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Reviewer in Earth and Life Science

the end of these. Strawberries
reproduce like this.
Reviewer in Earth and Life Science
2 stages of Photosynthesis
1. Light reactions (the photo part of photosynthesis) which capture solar energy and transform it into
chemical energy; and
2. Calvin cycle (the synthesis part) - which uses that
chemical energy to make the organic molecules of food.
Chemical energy or glucose- end product of
Chlorophyll a- type of chlorophyll located in the
reaction center or antennal system of photosynthesis
Thylakoid- it is where the Calvin Cycle takes place
Photolysis- process where a water molecule is split into
H2 and O2
Stomata- allows CO2 to enter the leaves and allow O2 to
move out.
H2O- is the sources of oxygen when release during light
Photoactivation- process where light energy excites
electrons to a higher energy level.
Binary fission: A single parent cell
reproduces itself and divides into two
equal parts. Some bacteria can do this
every 20 minutes and so can grow very
quickly. This is one of the reasons why
some bacteria can cause disease.
Spore Formation . A spore is a reproductive
cell that grows into a new individual by
mitosis. Fungi reproduce by making spores
that grow into new hyphae.
The advantages and disadvantages of asexual
Advantages Of ASexual
Large numbers of offspring
are reproduced quickly
Offspring are genetic clones.
A negative mutation can make
asexual reproduced organisms
more apt to disease and can
destroy a large number of
Does not require a lot of
Energy is not required to find
a mate
extreme temperatures can wipe
out entire colonies
Very little or no Parental care
needed for offspring
offspring compete for food and
General Chemical Equation of Photosynthesis
Light energy
6 CO2 + 6 H2O
C6H12O6 + 6 O2
General Chemical Equation of Photosynthesis
C6H12O6 + 6O2----------> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP
Disadvantages Of ASexual
Able to reproduce from one
offspring organism
Glycolysis- is a metabolic pathway common to both
fermentation and cellular respiration
6 molecules of CO2 – are needed to produce a molecule
of glucose
Asexual Reproduction refers to an organism
capable of asexual reproduction is able to
produce offspring in the absence of a mate.
There is only one parent
Types of asexual reproduction in plants and animals
There are many different types of asexual reproduction
in plants. Some of them are:
Fragmentation( Cuttings): This is
simply taking a small piece of a
plant, putting it in some potting mix
and waiting for it to grow. You might
like to try this at home with a small
piece of geranium plant.
Budding occurs when part of the cell
pushes outward to form a growth or
bud. Pinches off from the parent cell to
form a new organism identical to the
parent. Example: yeast, hydra, sponges
Vegetative Reproduction (Runners)
are long thin stems that run
underground and new plants form at
Sexual Reproduction refers to an organism capable of
sexual reproduction is able to produce offspring with
two mates
Fertilization- The union of gametes (sperm and egg) in
sexual reproduction
Angiosperm- Flowering plants
Gymnosperm- vascular plants that produce naked seeds
not enclosed in an ovary
Life cycle of a plant:
- Germination
- Fertilization
- Seed Dispersal
- Pollination
- Seed Formation
Pistil and Stamen- parts of the flower which are directly
involved in sexual reproduction
Pyruvate and NADH- along with ATP, these are
produced in the process of glycolysis
H+- most important ion in ATP production during cellular
Alcohol and Carbon dioxide- are the two products
when pyruvic acid is broken down during alcoholic
1. Glycolysis. Glycolysis is known as ―splitting of
sugar‖. One Glucose (C6H12O6) is broken down
to 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, results in the
production of 2 ATPs for every glucose.It takes
place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
Krebs Cycle (Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle). Recall
that the pyruvate is the end product of
glycolysis. Pyruvate is transported to the
mitochondrial matrix, where it is broken down
via Krebs Cycle.
3. Electron Transport System. Energetic electrons
produced by the Krebs Cycle are carried to
electron transport chains in the inner
mitochondrial membrane.
Muscle fatigue- Lactic acid accumulation could result
into this.
Pathway of food in Human:
- Mouth
- Esophagus
- Stomach
- Small intestine
- Large intestine
- Anus
Metabolism- sum of building-up and breaking down
processes occurring in all organisms.
4 subunits called bases and are represented by the
letters A ( Adenine ), T ( Thymine), G ( Guanine ), and C
( Cytosine ).
The process of genetic engineering requires the
successful completion of five steps :
Step 1 : DNA Extraction DNA is extracted from the
desired organism.
Step 2 : Gene Cloning
Step 3 : Gene Design
Step 4 : Transformation
Step 5 : Backcross Breeding
Biotechnology- application of technology to the study
and solution of problems involving living things
Bacteria- it has been genetically engineered to produce
proteins naturally made by other organisms.
Transcription- genetic information in DNA is transferred
to RNA strands
Translation- the process of form in a protein molecule
at a ribosomal site of protein synthesis from
information contained in messenger RNA.
Benefits of Using GMOs
1. a decreased use of pesticides and insecticides
2. reduced greenhouse gas emissions
3. increased nutritional values in foods
4. contribute to an increase in the number of
functional foods or nutraceutical foods
with added
5. better taste
6. faster output of cops
7. more crops can be grown on less land
8. genetically modified animals have higher resistance
to disease and overall better health
Risks of Using GMOs
1. potential development of allergens
2. production of toxic substance to ―non-target‖
3. increased endocrine disruption , reproductive
disorders, and accelerated aging
4. antibiotic resistance
5. unknown effects
6. soil and water pollution
Circulatory System
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular
system or the vascular system, is an organ system that
permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such
as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon
dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells
in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting
diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain
Two Separate Systems of the Circulatory System :
1.) cardiovascular system - distributes blood
2.) lymphatic system - circulates lymph
Two Types of Circulatory System
1. open circulatory system - blood moves freely inside
the body cavity and soaks the cells with nourishment
2. closed circulatory system - blood is pumped
through tube, supplying cells with food and oxygen and
carrying away waste products
Human circulatory system constitute the following :
1. Heart - a muscular organ located slightly to the
left of the middle of your chest ; pumping device for
the circulation of blood
2. Blood Vessels
a. Veins - take blood back toward your heart
b. Arteries - take oxygen-rich blood away from the
c. Capillaries - are very tiny blood vessels that form a
connection between arteries and veins; facilitate the
transfer of oxygen, nutrients and wastes in and out of
the body
3.Blood - a constantly circulating fluid providing the
body with nutrition, oxygen, and waste removal
Components of blood and their functions :
a. Red Blood Cells - take oxygen from the lungs and
transport it to the rest of the body cells
b. White Blood Cells - fight off germs and give
protection from diseases
c. Platelets – help in blood clotting
d. Plasma – liquid part of the blood
Homeostasis is the property of a system in which
variables are regulated so that internal conditions
remain stable and relatively constant
IMMUNE SYSTEM/Lymphatic System
The immune system is a complex network of organs
containing cells that recognize foreign substances in the
body and destroy them