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CC111-Lec1-Intro. to computers& Impact on Our lives

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CC11
Introduction to Computers
CC111 Aims and Objectives
To ensure that students have a comprehensive, current knowledge of
computer concepts and issues needed to succeed in our society.
How to access Lectures?
Available on the Moodle
http://lms.aastmt.org
Your Google Classroom code x7nbtrc
Take a copy from your Lab or TA
Text Book
Understanding Computers –Today and Tomorrow
Author:
Deborah Morley , Charles Parker
Publisher: CENGAGE Learning 15th ed.
ISBN-10:
1337251852
ISBN-13:
978-1337251853
www.academic.cengage.com
Contact Info
Lecturer: Ashraf Ahmed Ramadan
Email: [email protected]
Your Google classroom:
Course Weekly Plan
Week No.
1
Chapter
Introduction to Computers, their use and applications
Core reading material
MS. Power Point
2
The System Unit, processing and memory
Chap. 1
3
Storage and Input / Output Devices.
Chap. 2
4
Systems software and Applications software .
Chap. 3
5
Program Development Lifecycle.
Chap. 4
6
Flow charts
7
7th Week Exam (15 Marks)
8
Communications and networks
Chap. 5 &
MS. Power Point
Exam
Chap. 6
8
Course Weekly Plan (Cont.)
Week No.
Chapter
Core reading
material
9
Python Introduction.
MS. Power Point
10
Python In-depth
MS. Power Point
11
Python Advanced Applications
MS. Power Point
12
12th Week Exam (15 Marks)
13
The Internet and The world wide web .
Chap. 11
14
Ethics, Computer Crime, Privacy and Social
Issues.
Chap. 12
15
Revision for the Final Exam.
16
Final Exam (40 Marks)
Exam
Review
Exam
9
Assessment Strategy
No.
Assessment Type
Week
Core reading
material
1
7th Exam
7
15 %
2
12th Exam
12
15 %
3
Assignments & Quizzes
1 - 15
20 %
4
Participation
1 - 15
10 %
5
Final Exam
16
40 %
Total 100%
10
General Regulations
 Students should only attend lectures and
assessments in their own
classes and
sections otherwise marks will not be
considered and this might cause student
failure
 No Calculators are allowed in exams
Lecture 1
Introduction to the World of
Computers
&
Computers Impact on Our lives
Reference :Understanding Computers Today and Tomorrow
Chapter 1
CH1: Learning Objectives
• Chapter Content
• Why we study computers?
• Computer definition and its main parts.
• Basic computer operations
• Data vs. Information
• Types of computer users
• Computer generations
• Computer hardware
• Main Computer types
• Big Data
• Internet of things(IOT)
Computersin Your Life
Why learn about computers?
Why do you need basic computer literacy?
List all the ways we use computers in our lives..
Looking up information and news
Exchanging e-mail
…
What is a Computer?
1.Definition of Computer
Computer is a programmable, electronic device that accepts
data, performs operations on that data, stores the data and
present the results as needed.
Computers follow instructions, called programs, which
determine the tasks the computer will perform.
Types of Computer?
Computer Type Based on
Power & Storage
Processed Data
Purpose
Analog
General
Purpose
Mini Computer
Digital
Special
Purpose
Main Frame
Hybrid
Micro Computer
Super Computer
Computer Block Diagram
Basic Computer operations
1.Input:
Entering data into the computer
2.Processing: Performing operations on the data
3.Output:
Presenting the results (information)
4.Storage:
Saving data, programs, or output for future use
◦ IPOS cycle or the information processing cycle
5.Communications: Sending or receiving data
Data vs. Information
Data
◦ Raw, unorganized facts
◦ Can be in the form of text, graphics,
audio, or video
Information
◦ Data that has been processed into a
meaningful form
Information processing
◦ Converting data into information
Computer Users and Professionals
1. Computer users (end users):
◦ People who use a computer to obtain
information.
Computer Users and Professionals
2. Computer professionals include
◦
Programmers
Write programs computers use
◦
Systems analysts
Design computer systems
◦
Computer operations personnel
Manage day-to-day computer operations
◦
Security specialists
Secure computers and networks against hackers
Computers Then and Now
The history of computers is often referred to in terms
of generations.
Each new generation is characterized by a major
technological development.
