Uploaded by Arthur agius

meal experience

Meal experience
Arthur Agius
8th April 2019
Task 1
What is, and what is not acceptable about food depends on the different social backgrounds and
cultures of people. Even today people have conflicting ideas about what constitutes good cooking and
what a good chef should provide. The French tradition of producing fine foods from highly respected
chefs continues to this day, while other countries may have less interest in the art of gastronomy.
During the French revolution most, witnessed the disappearance of aristocracy, thus leaving cooks
wondering of what would be the next step. As the political situation was getting stabilized, a new form
of dining was required for the wealthy upper class. Many restaurants started experimenting with
menus varying from multiple dishes to menus consisting of only one course dinner starting with soups.
Restaurants were the place for everyone as long people had the money, otherwise it was the in place
for new French bourgeoisie society.
Interesting to say that between the end of the 19th century and world war one was a wonderful era for
the culinary art. This was followed by what is known as the modern cuisine. After 1914, this evolution
can be traced to two essential elements, artificial refrigeration and a greater availability of funds. After
world war two, the United States exported the new concept of hygiene to the world, therefore nowadays there is a desperate search for genuine traditions and civilized cuisines.
As the 20th century came along, with the help of transportation, a mobilization of more people from
around the world started to settle in developing countries in search of better working conditions and
lifestyles, and so began the introduction of styles of food and service from a wide choice of nations
resulting in the number of ethnic dishes which are still popular today.
There are various drivers that influenced our perspective of dining today, such as socio economics,
urbanizations, and trade policies. Market liberalization brought forward the rise in supermarkets with
all year-round availability of commodities and ready-made foods prepared with intensive production
methods and new technologies. Eating at the place of work, at schools, in hospital and institutions led
to a need for healthy, budget conscious food. Late in the 19th century, the composition of menus was
more possible as food was being transported from around the world and was available at hand with
the aid of air transport.
There are also consequences to this, namely is the over urbanization, negative impact on the environment and sustainability of fish stocks naming a few. As a society we ended up with over food
consumption resulting in health issues and with a convergence of diets.
It is important to remember that this dimension depends on people’s views and backgrounds to dictate
to what and how the food itself must look, smell and taste.
Different social backgrounds dictated what constitutes the idea of a snack, a proper meal or a celebration. What a person’s idea of a snack may be another person’s idea of a main meal. Nutritionists
form the image of food by informing what is good for your diet, and this also changes due to updated
research and what is available in the market. The perception on the image of food depends on “we
are what we eat”. The quantity eaten may indicate if one is a glutton or a gourmand. This may also
depend on the logistics of economic affordability, time available, and the ease of obtaining what as to
how the individual to decide to dine at home, ordering fast food or dining at a restaurant on daily or
weekly basis.
Taste affects food choice and is based on the biological, social and cultural perspectives. These compounds are based on the four sensations of vision, smell, taste and touch. There are various factors
that affect what we eat.
For the individual, tastes and habits in eating are affected by three main factors such as upbringing,
peer group behavior and the social background. What is to be eaten, when is it to be eaten and the
individual health consideration are other factors to be considered when addressing this subject.
There are various explanations of a consumption of a meal. The Nordic researchers have concluded
that the meal event falls under four categories. Categories include dining alone at home, dining with
friends at own home, dining alone in restaurants, at work or on the streets, and dining with friends in
restaurants and canteens.
There are various perspectives depending on the approach to the dimension of the meal, these involve biological, physiological, normal and abnormal psychological, anthropological, sociological and
nutritional. These perspectives look into various meal patterns, requirements, hunger satiety stages
and the fact that the meal itself is a time of day. Eating is a necessity, but it also a means of developing
social relationships. The need and preferences of the people you eat with should be considered.
There are various environments that can foster these relationships especially when there is a reason
for celebrating occasions such as birthdays and wedding anniversaries or may be just to be with a
few friends in a restaurant. From the emotional point of view, food can be of comfort to people especially after sad moments in life, such as wakes or may be as a means of appreciation for someone’s
Considering the above points, one notices that the birth of various commercial businesses such as
themed restaurants, fast food restaurants, bars, pubs, canteens, hostels and hotels know today are
originating from these perspectives and different meal events. Then we move on to product development, sensory experiences, nutritional values, provisioning, design and physical settings, pricing and
marketing, for various sectors of the food cycle. Planning menus today may depend on a wide spectrum of perspectives depending on the needs of the individual and to provide the ingredients necessary for the individual for maximum enjoyment of his meal.
