Chapter 13: Special Considerations with Assessments High Stakes Assessment: A test that samples the curricular aim Skills and/or knowledge in the curricular aim Professional Ethics How do professional ethics connect to test preparation? Are there some examples from your own experience that were ethical? Unethical? Why? Guidelines: 1) Avoid test-preparation practices that involve violation of state-imposed security procedures regarding highstakes tests. This is dishonest and can result in loss of teaching credentials. No ‘teaching to the test’. What does this mean? Educational Defensibility No test-preparation practice should increase students’ test scores without simultaneously increasing students’ mastery of the curricular aim tested. Examples? Test-Preparation Practices: 1) Generalized test-taking preparation: Provides special instruction covering test-taking skills for dealing with a variety of achievementtest formats. For example the teacher shows students how to make calculated guesses for certain types of items or how to allocate testtaking time judiciously. Test-Preparation Practices: 2. Varied-Format Preparation: Students during their regular classroom instruction are given practice not only with the content as it is conceptualized on the test but also with content conceptualized in other ways. Rises in test scores will in general be accompanied by rises in mastery of the curricular aim being tested because students’ generalized mastery of the content is being fostered. Why not these? Previous-form preparation: Students are given opportunities to practice using previousforms of the test they will be taking. (Note: Some tests may provide test-preparation materials that give students some practice in following testing format). Why not these? Current-form preparation: Giving students practice on the exact format and questions on the high-stakes test. Same-format preparation: Although it may be considered ethical, it is not educationally defensible. If students in their regular classroom instructed are allowed to deal only with the explicit items format used on a test, students will be far less likely to generalize what they have learned. Quality Teaching Instruction should be directed toward the body of knowledge and/or skills represented by the test, but not toward the specific set of items in the test. You can only direct your instruction toward the knowledge and/or skills represented by a highstakes test if there is a suitable description of the assessed curricular aim available. Applying This Knowledge: What assessment practices, skills, and strategies covered in this class will be useful to you as a classroom teacher who teaches curriculum skillfully while preparing students to succeed on high-stakes testing? Changing Trends in High-Stakes Testing: More high level thinking, critical problem-solving skills. Examples from Praxis? More writing and open-ended questions. How can you prepare students for this type of testing? Old View: Exact answers. Rote learning. New View: Application of principles. Making Connections.