just hoped they got diabetes. Also, as the scientific community is understanding more and more about the genome, whether it's the human genome or the fruit fly genome, they're better able to identify gene markers, to target them and start developing compounds that point to those specific diseases. Increasingly scientists are also looking at non-animal models to provide more and more answers. That's not only going to decrease the number of animals used in certain experiments but, more important for many, speed up the [drug approval] process. It's everybody's hope [that one day we could replace animal trials entirely with computer modeling]. But I don't think it'll happen during my lifetime. People in the research community will be the first to tell you they still don't know enough about how the complex living organism works in order to duplicate it. Animals are not perfect. They're definitely not a perfect mimic of a human, but they're [still] as close as we're going to get without using a human. ARTICLE 2 The Process Drug development is time consuming and costly. In principle, if all the processes are straight-forward, a drug can be developed in a seven year period. In practice, drug development takes in excess of twelve years. Procedures are tightly regulated both for safety and to ensure drugs are effective. Of the many compounds studied with the potential to become a medicine, most are eliminated during the initial research phases. Clinical trials follow extensive research using in vitro and animal studies. Even so, many drugs are withdrawn or fail, never becoming approved as medicines. Common reasons include side-effects, the drug proving less effective than hoped or lacking financial viability. Computer Modelling Drug development often begins with a design process. A target for the drug is identified and computers are used to show which structural features of a molecule are likely to have biological activity. Thousands of compounds are screened using simulations and modelling processes, of which around a few hundred compounds will be investigated to determine their potential as drugs. In vitro research Initial tests are carried out to see the action of the compounds on individual cells containing the drug target. These studies are largely automated processes, which examine particular actions of a large number of different compounds on individual cells. From these tests the basic pharmacokinetic properties of each compound will be determined, and large numbers of the compounds developed during the design stage will be eliminated as unsuitable for drug development. The remaining compounds are studied in single cells and in vitro tissue preparations in more detail by research teams to determine their biological activity in detail. Those which have a potential application as drugs are then developed more fully. Exploratory development Of the thousands of potential drugs screened, only a few will reach the development stage. The effect of the drug on the systems of the body, rather than at the target site are investigated, using non-animal techniques such as computer modelling, further in vitro studies, and the first animal tests. These will investigate delivery systems, by which the drug will reach its target site within the body, further pharmacokinetic properties and pharmacodynamic properties of the drug. These initial tests will usually be carried out on rats or mice, unless the target for the drug is specific to a disease where particular models must be used. Even if drugs developed to this stage prove to have no therapeutic value, they may be useful as research tools, and developed for use in basic physiological studies. Full development The purpose of this stage is to find out more about how the drug works, and its potential for use clinically. Drugs which have a potential therapeutic application undergo a thorough development process. They are studied in several animal models, alongside continuing research into their effects in vitro. These two approaches to research complement each other, as in vitro studies can give information about the specific effects of a drug at a particular site, while in vivo animal studies give information about the effects of the drug on a whole, living system, and how it affects the interactions between different organs of the body. These studies will include a full assessment of drug delivery systems, preliminary safety testing, studies of possible drug interactions and other side effects. Clinical Trials Clinical trials are medical studies in humans, and may begin relatively early in the development process. The first trials are intended to verify the findings of previous studies in animals and models. They follow set protocols so that they can assess the actions of the drug in humans, with particular attention to how their physiology may differ from the animals used during the development process. Licensing of medicines Medicines which have completed research and development processes, and which have undergone successful screening in clinical trials must apply for a product licence. The application for licence must be submitted to the appropriate regulatory body for the country where the medicine will be sold. Each regulatory body has their own submissions and approval processes. ARTICLE 3 Top Five Reasons to Stop Animal Testing Written by PETA What’s wrong with animal testing? Poisoning, shocking, burning, and killing animals is all in a day’s work for vivisectors. If these atrocious acts were committed outside laboratories, they would be felonies. But animals suffer and die every day in laboratories with little or no protection from cruelty. Here are the top five reasons why it needs to stop: 1. It’s unethical. It’s unethical to sentence 100 million thinking, feeling animals to life in a laboratory cage and intentionally cause them pain, loneliness, and fear. 2. It’s bad science. The Food and Drug Administration reports that 92 out of every 100 drugs that pass animal tests fail in humans. 