In the light of FAMM, the acceptance of the context of a meal model is based on three factors such
as the food product itself, the consumer and the environment. Among the various aspects related to
FAMM, due to the constant changes in trends of the industry, being different in terms of product and
architectural and interior designs, these factors depend on the type and demands of today’s customers one is envisaging, the management policies and decisions, and the quality of staff available.
Anderson and Mossberg manifested that when reflecting on planning the meal, several factors are to
be taken into consideration such as cuisine, restaurant interior, service, company and other guests.
Slack et al (2007) measured success of the meal experience as the parameters of being fast and
consistent, cost effective, dependable and flexible. The restaurant industry is changing from the operation driven focus of the past to the media and innovative design of the future. The famous Michelin
guide for restaurants and hotels came out with a model idea and is described as the approach with a
beginning with an entrance and seating of the customer, the meeting process, the product and the
management control system. And all of the above lead to the fifth aspect of completing the meal
experience followed by a scientific definition of each aspect. The models are the variables to be discussed by the management and chefs regarding the dining atmosphere they need to create in terms
of the dining facilities, communications and the product they sell. The consequence of failing to follow
such procedures to gain customer satisfaction, may result in the matter of people getting in, dining
and paying their bill and failing to see the big picture to see what a true dining experience may truly
Creating the right atmosphere is crucial for the consumption of a meal as it dictates the success of
the restaurant. Having the right environment in terms of dining facilities with the correct fittings that
suit the need of the customer and the style of food aims to present. Atmosphere is what gives restaurants that vibration, as is intangible as what makes a good novel. Restaurants are culture, not just
catering. Part of the joy of eating is unpredictability, the unlikely combination of ingredients that goes
in recipes. At the end dining is the outward reflection of who you are, and what you would like to be
and all the aspects of the atmosphere such as dining experience, the customers and the overall product will come up to that expectation.
On the basis of Gustafsson and Meiselman views of the FAMM model Lashley et al (2005) suggested
that “the meal experience represents an event containing symbolic and emotional components, and
is multidimensional in nature”. The observations by the above authors revolve around emotions of
joy, pleasure, enchantment, romance, rush of excitement and they differentiate those feelings to make
the customer feeling more at home when dining out.
Breffni M. Noone, Sheryl E. Kimes, Anna S. Mattila and Jochen Wirtz (2007) The Effect of Meal Pace on
Customer Satisfaction Cornell Hospitality Quarterly. 48; 231
Davis, B., Lockwood, A. Pantelidis, I.S. & Alcott, P., (2008) Food and Beverage Management (4th ed),
London; Elsevier
Dixon M., Kimes S.E, Verma R. (2009) Customer Preferences for Restaurant Technology Innovations. Cornell
Hospitality Report Vol 9 No 7.
Hemmington, N. (2007) From Service to Experience: Understanding and defining the Hospitality Business.
The Service Industries Journal. 27(6):747-755
Lashley C., Morrison A., Randal S. (2005) More than a service encounter? Insights into the emotions
of hospitality through special meal occasions. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management. Online:
http://tinyurl.com/mo25uy (accessed May 2009)1 (David Foskett, 2003)
Question 1
The chosen sector I wish to elaborate my report on, is the coffee shop sector. Reports states that it
has been an interesting time for global specialist coffee shops. The consumer demand for modern
café experiences is driving major coffee franchises to innovation to compete the growing competition in this category worldwide.
Coffee is still an integral factor and one of the world’s favourite beverages and a source of caffeine
for many coffee drinkers. The industry is worth over US$100 billion. The industry export is worth a
US$20 billion and on average 500 billion cups are consumed annually.
In the last two years, specialist coffee shops were the fastest growing category in terms of global
sales, increasing to 9.1% according to Euromonitor International data.
