INTRODUCTION According to Merriam-Webster (2018), a motion picture is a series of pictures projected on a screen in rapid succession with objects shown in successive positions slightly changed so as to produce the optical effect of a continuous picture in which the object moves. Meanwhile, a film or movie is a recording of moving images that tells a story or television. Action film is a fiction genre in which the protagonist(s) are thrust into a series of challenges that typically include violence, extended fighting, physical feats and frantic chases. Action films have existed since the early 20th century and continues to evolve with the advancement of videographyoriented technology, computer-generated imagery (CGI) and more complex and intricate practical effects, as well the better laws and regulations regarding the health and safety guidelines cast and crews on the filming set enforced by the government. “The technical, creative, financial, and social aspects of filmmaking are tightly interwoven, perhaps more so than in any other art form” (Ascher & Pinchus, 2013). Thus, in order to produce a film, systematic and effective planning as well good understanding of project management must be applied. A typical project can be generally split into five stages; DEVELOPMENT PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION An idea grows into a project that can be produced. Preparations for shooting. Begins when the camera rolls (principal photography). The producer draws up a budget of the movie’s estimated cost and arranges for financing. The crew is assembled and shooting locations are scouted. POSTPRODUCTION Begins once the principal shooting is completed or once shooting stops. DISTRIBUTION Different types of distribution depending on different target markets. (Theatrical release, direct-tovideo, video-ondemand). Editing is done to A given project condense what is may be typically many distributed hours’ worth of through all of raw film or digital these channels or footage into a in various watchable movie. combinations. Additional photography or pickup shots are scenes filmed separately from the main production or after the principal shooting is done. TABLE 1: FIVE STEP PRODUCTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT To produce a movie, first and foremost, a core production team must be established in order to assign tasks according to the film production requirements. Eve Light Honthaner (2010) recommends the following hierarchy; Producers Director Unit Production Manager First Assistant Director Production Accountant Production Supervisor Production Coordinator Second Assistant Director There are different kinds of producer – the most notable positions would be the executive producer, producer, co-producer, line producer, post-production producer and associate producer. The task of the producers is also to create other jobs to produce the film – depending on the type of film to be produced. After that, the brainstorming session can begin. Paperwork such as proposal, manuscript, script, storyboard, as well as paperwork for funding, budgeting, payment of wages and cast and crew medical insurance is needed to create an action film. During the writing of the proposal and manuscript, use the WH-Questions (who, what, when, why, how). It must be clear on who will watch the film, where will the production take place, what are the equipment and workforce needed to produce the film, how long is the entire project process, how much is the budget, where the film goes, why investors should invest in the production. In the scriptwriting and treatment phase, it must be ensured that the rights to the script have been taken care of, as well as copyrighted in order to avoid plagiarism. Budgeting is a very important stage in a production that must not be taken lightly. And with great reason. As quoted by Ryan (2010), “An estimated budget will give you a good idea of the scope— not just financial, but also logistical—of the film, which allows you to begin conceptualizing the project on many different levels.” By creating an initial rough budget, further analysis can be undergone to maximise funds and save money on unnecessary spending. Finding sponsors and funding is crucial to support the project throughout its runtime. Finding sponsors through the use of pre-sales (a director with a good track record, employing an A-list actor, having an award-winning scriptwriter in the project), fiscal sponsorship, in-kind donations or even community involvement can be used to receive funding, which is why the proposal and manuscript for the project must be careful in outlining the entire project, from conception to distribution, and must be made clear of the intentions of kickstarting the project to readers of the proposal and manuscript, as well as able to convince investors to invest in the project. Risk Assessment is also a very important phase, as it is not only an analysis of crew and cast safety on set, but also the projected performance of the upcoming film after distribution. It must be certain that the project manager (producers) must be certain that the project is a profitable endeavour, as well as managed efficiently. It is the job of the casting director to cast actors and actresses in the film, as well as finding extras for scenes that require so. This can be done via auditions or casting sessions, be it publicly or privately done, depending on time and budget. PRE-PRODUCTION In this stage, the production team must establish company policies via a memo. Eve Light Honthaner (2010) recommends the memo contains details