curriculum implementatin by antonio

In order to achieve the objectives of education, an instrument that serves as a vehicle of operation is
required, that instrument is the curriculum which can be defined as all the learning experiences and
intended learning outcomes systematically planned and guided by the school through the reconstruction of
knowledge of the cognitive, affective and psychomotor development of the learner (Eya 2012).
Implementation is simply a process of putting an agreed plan, decision, proposal, idea or policy into effect.
Hence curriculum implementation includes the provision of organized assistance to staff (teachers) in
order to ensure that the newly developed curriculum and the most powerful instructional strategies are
actually delivered at the classroom level at every stage of learning.
In this assignment we will be discussing curriculum implementation. The assignment will begin by
discussing the steps in the curriculum implementation process, followed by the roles of education
administration and teachers in the curriculum implantation and lastly will be looking at the challenges in
the curriculum implementation.
There are many different models for implementing curriculum. One common model is the OvercomingResistance-to-Change Model (ORC model). The ORC model focuses on change from the perspective of
the teacher. In this model, there are four steps as listed below.
 Unrelated Concerns
The first step is a step of indifference. A teacher is aware change but do not see how it relates to their own
life. As such the teacher is not worried about whatever innovation is coming. An example might be hearing
about efforts to bring online learning to a school. The teacher knows this innovation is out there but it has
not impacted them yet.
 Personal Concerns
The teacher is now concerned with how the new innovation or curriculum will impact their life personally.
For example, an English teacher wrestling with how using online learning will affect what they are trying
to do in the classroom.
 Task-Related Concerns
In step 3, the teacher is thinking about how to use the new curriculum or innovation. Questions begin to go
through their head in terms of application. For the online learning example, the teacher may wonder about
such problems as how much time will it take to learn this. What are the best ways to use this new
innovation? What kind of support will I get? These are just some of the many questions that are possible.
 Impact-Related Concerns
Now the teacher has taken their focus of their performance and is now worried about how this will affect
students. At this step, teachers are focusing on their students, peers, and school. For the online learning
example, teachers start to wonder how online learning will benefit the students. A teacher may start to
wonder how other teachers are doing as they try to use this new innovation. The shift here is from self to
The Role of education administration:
 The school administrators play an important role in shaping the school curriculum because they
are the people who are responsible in the formulation of the schools’ vision, philosophy, mission
and objectives.
 Curriculum Managers and Administrators Functions of the school principal as a curriculum
manager supervise curriculum implementation they select and recruit new teachers, and admit
 They provide necessary leadership in evaluating teaching personnel and school program. Keeping
records of curriculum and reporting learning outcomes which are also the manager’s
responsibilities. School leaders are expected to play a very important part in the implementation of
curriculum in their schools.
 UNESCO (2004) stated that curriculum and its implementation require an effective management.
Furthermore, most school leaders do not supervise their workers (teachers) adequately to ensure
effective curriculum implementation. Where the leadership of the school is weak, curriculum
implementation by the teachers will not be achieved. On the side of the supervisors from ministry
of education visit the school under their schedule for supervision.
 They plan for the improvement of school facilities and physical plants for example provide
recourses that are used by schools or teachers in a classroom.
 They Command responsibility Institutional leadership Final decision making in terms of the
school’s purpose School administrators classroom as well.
Role of the teacher;
Teachers are the major pillars in the teaching and learning process. Without doubt, the most important
person in the practice curriculum is the teacher. With their knowledge, experience and competencies
teachers are central to any curriculum improvement effort. The following are the roles of the teacher;
 Planning and writing the curriculum are the primary as a curriculum implementer, giving life to
the written material. Guiding, facilitating and directing activities which will be done by the
students. A curriculum takes a lot of time, planning and efforts to create. Therefore, a teacher
should properly implement it, by ensuring that he or she meets the standards of the curriculum by
implementing efficient practices in the classroom.
 Make minor changes to the curriculum to suit the educational needs of a learner. This is because a
curriculum that is strong is designed in a way that allows a teacher to choose from various
activities or for him or her to insert several personalized components that the teacher deems fit.
 Teacher’s role is to ensure that learners become both knowledgeable and capable.
 Teachers use the revised curriculum documentation as a guidance effectively and adopt successful
teaching methods (pedagogical approaches)
 The teacher prepares activities for the students to do.
 The teachers address the goals and needs interests of the learners by creating experiences from
where the students can learn.
 The teacher designs, enriches, and modifies the curriculum to suit the learner’s characteristics.