History of Computers
Computer Generations
There are five generations of computer:
• First generation 1946 -1958
• Second generation 1959 -1964
• Third generation 1965 -1970
• Fourth generation 1971 -today
• Fifth generation Today to future
History of Computers
The First Generation 1946 -1958
• The first computers used vacuum tubes for
circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and
were often enormous, taking up entire rooms.
• They were very expensive to operate and in
addition to using a great deal of electricity,
generated a lot of heat, which was often the
cause of malfunctions.
History of Computers
The First Generation 1946 -1958
ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer
History of Computers
The First Generation (cont.)
• First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level
programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and
they could only solve one problem at a time.
• input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was
displayed on printouts.
Examples: ENIAC,UNIVAC I, UNIVAC II, UNIVAC 1101
History of Computers
The Second Generation 1959 -1964
•
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the
second generation of computers.
•
One transistor replaced the equivalent of 40 vacuum
tubes.
•
Allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper,
more energy-efficient and more reliable.
•
Still generated a great deal of heat that can damage
the computer.
History of Computers
The Second Generation 1959 -1964
IBM 7070
transistor circuit
History of Computers
The Second Generation 1959 -1964 (cont.)
• Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine
language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed
programmers to specify instructions in words (FORTRAN and COBOL).
• Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input
and printouts for output.
• These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in
their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core
technology.
• Examples: UNIVAC III, RCA 501, PhilcoTransact S-2000, NCR 300 series,
IBM 7030 Stretch, IBM 7070, 7080, 7090 series
History of Computers
The Third Generation 1965 -1970
•
The development of the integrated circuit (IC) was the
hallmark of the third generation of computers.
•
Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon
chips, called semiconductors, which drastically
increased the speed and efficiency of computers. It
could carry out instructions in billionths of a second.
•
Much smaller and cheaper compare to the second
generation computers
Integrated Circuit - IC
History of Computers
The Third Generation 1965 -1970
IBM System/360
History of Computers
The Third Generation 1965 -1970
•
Users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and
monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the
device to run many different applications at one time with a central
program that monitored the memory.
•
Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience
because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.
•
Examples: Burroughs 6700, Control Data 3300, 6600, 7600, Honeywell
200, IBM System/360, System 3, System 7
History of Computers
The Fourth Generation 1971 – Now
•
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of
computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built
onto a single silicon chip (VLSI).
•
As these small computers became more powerful, they
could be linked together to form networks, which eventually
led to the development of the Internet.
•
Fourth generation computers also saw the development of
GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.
History of Computers
The Fourth Generation 1971 - Now
Altair_8800 (1974) First
PC by MITS Micro
Instrumentation and
Telemetry Systems
An Apple I (1976) and
its wooden case
IBM_5150 (1981)
History of Computers
The Fifth Generation Today to future
History of Computers
The Fifth Generation Today to future
•
Still in development.
•
Expected to be constructed on nanotechnology
•
Based on artificial intelligence (AI), allowing them to think, reason,
and learn.
•
Using light streams instead of electric current.
•
The goal is to develop devices that respond to natural language
input and are capable of learning and self-organization.
•
There are some applications, such as voice recognition,
that are being used today
Computer Hardware
Computer Hardware
Hardware: The physical parts of a computer
◦Internal hardware
◦ Located inside the main box (system unit) of the computer
◦External hardware
◦ Located outside the system unit
◦ Connect to the computer via a wired or wireless connection
There is hardware associated with all five
computer operations (IPOSC).
Computer Hardware
Input devices
◦ Used to input data into the computer
◦ Keyboards, mice, scanners, cameras, microphones, joysticks, gaming controller, touch
pads, touch screens, fingerprint readers, Digital pen, stylus, etc.
Computer Hardware
Processing devices
◦ Perform calculations and control computer’s operation
◦ Central processing unit (CPU) simply processor.
◦ graphics processing unit (GPU)
Computer Hardware
Output devices
◦ Present results to the user
◦ Monitors, printers, speakers, projectors, Headphones, headsets, airpod, etc.
Computer Hardware
Storage devices
◦ Used to store data on or access data from storage media
◦ Hard drives, CD/DVD, Blu-ray disc, USB flash drives, flash card, SSD
(Sata,M2, NMVe), etc.
Computer Hardware
Communications devices
◦ Allow users to communicate with others and to electronically access remote
information.
◦ Modems, network adapters, router, etc.
