Uploaded by sdusanele

Chapter 4 Slides 2019

advertisement
Chapter 4
Alfred Adler:
Individual Psychology
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter Outline
• The life of Adler (1870-1937)
• Inferiority feelings: The source of all
human striving
• Striving for superiority, or perfection
• The style of life
• Social interest
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter Outline
(continued)
• Birth order
• Research on Adler’s theory
• Reflections on Adler’s theory
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Life of Adler
• 1870-1937
• Childhood
– Marked by illness,
awareness of death, and
intense jealousy of his
older brother
– Had feelings of inferiority
– Compensated for
weaknesses through persistence
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Life of Adler
(continued)
• Studied medicine
– First went into private practice as an
ophthalmologist but shifted to general
medicine
• Relationship with Freud
– Discussed ideas
– Was critical of Freud’s theory
– Had interpersonal conflicts
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Inferiority Feelings
• Normal condition of people
• Source of human striving
• Compensation: Motivation to
overcome inferiority
– To strive for higher levels of
development
• Begins in infancy
– Due to complete dependency on adults
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Complexes
Superiority complex
Inferiority complex
Develops when a person is
unable to compensate for
normal inferiority feelings
Develops when a person
overcompensates for normal
inferiority feelings
Characteristics - Have poor selfopinions, feel helpless, and find
it difficult to cope with life
demands
Characteristics - Boastful, selfcentered, and tend to denigrate
others
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Causes of Inferiority
Complexes
Organic
inferiority
Spoiling or
pampering
Neglecting
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Striving for Superiority
• Urge toward perfection or completion
that motivates each person
– Innate goal, which is future oriented
• Fictional finalism: Imagined or
potential fictional goals
– Goals guide behavior toward a complete
state of being
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Research on Social
Influences
Neglected children
Tend to develop:
Pampered children
Tend to:
– Depression
– Anxiety
– Have low self-esteem
– Lack empathy for
others
Social interest
People who score high tend
to:
– Score low on depression,
anxiety, and hostility
– Become happy and
agreeable
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Style of Life
• Unique character structure or pattern
of behaviors
– Expression of striving is different and
unique for every person
• Influenced by social interactions
• Creative power of self: Ability to
create an appropriate style of life
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Style of Life
(continued)
Dominant
• Ruling attitude with little social awareness
Avoiding
• Ignores problems
Getting
• Dependent
Socially useful
• Cooperative
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Four Basic Styles of Life
•
•
•
•
Not prepared to cope with
problems of everyday life
Unable to cooperate with
other people
Clash between style of
life and real world results
in abnormal behavior –
manifested in neuroses
and psychoses
Lack what Adlers calls
SOCIAL INTEREST
Dominant type
Getting type
•Extreme: Attacking others,
delinquents, sadists,
sociopaths
•Less extreme: Believe they are
hurting others by attacking
themselves, - alcoholics. Drug
addicts, suicides
•Expects to receive from other
people and so becomes
dependent on them
•Sensitive
•Put a shell around themselves
•Prone to phobias, anxieties,
obsessions and compulsions,
general anxiety, dissociation,
etc.
Avoiding type
Socially useful type
•Makes no attempt to face
life’s problems – in this way
avoids possibility of failure
•Have such low energy - they
recoil within themselves to
conserve it
•Extreme: complete withdrawal
• Cooperates with others
• Acts in accordance with
others needs
• Able to cope within
well developed social
interest
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Social Interest
• Innate potential to cooperate with
other people to achieve goals
• The mother either develops or
hinders social interest
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Birth Order
• Sequence of sibling births is a major
social influence
– Shapes style of life
• Birth order situations
– First-born child
– Second-born child
– Youngest child
– Only child
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
First-Born Child
• Focus of attention
– Followed by dethronement and battle to
regain supremacy
• Characteristics
– Intellectually mature
– Organized, authoritarian, and
conscientious
– Insecure and hostile
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Second-Born Child
• Views older sibling as pacesetter
• Competition spurs language and
motor development
• Characteristics
– Optimistic, competitive, and ambitious
• May turn to be an underachiever
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Youngest Child
• Pet of the family
• Develops at a fast pace to surpass
others
• Characteristics
• High achievers
• May become dependent and helpless, if
pampered
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Only Child
• Focus of attention
• Spends more time with adults
• Characteristics
– Matures early
– Disappointment follows, when not the
center of attention
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Research on Birth Order
First-borns
Tend to be:
– Intelligent & hardworking
– Low depression &
anxiety
– High self-esteem
Second-borns
Tend to be:
– Influenced by older
siblings
– Take risks
Only-borns
Tend to be:
– High intelligence
– Industrious
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Questions About Human
Nature
Free will
Primary influence is nurture
Focus is on past and present
Emphasis is placed on uniqueness
Humans use childhood experiences
to create styles of life
• Optimistic
•
•
•
•
•
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Reflections on Adler’s Theory
• Contributions
– Influenced theorists in multiple areas of
psychology
• Gave a lead to Neo-Freudian ego
psychologists
– Disputed Freud’s views on women
• Believed in women equality
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Reflections on Adler’s Theory
(continued)
• Criticisms
– Oversimplified
– Inconsistent and unsystematic
• Due to gaps and unanswered questions
– Disagreement on Adler’s position on
determinism and free will
– Lack of public recognition
Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.