CC11 Introduction to Computers CC111 Aims and Objectives To ensure that students have a comprehensive, current knowledge of computer concepts and issues needed to succeed in our society. How to access Lectures? Available on the Moodle http://lms.aastmt.org Your Google Classroom code x7nbtrc Take a copy from your Lab or TA Text Book Understanding Computers –Today and Tomorrow Author: Deborah Morley , Charles Parker Publisher: CENGAGE Learning 15th ed. ISBN-10: 1337251852 ISBN-13: 978-1337251853 www.academic.cengage.com Contact Info Lecturer: Ashraf Ahmed Ramadan Email: [email protected] Your Google classroom: Course Weekly Plan Week No. 1 Chapter Introduction to Computers, their use and applications Core reading material MS. Power Point 2 The System Unit, processing and memory Chap. 1 3 Storage and Input / Output Devices. Chap. 2 4 Systems software and Applications software . Chap. 3 5 Program Development Lifecycle. Chap. 4 6 Flow charts 7 7th Week Exam (15 Marks) 8 Communications and networks Chap. 5 & MS. Power Point Exam Chap. 6 8 Course Weekly Plan (Cont.) Week No. Chapter Core reading material 9 Python Introduction. MS. Power Point 10 Python In-depth MS. Power Point 11 Python Advanced Applications MS. Power Point 12 12th Week Exam (15 Marks) 13 The Internet and The world wide web . Chap. 11 14 Ethics, Computer Crime, Privacy and Social Issues. Chap. 12 15 Revision for the Final Exam. 16 Final Exam (40 Marks) Exam Review Exam 9 Assessment Strategy No. Assessment Type Week Core reading material 1 7th Exam 7 15 % 2 12th Exam 12 15 % 3 Assignments & Quizzes 1 - 15 20 % 4 Participation 1 - 15 10 % 5 Final Exam 16 40 % Total 100% 10 General Regulations Students should only attend lectures and assessments in their own classes and sections otherwise marks will not be considered and this might cause student failure No Calculators are allowed in exams Lecture 1 Introduction to the World of Computers & Computers Impact on Our lives Reference :Understanding Computers Today and Tomorrow Chapter 1 CH1: Learning Objectives • Chapter Content • Why we study computers? • Computer definition and its main parts. • Basic computer operations • Data vs. Information • Types of computer users • Computer generations • Computer hardware • Main Computer types • Big Data • Internet of things(IOT) Computersin Your Life Why learn about computers? Why do you need basic computer literacy? List all the ways we use computers in our lives.. Looking up information and news Exchanging e-mail … What is a Computer? 1.Definition of Computer Computer is a programmable, electronic device that accepts data, performs operations on that data, stores the data and present the results as needed. Computers follow instructions, called programs, which determine the tasks the computer will perform. Types of Computer? Computer Type Based on Power & Storage Processed Data Purpose Analog General Purpose Mini Computer Digital Special Purpose Main Frame Hybrid Micro Computer Super Computer Computer Block Diagram Basic Computer operations 1.Input: Entering data into the computer 2.Processing: Performing operations on the data 3.Output: Presenting the results (information) 4.Storage: Saving data, programs, or output for future use ◦ IPOS cycle or the information processing cycle 5.Communications: Sending or receiving data Data vs. Information Data ◦ Raw, unorganized facts ◦ Can be in the form of text, graphics, audio, or video Information ◦ Data that has been processed into a meaningful form Information processing ◦ Converting data into information Computer Users and Professionals 1. Computer users (end users): ◦ People who use a computer to obtain information. Computer Users and Professionals 2. Computer professionals include ◦ Programmers Write programs computers use ◦ Systems analysts Design computer systems ◦ Computer operations personnel Manage day-to-day computer operations ◦ Security specialists Secure computers and networks against hackers Computers Then and Now The history of computers is often referred to in terms of generations. Each new generation is characterized by a major technological development. History of Computers Computer Generations There are five generations of computer: • First generation 1946 -1958 • Second generation 1959 -1964 • Third generation 1965 -1970 • Fourth generation 1971 -today • Fifth generation Today to future History of Computers The First Generation 1946 -1958 • The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. • They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. History of Computers The First Generation 1946 -1958 ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer History of Computers The First Generation (cont.) • First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. • input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. Examples: ENIAC,UNIVAC I, UNIVAC II, UNIVAC 1101 History of Computers The Second Generation 1959 -1964 • Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. • One transistor replaced the equivalent of 40 vacuum tubes. • Allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable. • Still generated a great deal of heat that can damage the computer. History of Computers The Second Generation 1959 -1964 IBM 7070 transistor circuit History of Computers The Second Generation 1959 -1964 (cont.) • Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words (FORTRAN and COBOL). • Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. • These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. • Examples: UNIVAC III, RCA 501, PhilcoTransact S-2000, NCR 300 series, IBM 7030 Stretch, IBM 7070, 7080, 7090 series History of Computers The Third Generation 1965 -1970 • The development of the integrated circuit (IC) was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. • Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. It could carry out instructions in billionths of a second. • Much smaller and cheaper compare to the second generation computers Integrated Circuit - IC History of Computers The Third Generation 1965 -1970 IBM System/360 History of Computers The Third Generation 1965 -1970 • Users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. • Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. • Examples: Burroughs 6700, Control Data 3300, 6600, 7600, Honeywell 200, IBM System/360, System 3, System 7 History of Computers The Fourth Generation 1971 – Now • The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip (VLSI). • As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. • Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. History of Computers The Fourth Generation 1971 - Now Altair_8800 (1974) First PC by MITS Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems An Apple I (1976) and its wooden case IBM_5150 (1981) History of Computers The Fifth Generation Today to future History of Computers The Fifth Generation Today to future • Still in development. • Expected to be constructed on nanotechnology • Based on artificial intelligence (AI), allowing them to think, reason, and learn. • Using light streams instead of electric current. • The goal is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. • There are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today Computer Hardware Computer Hardware Hardware: The physical parts of a computer ◦Internal hardware ◦ Located inside the main box (system unit) of the computer ◦External hardware ◦ Located outside the system unit ◦ Connect to the computer via a wired or wireless connection There is hardware associated with all five computer operations (IPOSC). Computer Hardware Input devices ◦ Used to input data into the computer ◦ Keyboards, mice, scanners, cameras, microphones, joysticks, gaming controller, touch pads, touch screens, fingerprint readers, Digital pen, stylus, etc. Computer Hardware Processing devices ◦ Perform calculations and control computer’s operation ◦ Central processing unit (CPU) simply processor. ◦ graphics processing unit (GPU) Computer Hardware Output devices ◦ Present results to the user ◦ Monitors, printers, speakers, projectors, Headphones, headsets, airpod, etc. Computer Hardware Storage devices ◦ Used to store data on or access data from storage media ◦ Hard drives, CD/DVD, Blu-ray disc, USB flash drives, flash card, SSD (Sata,M2, NMVe), etc. Computer Hardware Communications devices ◦ Allow users to communicate with others and to electronically access remote information. ◦ Modems, network adapters, router, etc. Software Software (programs) ◦ Is a Two basic types of software ◦ System Software The programs that allow a computer to operate like operating systems and utility programs that helps you to run your computer and coordinate instructions between application software (windows, Mac OS, Linux, Android, and iOS) ◦ Application Software allows you to do different tasks such as word processing, Web browsing, send e-mail, and so on. ◦ Software programs are written using a programming language (C, C++, java, python,..) Computers to Fit Every Need Six basic categories of computers (according to its processing capabilities) : 1. Embedded computers 2. Mobile devices 3. Personal computers (1..3 called micro computers) 4. Midrange servers (mini computers) 5. Mainframe computers 6. Supercomputers Computers to Fit Every Need 1- Embedded Computers Tiny computers embedded into products to perform specific functions or tasks for that product. cannot be used as general-purpose computers Often embedded into: ◦ Household appliances ◦ Cars contains a lot of E.C. that alert user ◦ underinflated tire or an oil filter that needs changing ◦ braking systems that engage when a front collision is imminent. Computers to Fit Every Need Category 2: Mobile Devices A very small device with some type of built-in computing or Internet capability Typically based on mobile phones Typically have small screens and keyboards Examples: ◦ Smartphones ◦ Handheld gaming devices ◦ Portable digital media players Computers to Fit Every Need 3: Personal Computers (PCs) A small Computer designed to be used by one person at a time a-Desktop computers: • Fit on or next to a desk • Can use tower case, • desktop case, or all-in-one • Can be PC- compatible or Macintosh • Not designed to be portable Computers to Fit Every Need 3: Personal Computers (PCs) cont. b- Notebook (laptop) computers: Typically use clamshell design c- Tablet computers: can be slate tables or convertible tablets. Computers to Fit Every Need 4: Midrange Servers A medium-size computers used to host programs and data for small network. Users connect via network to it with computers, thin client or dumb terminal. Computers to Fit Every Need 5: Mainframe Computers A Powerful computer used by several large organizations to manage large amounts of centralized data Located in climate-controlled data centres and connected to the rest of the company computers via a network Larger, more expensive, and more powerful than midrange servers Usually operate 24 hours a day Also called high-end servers or enterprise-class servers. Computers to Fit Every Need 6: Supercomputers Fastest, most expensive, most powerful type of computer Generally run one program at a time, as fast as possible Commonly built by connecting hundreds of smaller computers, supercomputing cluster Used for space exploration, missile guidance, satellites, weather forecast, oil exploration, scientific research, complex Web sites, decision support systems, 3D applications, etc. Big Data Everywhere! Lots of data is being collected and warehoused ever moment ◦ Web data, e-commerce ◦ purchases at department/ grocery stores ◦ Bank/Credit Card transactions ◦ Social Network Big Data • Big data is a term for data sets that are so large or complex that traditional data processing application software is inadequate to deal with them. • Key enablers for the growth of “Big Data” are: – Increase of storage capacities. – Increase of processing power. – Availability of data(different data types). Why Big Data Smarter Healthcare Multi-channel sales Finance Log Analysis Homeland Security Traffic Control Telecom Search Quality Manufacturing Trading Analytics Fraud and Risk Retails Internet of Things (IoT) • Internet of Things (IoT) comprises things that have unique identities and are connected to the Internet, IoT allows these things to communicate and exchange data (control& information). • IoT is a new revolution in the capabilities of the endpoints that are connected to the internet. IoT Applications: Intelligent Home Summery ◦ Computers are an integral part of our daily lives. ◦ Computer is a programmable electronic device. ◦ Computers could be classified according to their use, processing capabilities and type of the processed data. ◦ Basic computer operations Input, processing, output, and storage. ◦ IPOS referred to the processing cycle. ◦ Information is a processed data. ◦ Users types are end-user and professional users (programmer, system analyst, security specialist and computer operation personal). Summery ◦ Generation referred to the history of the computer are totally depends on technological development. ◦ Hardware is the physical parts that we can touch ◦ Software (programs) is a set of instructions tells computer hardware what to do. System software The programs that allow a computer to operate while application software allows you to do different tasks ◦ Big data is a term for data sets that are so large or complex that the traditional applications can't deal with it. ◦ (IOT) allow things to communicate and exchange data with each other.