3. It’s wasteful. Animal experiments prolong the suffering of people waiting for effective cures by misleading experimenters and squandering precious money, time, and resources that could have been spent on human-relevant research. 4. It’s archaic. Forward-thinking scientists have developed humane, modern, and effective non-animal research methods, including human-based microdosing, in vitro technology, human-patient simulators, and sophisticated computer modeling, that are cheaper, faster, and more accurate than animal tests. ARTICLE 4 5 Reasons Testing on Animals Makes No Sense By Alexis Crosswell, December 4,2013 Animal testing is a hot button issue with a multitude of opinions on each side. It’s an industry where there are entire companies dedicated to the breeding of animals used for experimental purposes. You can order whatever sort of beagle, rat, pig or mouse (to mention a few) that your laboratory wants to test on. Universities, corporations and companies all play a part in perpetuating the use of animals as research subjects. But it doesn’t need to be this way. The future of research is becoming more humane and positive each day. To start helping animals, it is important to understand the issue of animal testing and we hope that this article gives you a beneficial overview of the topic. We encourage you to share this information with friends and people you know. We do not need to continue testing on animals, and here are five great reasons why. 1. Alternative testing technologies exist. Humane alternatives are out there, and they’re becoming more accurate as technology improves. Here’s just a sampling of some of the new testing technologies that have the potential to replace animal experimentation for good: A newly developed technology created by professor James Hickman, at the University of Central Florida, mimics standard human muscular function which allows researchers to monitor muscular function and its response to different treatments without using human or animal subjects. Bioengineering PhD student Alan Faulkner-Jones began pioneering the use of 3-D printing to replace medical animal testing. A team of Maryland scientists is “using adult stem cells that can grow into cells from just about any of the body’s organs, which they believe will allow them to more accurately and more quickly test effects of a toxin or a drug–potentially any substance–on a person, eliminating the need for animal subjects.” Entire organizations such as New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS), Physician’s Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS), American AntiVivisection Society (AAVS), to name a few, are dedicated to raising awareness about animal testing and supporting and developing humane and accurate alternatives, which are becoming increasingly available. Soon, there will be no excuse not to use alternatives. 2. Public awareness about animal testing is growing. Did you know that even items like contact lenses, pet food, diapers, Splenda, and some “green” cleaning products are tested on animals? If you didn’t, now you do. It’s now simpler than ever to get information on what products are tested on animals, and in some cases even know how the research is performed (check out our list of ten commonly performed experiments on animals for more information). We may not be able to end all forms of animal testing as quickly as we want, such as experiments in medical facilities or at pharmaceutical companies, but we can control what we purchase. We can also let our universities know that we do not support testing on animals. 3. Cruelty-free products are on the rise. Websites like the Leaping Bunny, and PETA’s cruelty-free search engine make it easy to start finding products that do not test on animals. Brands like Lush use their anti-animal testing stance as a selling point and to raise awareness. We have published shopping guides on crueltyfreemascara, shampoo, and lip balm, as well as a guide on recognizing animal ingredients in makeup, illustrating that cruelty-free is becoming the preferred choice for many conscious companies. From our article on vivisection (which is also worth a read), Caroline Lennon compiled this super helpful list of companies and products that are 100 percent vegan (i.e. no animal testing and no products derived from animals): Companion animal food: Natural Balance Cosmetics: Beauty Without Cruelty Household goods: Method Office supplies (incl. pens): Pilot Skincare: Hugo Natural Products Supplements and vitamins: NuTru In addition, we can now ensure that our charitable contributions are not going toward non-human animal experiments. Animal Aid and Humane Seal provide information to donors on which charities are cruelty-free. 4. Non-human animals are imperfect analogs for the human body. In the words of Biomedical Science and Electrical Engineering Professor James Hickman, “We have cured over 200 diseases in rats and mice that hasn’t translated to humans because our physiology is different, a lot of the basic functions you know … There is all kinds of things a rat can do that looks like things that we are doing. The problem is the small little modifiers, you know the channels and the receptors in those cells are just a little different than ours.” Physiologist Ajay Chawla of the University of California in reference to testing on mice, said, “An important