outlining: - Basic production office information: address, phone and fax numbers, security info, where to park, etc. Payroll, paychecks and timecards Opening vendor accounts Purchase orders Check requests Petty cash and reimbursable expenses Competitive bids Assets Use of personal vehicles Auto allowances and mileage reimbursement Box rentals and computer rentals Cell phone reimbursement Confidentiality At this stage, the producers must assemble a production crew to create the product. Videographers, artists, coordinators, consultants, supervisors, safety personnel and the like can be hired to produce the film. Wages can be paid at a constant rate or deferred, depending on the budget planning. Also take note that insurance policies must be put forward to the cast and crew. All high-risk personnel must be medically insured in order to avoid legal complications and hinder production progress. Locations to shoot as well as studios to use must be sought out. Factors involving budget and distance in between workplaces must be taken into consideration. Vehicles must also be provided for the cast and crew, as well as accommodation if necessary. Shooting and safety equipment can be bought or rented, depending on budget and necessity. Expensive equipment such as video cameras may be rented from suppliers while cheaper equipment such as props may be purchased. Another way to acquire equipment is to put out equipment list open for vendors to bid. A meeting with the cast and crew can now take place, as well actor rehearsals can now start. It is important that the cast and crew understand their respective roles in the production and clarify and rectify anything of question. A final check in the budget can finally be done to update on any additional costs or reduced spending so far in the production. PRODUCTION Pre-visualisation is key to a project management. It creates a projection of each of the crew and cast’s tasks throughout the production, as well as post-production. It also allows producers to anticipate any trouble or problems that can occur throughout the production. Throughout the production, the producer must be aware of the so called Enemy of The Production (EOP). This EOP can be the person who complains about everything—the food, the pay, the long hours, etc., and starts to infect the work environment with a bad attitude. Or they are the people who try to hijack the production by denigrating one of the key positions like the director or producer, undermining their leadership and trying to take control of the cast and crew. Or they are the actors who battle with the director in front of everyone on set and try to destroy the director's relationship and trust with the rest of the cast. If an EOP is present on site, producers must discuss with the director first before taking action. If the director and producer are on the same page, then action can be taken. A two-step process is done. First, an honest discussion with the EOP. State has been witnessed and observed about their attitude, behavior, or work style and explain why there are grave concerns about its negative effects on the cast and crew. Ask the EOP what he or she thinks and feels. Are legitimate complaints or it is coming from a place of malice and discontent that cannot be fixed through discussion and compromise? If it is possible, try to come to a mutual compromise about moving forward, working together. Then make it clear that the EOP is expected to change their ways and treat the production with respect and that inappropriate behaviours or disrespectful attitude will not be tolerated. If the problem still insists, terminate the EOP immediately. Ensure that a replacement has been already made available before then. Appreciation and tolerance towards cast and crew can go a long way in life. Building relationships can be helpful as the entertainment industry in Malaysia is quite small. There is a saying, “What goes around, comes around.” A simple token of appreciation, treating them with respect or even complimenting them for a job well done can be a huge in morale for the cast and crew. Wrapping out is almost like what has been done during the pre-production phase, but in reverse. Keeping equipment in check and inspection for any damages to props and equipment is necessary. Actualizing budget must also be done to finalize the money spent and saved to be put in the final report. POST-PRODUCTION The method and equipment used during production phase heavily influences the postproduction phase. The format used to shoot the film (film vs. digital), if visual effects are required, even the colour correction if it is required to finalise the product must be all thought out. Although sounds to be used for the film should be recoded during the production phase, there are certain sounds that cannot be recorded and can only be recreated by crew such as foley artists and sound engineers. These people require their own studios to recreate complicated sounds to be used for the film. Music clearance is process of securing permission to use musical compositions and recordings owned by someone else. More specifically, however, it involves: 1. determining who owns the copyright to any given musical material; 2. negotiating permission to use that material in the territories and media in which exhibition or distribution is planned; and 3. paying the negotiated license fees to the copyright owners. An agreement between a copyright owner (or its representative) and a user of the copyright is called a “license.” There are many kinds of licenses that cover many different media of