Maybe even more noteworthy is the fact that this growth was consistent across all world regions,
including those that are considered emerging market regions as well as those that are highly
mature. Western Europe in spite of seeing 1.5% sales growth, recorded a negative growth in
categories like traditional cafés, the ones people are usually accustomed to, but recorded 10.8% in
specialist coffee shops driven by growing interest in concepts such as Costa Café and Starbucks
Asia will be home depot to the largest sales increase in specialist coffee shops, totalling over
US$3.7 billion dollars in new value growth from 2016-2020. Comparing this to North America,
(US$3.3 billion) and Western Europe (US$1.7 billion) in the same period.
China is expecting growth of US$2.2 billion alone, Starbucks is rapidly growing to introduce the
Western-style tradition of drinking premium coffee and the trend of socializing in coffee shops;
however, smaller Asian markets such as South Korea will see remarkable growth in such category
as well. The new phenomenon is to have a globally diversified market. Starbucks and McCafé have
built roads in the international sector and achieved recognition as major brands.
. The UK-based Costa Coffee has made equal progress toward a presence in Eastern Europe, Asia
Pacific and the Middle East, while Japanese chain Doutor Coffee has conquered other Asian
markets like South Korea and Taiwan.
Competitive dynamics in the coffee shop market are changing at the local level as well. This emerging market, led to a number of brands competing for share, and this will lead to creative approaches
towards reaching new heights to be able to differentiate themselves.
Question 2.
The history of the coffee shop sector is somewhat unclear but there are various stories of where coffee was originated. Which story is true, coffee was drunk in Aden as early as 1420.The custom
passed through Syria and then to Constantinople and was introduced to England and later in
France? By the 17th century, coffee had made its way across the rest of Europe and was becoming
popular across the continent.
From then on, the coffee beans were transported to the Americas where huge plantations of coffee
were cropping everywhere and eventually nations built their economies on the production of coffee.
Interpreting customer demands
Today’s generation of millennials are more social and outgoing than the previous generations and
prefer to have coffee with friends in public trendy places increasing the popularity of high-end coffee
Consumer taste and personal income drive demand. The profitability of individual companies
depends on the ability to secure prime locations, convenient to pedestrians and drivers, and deliver
high quality products. Typical locations include urban or suburban retail areas, shopping malls, town
centres, commercial office buildings, and university campuses
Large companies have advantages in purchasing, finance, and marketing. Small companies can
compete effectively by offering specialized products, serving a local market, or providing a personal
level of customer service.
Size of location according to customer needs
The size varies by site, as some locations offer more space than others. Coffeeshops range 1,000
to 2500 square feet. For domestic airports, train and ferry stations, some major chains offer a kiosk
format, without seating.
The major franchises employ the latest technology to upgrade their products and keeping that constant edge on their competition. The key factors to determine success in coffee shops is to focus on
the quality of the products, creating atmosphere, ambience and image using the latest technology
using, free access to WIFI for facilitating any business that may take place or school projects students may have.
Market Research
Sales in the Coffee shop sector are seasonal but peak mostly in the winter months. The market is
saturated and the competition for finding new products, new locations and customers is an ongoing
Demographic research gives the essential data to form a marketing strategy to ensure to reach customer needs and demands, and most of all focusing on the quality, consistency and great customer
service. Moreover, customer actions can be influenced by budget restrictions, weather conditions or
public health concerns and likely to switch if they get bored with the same product.
Successful coffee shops depend on advertising and social media. Their products are promoted on
various scales in the social media on a regular basis, and own a state-of-the-art website. Facebook
and twitter are used for their daily announcements of specials and discounts. They bank on repeat
business with the aid of loyalty cards and other similar incentives.
Financial aspects
Due to the economies of scale the high-end chains have centralized purchasing, human resources,
marketing and brand awareness that practically makes a small company impossible to penetrate the
market, and if they do so, will not last very long. These chains have enough bank credibility to invest
at short notice and present a disadvantage to smaller companies to compete.
