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Cyber Crimes

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Cybercrimes
By: Jadulla Naseem
AUGUST 27, 2017
TRIMISTER: II, MAY 2017
Cybercrimes
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Table of Contents
Abstract .........................................................................................................................................................2
Introduction...................................................................................................................................................2
1.
Cybercrimes ..........................................................................................................................................3
1.1 The Global Perspectives .......................................................................................................................3
1.2 Type of Cyber Crimes...........................................................................................................................3
1.2.1 Cybercrimes against Society .........................................................................................................4
1.2.2 Cybercrimes against person and property ....................................................................................4
1.2.3 Cybercrimes against the government ...........................................................................................4
1.3 Reasons for Cyber Crime .....................................................................................................................4
1.4 How to avert cybercrime? ....................................................................................................................5
2 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................................5
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................6
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Abstract
Every crime has its effect particularly on society, nation and the world. Cybercrimes is exposed
to world that is alike to the bygone dangerous crimes that had seriously affected to the social
life. The world of internet has advanced like a way of life and living and it has enabled the use
of websites, communication, email and a lot of anytime anywhere IT solutions for the benefit
of human kind.
Cybercrime is growing as a serious threat to the human society. Thus governments,
intelligence authorities and polices has started counter-striking against cyber-attacks. Most
common is advance fee fraud (AFF) which involves criminals using duplicity to gain a
financial advantage from the targeted person or entity. The victim believes that by forwarding
a sum of money, there will be a future ‘pay-off’. (Adogame, 2009)
Introduction
Fast growth in ICT is designed as an accurate resource of getting and sharing information for
human society. Cybercrime is defined as crimes committed on the internet to a targeted victim
by using a computer as a tool to obligate him to do things or making a trickery for financial
benefits and identity theft. In this sort of misconduct, cybercriminals may use advanced
technology to access personal information, business confidential information or obtaining the
private information, or any other essential material for oppressive or mischievous purposes.
Criminals committing cybercrime uses a number of methods depending on their skill, some
specific crimes include economic fraud, embezzlement, Cheque fraud, credit card fraud,
identity theft, or use of someone’s personal data, software privacy, network intrusion, hacking,
stalking, bullying and terrorism.
Authorities and professionals discussed on what exactly establishes a computer crime or a
computer related crime. After several decade of study, there is no universally recognized
description of these terms. Even though there’s no recognized definition for Cyber-terrorism,
but there is a massive threat of illegal and unethical or unauthorized behavior involving
automatic processing or transmission of data.
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1. Cybercrimes
Undoubtedly, cybercrime is the most serious threat or perhaps most complicated problem in
the global business networks, service firms, information security systems and it poses an
excessive threat to national security agencies of almost all countries in the world. The Council
of Europe has approved a “Convention on Cyber-Crime” which was the first international
treaty that seeks to address criminal law procedural aspects, different types of offences directed
against computer systems, networks or data. Every country around the globe may become a
party to the Convention as a guideline for developing comprehensive national legislation
against Cybercrime. It is currently the only binding international instrument on this issue.
(Dashora, 2011)
1.1 The Global Perspectives
The global world network has integrated millions of computers located in different countries
throughout the world. It has created and opened broad opportunities to obtain and exchange
information. It is used for criminal purposes more and more often. The introduction of
electronic money and virtual banks, exchanges and shops has spawned the appearance of new
kind of a crime – transactional computer crimes. Today law enforcement agencies face tasks
of counteraction and investigation of crimes in the “virtual” world of cybercrime.
The definition of cybercrime remains unclear to law enforcement, though criminal actions on
the internet obviously pose great social danger. The transnational character of these crimes
gives grounds for the development of a mutual policy to regulate common problems of fighting
cybercrime.
Undoubtedly, cybercrime poses as great a threat to person’s security as any illicit action.
However the extent of this threat has probably not been yet fully understood by most people.
1.2 Type of Cyber Crimes
There are three main Groups of Cybercrimes (a) Cybercrimes against Society
(b) Cybercrimes against person and property (c) Cybercrimes against the government.