exploitation. Every production presents a unique set of legal and business issues that should be addressed and resolved before production begins. The media and terms of distribution affect the rights to be obtained from music copyright owners. The clearance process should be undertaken before being committed to using specific songs and recordings in order to eliminate musical material that may be too expensive or that the copyright owners don’t want used. For example, some musical compositions, though popular and in general use in areas such as radio broadcast or nightclub performance, aren’t available (at any price) in certain other media applications. DISTRIBUTION After finishing the film production process and cleared for distribution, marketing for the film can now be done. Advertisements and promotion for the film can be done via billboard signs, trailers, merchandise, social media and even word of mouth. Early screenings in film festivals can be done to promote the film and garner more interest in the general public. Sales agents can be hire to represent the film in the marketplace as they have contacts and relationships with distribution and DVD companies and work to sell the film. Sales agents usually delineate between national and International sales markets. Once a sales agent is involved he or she will partner with the producer to build a film festival and marketing strategy. The sales agent will need marketing materials and DVD screeners to send out to various distribution companies to see if they are interested in your film. The sales agent will follow up and stay in contact with the companies to work toward selling the film. POSITION & JOB SCOPE PRODUCER ASSOCIATE PRODUCER DIRECTOR ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR FLOOR MANAGER PRODUCTION ASSISTANT Concerned with the business organization, budget, the choice of the staff and crew, interdepartmental coordination, script acceptance, and production scheduling. Select or initiate the program concepts and work with writers. Assign the production’s director and is responsible for meeting deadlines, production planning, location projects, rehearsals, production treatment, and other duties. Involved in specifics such as craft or union problems, assessing postproduction treatment, and the final program format. Responsible for assisting the producer such as coordinating appointments and production schedules, making sure contracts are completed, booking guests, creating packages, and supervising postproduction. Responsible for creatively visualizing the script or event. Advising, guiding, and coordinating the various members on the production team (scenic, lighting, sound, cameras, costume, etc.) and approving their anticipated treatment. Choose and hire performers/talent/actors (casting), envision and plan the camera treatment (shots and camera movements) and editing, and direct/rehearse the performers during pre-rehearsals. Evaluates the crew’s contributions (sets, camerawork, lighting, sound, makeup, costume, graphics, etc.). Assisting the director (supervising pre-rehearsals and location organization. Review storyboards, implement the shooting schedule, and shield the director from interruptions, and he or she is sometimes responsible for the cast. Take the director’s notes on changes, retakes, performance, and other factors. Lining up shots, graphics, and tapes. Checking on special shots (such as chroma key), giving routine cues (tape inserts), and other duties while the director guides the actual performance and camera(s). Check program timing and help the director with postproduction. Cue talent and direct the floor crew. General organization, safety, discipline (e.g., managing noise), and security. Ensure that the talent is present. Supervising the production office (making copies, making coffee, and running errands), pre-rehearsals, and location organization. Logging tapes and taking notes during production meetings. TECHNICAL DIRECTOR MAKE-UP ARTIST GRAPHIC DESIGNER/OPERATOR LIGHTING DIRECTOR/VISION SUPERVISOR CAMERA OPERATOR CAMERA ASSISTANT AUDIO MIXER BOOM OPERATOR ENGINEER WRITER EDITOR SET DESIGNER STUNT PERFORMERS Assist the producer/director with graphics. Responsible for operating the television production switcher (and perhaps electronic effects). Serve as the crew chief and reports to the director. Designs, prepares, and applies makeup to the talent, aided by makeup assistants and hair stylists. Designing and implementing the graphics for the production. Organizing and typing onscreen text and titles for a production, either to be used during the production or stored for later use. Designing, arranging, and controlling all lighting treatment, both technically and artistically. Supervises the electricians, or gaffers, who rig and set the lighting equipment. Setting up their cameras (unless the cameras have already been set up, such as in a studio situation) and then operating the cameras to capture the video images as requested by the director. Assisting the camera operator in setting up the camera. Making sure that the camera operator is safe (by keeping the person from tripping over something or falling), keeping people from walking in front of the camera when it is on, keeping the camera cable from getting tangled or tripping others, and guiding the camera operator during moving shots. Work as a grip and push a camera dolly if needed. Sound balance as well as the technical and artistic quality of the program sound. Determining the number and placement of the microphones required for the production. Makes sure that the audio