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Anatomy & Physiology Collins 3 Bone densities

A & P Ch. 7, Part 2 Skeletal System Review
Name______________________________________________ 01/08/16 Hour_______ Desk #_______
1. Describe a typical vertebra and distinguish among the cervical, thoracic, & lumbar
vertebrae. (pp. 147-150)
A typical vertebra consists of (1) a body and (2) a vertebral arch which has
several processes. Between the body and the arch is the vertebral foramen
which houses the spinal cord. Cervical vertebrae have an opening in each
transverse process that transmit the vertebral artery AND the atlas pivots on
the dens of the axis. Thoracic vertebrae bear the ribs, lumbar vertebrae are
large with the 5th being the largest, 5 vertebra are fused together to form the
triangular shaped sacrum. Your spine has natural curves that form an S
2. Explain how the structure of the vertebral column protects spinal nerves
including examples or information that supports your answer. (pp. 147-151)
The vertebral column is made of 33 bones or vertebrae that have spaces
within which form the spinal canal. The spinal cord is protected by bones,
discs, ligaments, and muscles.
3. Name the bones that compose the thoracic cage. (pp. 152-153)
Ribs, the thoracic vertebrae, the sternum, and costal cartilages make up the
thoracic cage.
4. The clavicle and scapula form the __pectoral__ girdle, whereas the hip bones and
sacrum form the __pelvic__ girdle. (pp. 153-157)
5. Name the bones of the upper and lower limbs. (pp. 155-161)
upper limbs
lower limbs
_____humerus_____________________ _____femur__________________________
_____radius________________________ _____tibia___________________________
_____ulna__________________________ _____fibula__________________________
_____carpals_______________________ _____tarsals_________________________
_____metacarpals_________________ _____metatarsals___________________
_____phalanges____________________ _____phalanges_____________________
6. Compare and contrast the upper and lower limbs of the human skeleton.
Bones of upper limb form framework of arm, forearm, and hand. Provide
attachments for muscles, & function in levers that move limb parts. Include
humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.
Bones of loser limb form frameworks of the thigh, leg, and foot. Include a
femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges.
7. Archaeologists discover skeletal remains of humanlike animals in Ethiopia.
Examination of the bones suggests that the remains represent four types of
individuals. Two of the skeletons have bone densities that are 30% less than those
of the other two skeletons. The skeletons with the lower bone mass also have
broader front pelvic bones. Within the two groups defined by bone mass, smaller
skeletons have bones with evidence of epiphyseal plates, but larger bones have only
a thin line where the epiphyseal plates should be. Based on the information
provided about the archaeological find and found in the textbook, give the age group
and gender of the individuals in this find. Justify your answer.
Based on information given above and what is found in textbook, the larger
more dense bones in which epiphyseal plate has closed are males who have
finished growing. The smaller skeletons with lower bone densities, broader
pelvic bones, and evidence of epiphyseal plates are young females that have
not finished growing.
8. Name the bones of the upper and lower limbs that articulate/form joints.
upper limbs
lower limbs
glenohumeral joint=scapula & humerus
hip joint=hip and femur
sternoclavicular joint=clavicle & sternum
patellofemoral joint=patella & femur
humeroulnar joint=humerus & ulnar
tibiofemoral joint=tibia & femur
radiohumeral joint=radius & humerus
interphalangeal joints=distal, middle
& proximal phalanges
#9 Match the terms below to the parts indicated on the
__E___cervical curvature
__G___lumbar curvature
___A__spinous process
__B___transverse process
___F__thoracic curvature
___D__vertebral foramen/intervertebral forimina