Software

Software (programs)
◦ Is a Two basic types of software
◦ System Software The programs that allow a computer to operate like operating systems
and utility programs that helps you to run your computer and coordinate instructions
between application software (windows, Mac OS, Linux, Android, and iOS)
◦ Application Software allows you to do different tasks such as word processing, Web
browsing, send e-mail, and so on.
◦ Software programs are written using a programming language (C, C++, java, python,..)
Computers to Fit Every Need
Six basic categories of computers
(according to its processing capabilities) :
1. Embedded computers
2. Mobile devices
3. Personal computers (1..3 called micro computers)
4. Midrange servers (mini computers)
5. Mainframe computers
6. Supercomputers
Computers to Fit Every Need
1- Embedded Computers
Tiny computers embedded into products to perform
specific functions or tasks for that product.
cannot be used as general-purpose computers Often
embedded into:
◦ Household appliances
◦ Cars contains a lot of E.C. that alert user
◦ underinflated tire or an oil filter that needs changing
◦ braking systems that engage when a front collision is
imminent.
Computers to Fit Every Need
Category 2: Mobile Devices
A very small device with some type of built-in
computing or Internet capability
Typically based on mobile phones
Typically have small screens and keyboards
Examples:
◦ Smartphones
◦ Handheld gaming devices
◦ Portable digital media players
Computers to Fit Every Need
3: Personal Computers (PCs)
A small Computer designed to be used by one person at a time
a-Desktop computers:
• Fit on or next to a desk
• Can use tower case,
• desktop case, or all-in-one
• Can be PC- compatible or Macintosh
• Not designed to be portable
Computers to Fit Every Need
3: Personal Computers (PCs) cont.
b- Notebook (laptop) computers: Typically use clamshell design
c- Tablet computers: can be slate tables or convertible tablets.
Computers to Fit Every Need
4: Midrange Servers
A medium-size computers used to host programs and data for small network.
Users connect via network to it with computers, thin client or dumb terminal.
Computers to Fit Every Need
5: Mainframe Computers
A Powerful computer used by several large
organizations to manage large amounts of
centralized data
Located in climate-controlled data centres and
connected to the rest of the company
computers via a network
Larger, more expensive, and more powerful
than midrange servers
Usually operate 24 hours a day
Also called high-end servers or enterprise-class
servers.
Computers to Fit Every Need
6: Supercomputers
Fastest, most expensive, most powerful type of
computer
Generally run one program at a time, as fast as
possible
Commonly built by connecting hundreds of
smaller computers, supercomputing cluster
Used for space exploration, missile guidance,
satellites, weather forecast, oil exploration,
scientific research, complex Web sites, decision
support systems, 3D applications, etc.
Big Data Everywhere!
Lots of data is being collected
and warehoused ever moment
◦ Web data, e-commerce
◦ purchases at department/
grocery stores
◦ Bank/Credit Card
transactions
◦ Social Network
Big Data
•
Big data is a term for data sets that are so large or complex that
traditional data processing application software is inadequate to
deal with them.
•
Key enablers for the growth of “Big Data” are:
– Increase of storage capacities.
– Increase of processing power.
– Availability of data(different data types).
Why Big Data
Smarter Healthcare
Multi-channel sales
Finance
Log Analysis
Homeland Security
Traffic Control
Telecom
Search Quality
Manufacturing
Trading Analytics
Fraud and Risk
Retails
Internet of Things (IoT)
• Internet of Things (IoT) comprises things that
have unique
identities and are connected to the Internet, IoT allows these
things to communicate and exchange data (control& information).
• IoT is a new revolution in the capabilities of the endpoints that
are connected to the internet.
IoT Applications: Intelligent Home
Summery
◦ Computers are an integral part of our daily lives.
◦ Computer is a programmable electronic device.
◦ Computers could be classified according to their use, processing
capabilities and type of the processed data.
◦ Basic computer operations Input, processing, output, and storage.
◦ IPOS referred to the processing cycle.
◦ Information is a processed data.
◦ Users types are end-user and professional users (programmer,
system analyst, security specialist and computer operation
personal).
Summery
◦ Generation referred to the history of the computer are totally
depends on technological development.
◦ Hardware is the physical parts that we can touch
◦ Software (programs) is a set of instructions tells computer
hardware what to do. System software The programs that allow a
computer to operate while application software allows you to do
different tasks
◦ Big data is a term for data sets that are so large or complex that
the traditional applications can't deal with it.
◦ (IOT) allow things to communicate and exchange data with each
other.
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