İmperfection: Crystal defect, imperfection in the regular geometrical arrangement of the atoms in a crystalline solid. These imperfections result from deformation of the solid, rapid cooling from high temperature, or high-energy radiation (X-rays or neutrons) striking the solid. Located at single points, along lines, or on whole surfaces in the solid, these defects influence its mechanical, electrical, and optical behaviour. Alloy: An alloy is a substance made by melting two or more elements together, at least one of them metal. An alloy crystallizes upon cooling into a solid solution, mixture, or intermetallic compound. The components of alloys cannot be separated using a physical means. An alloy is homogeneous and retains the properties of a metal, even though it may include metalloids or nonmetals in its composition. Solid solution: A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent. Such a multi-component system is considered a solution rather than a compound when the crystal structure of the solvent remains unchanged by addition of the solutes, and when the chemical components remain in a single homogeneous phase. Solute: A solute is a substance that can be dissolved by a solvent to create a solution. A solute can come in many forms. It can be gas, liquid, or solid. Solvent: A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solute. The solvent is the component of a solution that is present in greater amount. Interstital: In a crystalline solid, an atom that is not located on a lattice site. to replace (one or more elements or groups in a compound) by other elements or groups. Substitutional: Grain: in metallurgy, any of the crystallites (small crystals or grains) of varying, randomly distributed, small sizes that compose a solid metal. grain boundary: Randomly oriented, the grains contact each other at surfaces called grain boundaries.