cables are properly plugged into the audio mixer and is responsible for the final mix (audio levels, balance, and tonal quality) of the production. Supervises all personnel operating microphones and audio equipment. Positioning microphones, running audio cables, operating the sound boom, troubleshooting audio problems, and operating field audio equipment. Setting up, adjusting for optimal performance, maintaining, and troubleshooting all equipment used in a production. Writing the script. Selects, compiles, and cuts video and audio to produce programs. Assemble clips into segments and segments into programs. Correct mistakes that occurred during the production process. Conceiving, designing, and organizing the scenic treatment for a production. Performing supervised stunts which are overseen by Stunt Action Co-ordinators. Taking actors' places when dangerous or specialised actions are specified in the script. STUNT COORDINATORS SPECIAL EFFECTS SUPERVISOR FOLEY ARTIST COLORIST MUSIC SUPERVISOR MUSIC COMPOSER ARCHIVIST/RESEARCHER Casting Stunt Performers Choreographing stunts. Collaborating with staff and conduct safety consultations Supervising the planning and manufacturing of all SFX elements during pre-production and will manage their safe and proper operation on set during principal photography. Preparing the department budget and scheduling crew. Creates sound effects in a foley studio that can't be effectively used from a sound effects library. Manipulates the video using a telecine machine to digitally change the image to the desired look for the film. Interfaces with the director and the editor to find pieces of music for the film's soundtrack. Composes an original soundtrack for the film. Researches and finds archival material—photographs, film or video, newspaper articles—related to the film and its topic. HEALTH & SAFETY ASPECTS Safety is the responsibility of every individual engaged on a film or television production and takes precedence over expediency or short cuts. It is in the interest of high standards of safety on a set that any report of unsafe elements be welcomed as a sign of conscientiousness and professional competence. Given the nature of the industry, some workers, particularly Department Heads and those in a creative position, can impact not only the location of production but also can impact how a production set is structured and run. Where a worker has the ability to influence the working conditions of workers in general, a heightened awareness of health and safety issues should prevail and should require that all appropriate safeguards are in place. Under the Malaysian legislation Act 514 (Malaysian Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1994), 1. It shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed person to ensure, so far as is practicable, the safety, health and welfare at work of all his employees. 2. Except in such cases as may be prescribed, it be the duty of every employer and every selfemployed person to prepare and as often as may be appropriate revise a written statement of his general policy with respect to the safety and health at work of his employees and the organisation and arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out that policy, and to bring the statement and any revision of it to the notice of all of his employees. 3. It shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed person to conduct his undertaking in such a manner as to ensure, so far as is practicable, that he and other persons, not being his employees, who may be affected thereby are not thereby exposed to risks to their safety or health. 4. It shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed person, in the prescribed circumstances and in the prescribed manner, to give to persons, not being his employees, who may be affected by the manner in which he conducts his undertaking, the prescribed information on such aspects of the manner in which he conducts his undertaking as might affect their safety or health. Thus, it is of utmost importance that producers must employ safety coordinators as well as trained professionals such as stunt coordinators to supervise safety on a film set. Safety equipment such as harnesses must be made available to use by the cast and crew according to safety regulations placed by the producers and stunt coordinators. Emergency first aid kits as well as medical personnel must be placed where they can be easily reached or contacted at a moment’s notice. All members of the production crew must also attend safety workshops to inform them on safety on the film set. CONCLUSION In conclusion, careful planning through systematic thinking is key to a successful project. Managing budget and funds, as well as workplace safety and worker morale must never be sacrificed in order to create a product that achieves its goal without the consequences of bad and improper management. “The bigger the risk, the bigger the gain.” A producer must not only possess a wide arrange of technical skills, but must also possess entrepreneurial skills and be able to convince people that their projects will garner massive profit. REFERENCES American Psychological Association. (2013). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association. Clews, P. (1 August, 2018). Filmmaking Health & Safety – Keeping Your Cast and Crew Safe. Retrieved from FilmSourcing Website: https://www.filmsourcing.com/filmmaking-health-safetykeeping-your-cast-and-crew-safe/ Department of Safety and Health of Malaysia. (1 August, 2018). 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