Curriculum implementation, according to Okello and Kagoire (1996:124) “is a network of varying
activities involved in translating curriculum designs into classroom activities and changing people’s
attitudes to accept and participate in these activities”. However, curriculum implementers (teachers, head
teachers, standard officers and others) are faced with barriers which hinder the successful implementation
of the curriculum.
 Unavailability of school facilities and equipment
This includes classrooms, libraries, resource centres, offices, desks, schools halls and others. The fact that
the education sector is under-funded by the government means that the availability and quality or facilities
in learning institutions is affected negatively. It has been observed that in most government schools in
Zambia with an exception of the newly built, infrastructure is in a deplorable condition; Kelly (1999:196)
describes the buildings as “dilapidated, unsafe and sometimes unusable.” In certain instances, some
schools have inadequate classroom accommodation, which gives rise to double or triple shift in order to
give all eligible children an opportunity to learn. Meanwhile, some schools, especially in remote areas,
have no buildings at all. Furniture is also inadequate in most schools and in some cases the seats and desks
are battered or totally absent (Kelly 1996). However, the face of infrastructure has improved in some
schools with the help of donor funding such as ‘sector pool’.
 Societal factor
This involves both the parents and the students, some students probably because of their parental influence
do not attend classes; associated with this one is even when some of them belong to some cult groups.
Generally many organs of the society encourage examination malpractice. On this note many students do
not study their books or even attend classes. They solely depend on examination malpractices.
Furthermore, many parents encourage this art by sponsoring malpractice for their children. Also some
parents because of their poor level of awareness do not understand the value of education and will
consequently consider the payment of necessary fees as waste of money.
 Teacher
Quality and quantity of teaching staff to meet the expectations of pupils and the society is another
impediment. This implies that success of the curriculum depends on the teachers (Okello and Kagoire
1996). For example in Zambia, however, learning institutions have been for a long time experiencing a
shortage of the teaching staff and the rural areas are the most affected since teachers shun those areas.
Teacher pupil ratio is too high and in some cases, untrained teachers are involved. When a school does not
have enough teachers, the few that are there are overstretched/overloaded; hence they are overworked
which in turn affects their capacity to teach effectively specialization in terms of teaching subjects, some
subjects are not offered in certain schools even though they appear in the curriculum because of trained
teachers in those subjects are not available. Such hindrances are also found in higher institutions of
learning, In other words, the quality of education is as good as the quality of teacher.
If the quality of teachers is poor, the quality of education will be poor. What this means, therefore is that
the quality of teachers will determine the effectiveness of curriculum implementation. The education
system needs adequately trained and motivated teachers in order to succeed in its programme but the
Zambian education system lacks such teachers. For instance, the intended curriculum includes content for
learners with special needs but trained personnel to handle such learners are inadequate. Hence, in some
cases, they end up being taught by untrained teachers.
 Poor time management by school administrators and teachers is another factor.
Curriculum implementation is also hindered by what goes on in learning institutions. Pupils’ learning time
is mismanaged by administrators and the class teacher. In most schools, a lot of time is taken up by
activities such as assemblies, meetings held by visiting government officials, health talks, variety shows
held during lesson time teacher-service programmes such as DODI which last the whole day and learners
are either sent away or asked to stay away from school, unplanned holidays such as when a teacher dies,
teachers’ day, women’s day, mother’s day and many other unforeseen eventualities that take place at the
expense of learners.
This assignment has discussed the steps in the curriculum implementation and the roles played by
education administrators as well as the teachers in the curriculum implantation, and lastly it has discussed
the challenges that are faced in the curriculum implementation. Although there are so many agents of
curriculum implementation ranging from government activities in provision of equipment and learning
materials, human and material resources, physical facilities to payment of salaries of all the personnel
both teaching and non-teaching concerned with the implementation of curriculum. All in all, the classroom
is the centre of curriculum implementation and the teacher is at the middle of contents leading to the
achievement of curriculum objectives and the learner.
It should also be noted that no curriculum will be perfect, as a finished product cast in stone, or free from
criticism, but also to be effective, it must be accepted by teachers and must be deemed educationally valid
by parents and the community at large. And it must also be understood that in the educational practice;
these factors interact with each other and generate influences that cannot be attributed to one factor or
another. Therefore, this requires an understanding of the purpose of the programme, the roles people will
play, and those affected. This process needs to be planned in a flexible manner.
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and managing change. Messages from the Curriculum Innovation Projects. Wellington: Ministry of
Kelly, J. M. (1999). The Development of Education in Zambia. Lusaka: Image publishers Limited
Ministry of general education under the Republic of Zambia. (November 2015). Revised teacher’s guide.
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