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1.2.1 Cybercrimes against Society
Today the most common unlawful acts against social and economic is Cyber-terrorism. These
crimes are committed by a group of criminals using computer as a tool, it requires the technical
knowledge of the committers. These crimes are quite new, but threat is more massive than one
can imagine. There crimes are not only effect to the individual but the public at large. This
crimes are committed daily on the internet, and victimized millions of people every day. The
most common type includes pornography, (expressly child pornography) spoiling the
adolescence through immoral exposure. (Kamini, 2011)
1.2.2 Cybercrimes against person and property
These crimes are included against individual, and against his property. Against individuals
include credit card frauds, annoyance through e-mail, cyber irritation, and distribution of
indecent material on the Internet, slander, hacking / cracking and by offensive exposure.
Cybercrimes against property of an individual include computer destruction, transmitting virus
and illegal control over computer system.
1.2.3 Cybercrimes against the government
In the present day the global network is linked different countries throughout the world.
Governments and Organizations are interconnected with these networks and they are storing
data, DOS and some important information are uploaded to their servers for instant use.
Offenders are using computers or CPU to attack the data or hacking the emails, passwords,
user names and other information or they get control of main servers. Several sorts of social
networking websites being used to catch the identity of attentive peoples. There are two
methods of doing this - phishing and hurting, both methods induce to enter fake websites, where
they are asked to put personal information. (Daalla, 2013)
1.3 Reasons for Cyber Crime
The “Philosophy of Law” has thought human beings are susceptible so that law is required to
guard them. Utilizing this to cyber maniac individuals we may say that computers are
susceptible so that law is compulsory to look after them against cybercrime. There are two
main reasons for the susceptibility of computers may be thought to be:
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1. Storing data in rather small space: The computer capable for storing data in a very small
space. This affordable and reachable slight space can be much easier to remove or derive
information from a personal computer or a server.
2. Easy to access: The difficulties experienced in protecting a computer system from unlawful
access is that not due to mortal mistake but due to the complicated technology. Anyone can
enter into a computer system and can steal the access code, and can access voice recorders and
retina imager by fooling biometric system and bypassing firewalls and get all the information
that has stored and can control the security system.
1.4 How to avert cybercrime?
The prevention of cybercrime is an upfront method and that’s why there are many attacks
avoided by just having the little technical device and common sense. Precaution and prevention
is the best remedy for this type crimes. It is very important to take a certain security features
when opening the net. Always get advice from technical personnel and network security
experts and if you have suspected such a criminal acts against you just keep informing the
police. Learn online security features and all computer virus such as Malware and Trojan and
always be careful when you use computer at home or in office. (Dashora, 2011)
2 Conclusion
The volume of human mind is immeasurable. It is not likely to reduce cybercrime from the
cyber space. It is rather thinkable to check them. History is the witness that no legislation has
succeeded in totally removing crimes from the globe. The only way of reducing cybercrimes
is making aware of people that they have their duties as well as their rights. Reporting crime
collectively goes toward the society while law enforce department’s duty is to safeguard
society. Undoubtedly the “Convention on Cyber-Crime” is a historical step in the cyber world.
As a whole I do not deny that there is a need to bring changes in the Information Technology
Act that is existing in European countries to make it more effective to fight cybercrimes. I
would conclude with a word of caution to our society that we should keep in mind that there is
no cyber-law in Maldives to protect and safeguard its individuals and their properties.
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Bibliography
Adogame, A. (2009). The 419 Code as Business Unusual. Asian Journal of Social Science, 37(4), 551-573.
Daalla, G. (2013). Cyber Crime. International Journal of Advanced Research in, 3(5), 997-1001.
Dashora. (2011). Cyber Crime in the Society: Problems and Preventions. Journal of Alternative
Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 3(1), 240-250.
Kamini. (2011). Cyber Crime in the Society: Problems and Preventions. Journal of Alternative Perspectives
in the Social Sciences, 3(1), 240-259.