issue that I think most of us have ignored … I tell my colleagues, ‘You’re modelling human disease and pathology in an organism that is like somebody who is on speed.’” According to NAVS, “People, in general, have longer life expectancies than most nonhuman species, metabolize substances differently, and are exposed to a multitude of different environmental factors over our lifetimes. Diseases that develop in people differ in significant ways from artificially imposed symptoms or in animals that have been genetically engineered.” There are a wide variety of studies and books that demonstrate the weak link between testing on non-human animals and producing usable results. To scratch the surface, visit Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Health Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, read research by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, and catch up on chapters dedicated to the subject in Peter Singer’s “Animal Liberation.” 5. Animal testing has no place in our modern world. It was a sad day when the first animal was used in an experiment for human benefit — when the human race decided that because we could, because they cannot say no, we would use them as test subjects. These animals have a right to live in a world without suffering just as much as we do. We should know by now that asserting our dominance over another species does not make us look strong, but rather makes us look weak, as if we’re moving backward, not forward. We have the capacity to research and develop alternatives that are more accurate and more humane. These alternatives, medically and within product testing, are the way of the future. It’s time to let animals out of the world’s laboratories. ARTICLE 5 Animal testing: Lets choose cruelty-free products Natasha Fernz | Published on 30 Apr 2007, 4:41 pm | Modified on 29 Jan 2008, 6:21 pm I have only recently discovered that cruel forms of animal testing are also conducted by manufacturers of pet foods and products. There are some who actually believe that animal testing is necessary, and there are some who are unaware that such things happen. So what do I really think of animal testing? Previously, I was of the opinion that perhaps some animal testing is necessary to ensure that products are safe for human consumption or use. But since I discovered the horrific truth that even manufacturers of pet products are guilty of such things, I took the initiative to do quite a bit of research on this matter, and learnt otherwise. Over the past few days, I have read lots and learnt that for most products (for human and animal consumption), animal testing is not only unnecessary but is grossly inaccurate for many reasons. And what is even more disturbing is the fact that in this day and age, there are new methods of testing, due to advancements in technology, where live animals are no longer required. So is animal testing bad? I think it is and I strongly believe that it should be stopped. Firstly, I think it is important to ask the question: why are these companies testing on animals? One of the main reasons is not because they are concerned for your safety, but they are concerned for their businesses and profits. If they were concerned for your safety, then they should not be putting in harmful substances in their products in the first place. But they are concerned that you might sue them should you develop an illness, etc, from using their products. If there are products that need to be tested then perhaps humans should be the test subjects on a voluntary basis. There are many companies that ask for volunteers for their product testing and this method also ensures a higher level of ethics because if anything goes wrong with the human test subjects, the corporation would likely be sued or boycotted. Whereas if an animal becomes critically ill or dies, the poor animal can't do anything except suffer and die in silence. I personally feel that manufacturers should take additional precautionary measures to ensure that their products are non-toxic and safe for consumption. Subsequently, if they need tests to be carried out on living beings, then these beings should be humans. After all, it is thanks to us humans that all products produced can no longer be assumed safe. I have to admit that since carrying out my research, I have learnt that a number of products that I use for myself and for my fur-kids are in fact tested on animals, and some in the most cruel of ways. I am actually quite ashamed that I didn't take the initiative to find out before. I have resolved to stop using these products and search for cruelty-free alternatives. Will I be able to choose cruelty free products completely? My honest answer is that I am not sure, and this is due to two reasons. The first being unaware that animal testing is being carried out by a particular company or line of product, and the other is the fact that it is actually incredibly difficult in Malaysia to find cruelty free products. But I will try as far as possible. It can be very challenging to choose cruelty free products entirely. So what do we do now? I suggest that we all try as hard as possible to choose cruelty free products one day at a time. If we all work together to amass information and spread this information to our friends and family, then this daunting task becomes a lot easier. I would also like to call upon the Malaysian government to help promote awareness on the subject matter and encourage the people to choose cruelty free products and discourage manufacturers from carrying out such barbaric acts. And finally, remember this quote from the World Wildlife Fund: 'When the buying stops, the killing can too'.