Coffee shop chains have contracts to secure the stability of Coffee supplies of higher-priced Arabic
beans (premium coffee) is imported mostly from developing countries. With the help of technology
and training these chains often help out farming communities to have differentiated coffee specialties in terms of organic and ecofriendly to keep their sustainability. In return they get to charge
higher prices in the world market offering new products. Food and other beverage supplies are also
contracted from local reputable suppliers and sometimes flown in from other places.
Secondary activity
As a second activity in this industry is tied to product innovation. Coffee shop contenders now offer
a wider selection of food other than coffee. Coffee franchises and local coffee shops present menus
including coffees, teas, hot chocolate, pastries, bottled water, and sandwiches and baked savouries.
The latter may provide a better quality inhouse products and personalized customer service.
Question 3
The consumer needs and market potential in the various sectors of the foodservice industry
The customer service specification depends on the method of service the business offers. The
amount of service it gives to the customer and the level of standard of food is offering in terms of
reliability and flexibility.:
Good customer service
Fresh and innovative products
Internet access
Moderate prices
Modern ambience
Formulation of policy includes:
The premises open every day from 0700hrs till 2200hrs.
It is open to all types of customers including those with very young children.
The policy is to give the best level standards of food and beverage service according to the
established policy set by the management.
To promote advertising through different media such as magazines, television, internet and
word of mouth.
To use the freshest ingredients and the quality commodities for the preparation of food and
Interpretation of demand:
The customer service specification depends on the method of service the business offers. The
amount of service it gives to the customer and the level of standard of food is offering in terms of
reliability and flexibility.
0700-1000hrs- Hot and cold beverages, croissants and baked savouries
1000hrs-1500hrs -Hot and cold beverages, baguettes, savouries
1500-2200hrs- Hot and cold beverages, specialty coffees, pastries, light snacks,
Planning and design:
The planning and design are focused on the market it is trying to attract. The coffee shop offers food and
beverage specification, this ranges from serving the needs of customers who would like to have services
offered to them alfresco style, ability to buy pastries and savouries from the display counter for takeout,
and other services such as a small menu comprising sandwiches, salads, baked goods and pastries.
The premises also offer comfortable airconditioned settings inside for summer and wintry days. It is
based on the customer needs, the theme and the type of food and service it is offering.
Importance is given to the space as the tables are strategically placed as to create a bustling atmosphere when full. The kitchen is designed and equipped with latest technology combi ovens and cooking
ranges and refrigeration to handle the busiest times with an efficient delivery of food. The sanitary requirements are according to the health and safety government regulations. The bar is fully set up with a three
grouped coffee machine and coffee grinders, hot and cold beverage counter, alcoholic displays and wine
storage fridges.
The provisioning of commodities is done by the café manager, shift supervisor and the chef. The
supplies of readymade bakery and pastry goods and Dairy products are delivered on a daily basis to the
coffee shop. The supplies of cold beverages, dry goods, frozen foods are delivered on a weekly basis.The
provisioning is done according to revenue of sales and future projections. The method of service is either
single point or in situ.
Production and service
The management work in conjunction in the ordering supplies, maintaining stocks, handling customer
complaints, quality checks, hygiene levels, training and scheduling staff. Other duties would include ensuring staff coverage for all shifts and reports to the owner and developing marketing strategies. They are
responsible for the overall management of a staff compliment of 8 employees including par timers.
Controlling cost
A Pos system handles all the take-out customers’ bills, as well as food and beverage bills. For ordering
from the food display, purchasing has to be done in advance at the entrance reception desk, and then
presented at the display counter barista for collection of goods. For the dining experience, the customer
orders from the menu and the waiter punches the order on his hand-held ordering pos. It is then directed
to the kitchen and bars as needed. The food is then delivered to the table by the server. At the end of the
meal experience, the end bill will be generated through the pos and presented to customer. Payment can
either be made cash, by cheques or by credit cards. The computer system is under the control of the
manager. He controls the business accounts, rosters, payroll, stock control and ordering, cash intake, assists in compiling of menu costing of dishes and online banking.
Customer satisfaction
On interpreting the different customer needs, from time to time, the management review the prices, quality
of service, image and style of service from the different customer reviewing media such as trip advisor
and mystery guests and customer satisfaction questionnaires, own staff and then plan the marketing strategy through media relevant to the social class, age and income levels of their customers.