ALLUSIONS IN TWELFTH NIGHT • METHOUGHT SHE PURGED THE AIR OF PESTILENCE/THAT INSTANT WAS I TURN’D INTO A HART’ AND MY DESIRES, LIKE FELL AND CRUEL HOUNDS, E’ER SINCE PUSUE ME. Classical allusion to Artemis and Actaeon. Orsino is compared to actaeon, a greek youth, who watched artemis bathing in a poind when he was hunting. She caught him looking and transformed him into a stag(deer). Actaeons hounds chased him and killed him HOW WILL SHE LOVE WHEN THE RICH GOLDEN SHAFT HATH KILL’D THE FLOCK OF ALL AFFECTIONS ELSE THAT LIVE IN HER; WHEN LIVER, BRAIN, AND HEART Classical allusion to eros/cupid. Cupid, roman boy-god of love, had two cinks of arrows: the arrows with golden tips caused instant love, while those with leaden tips cause hatred or scorn. MY BROTHER HE IS IN ELYSIUM classical allusion to mythical heaven “Elysium” • Home of the blessed dead, a kind of heaven I SAW YOUR BROTHER/ BIND HIMSELF/TO A STRONG MAST THAT LIVED UPON THE SEA/ WHERE, LIKE ARION ON THE DOLPHINS BACK,/ I SAW HIM HOLD ACQUAINTANCE WITH THE WAVES Arion is a young greek musician who leapt into the sea to escape a crew of seamen who were planning to rob him, he was carried to safety on the back of a dolphin FOR THEY SHALL YET BELIE THY HAPPY YEARS,/ THAT SAY THOU ART A MAN. DIANA’S LIP. IS NOT MORE SMOOTH AND RUBIOUS, THAT SMALL PIE/ IS AS THE MAIDENS ORGAN, SHRILL AND SOUND. duke says this classical allusion Diana/artemis • Diana’s lip: the beautiful roman goddess of the moon, the hunt, and spiritual love TOBY WOULD LEAVE DRINKING, THOUGH WERT AS WITTY A PIECE OF EVE’S FLESH AS ANY IN ILLYRIA Eve’s flesh is woman biblical allusion to Adam and Eveeves flesh NOW MAY MERCURY ENDUE THEE WITH LEASING, FOR THOU SPEAKEST WELL OF FOOLS May mercury make you a skilled liar, mercury(hermes) was the roman god of liars, cheats, tricksters, and thieves. THOU HAST SPOKE FOR US, MADONNA, AS IF THY ELDEST SON SHOULD BE A FOOL, WHOSE SKULL JOVE CRAM WITH BRAINS! FOR HERE HE COMES, ONE OF THY KIN MOSET WEAK PIA MASTER Classical Allusion “whose skull jove” it is zeus. Jupiter is zeus too • Jupiter was the god of the romans (like zeus HOW NOW, MY HEARTS! DID YOU NEVER SEE THE PICTURE OF “WE THREE”? A common illustration for an inn’s sign. It featured two fools or asses and was inscribed we three. The viewer was the third. Feste is suggesting that he, sir toby and sir Andrew are asses regular allusion to a shakesperean inn’s sign . picture GOOD NIGHT PENTHESILEA Sir toby regular allusion to “penthesilea”/queen of amazons To maria, penthesillia was a tall queen of amazons COME AWAY, COME AWAY/ AND IN SAD CYPRESS LET ME BE LAID Cypress a coffin made of cypress wood. It is associated with death symbol FIE ON HIM, JEZEBEL Sir Andrew: , jezebel proud and wicked wife of ahab, king of Israel, in the bible. biblical allusion to jezebel NOW IS THE WOODCOCK NEAR THE GIN Fabian: \ • Woodcock a proverbially stupid bird woodcock is a symbol of stupidity TO THE GATES OF TARTAR, THOU MOST EXCELLENT DEVIL OF WIT! Sir toby: • The underworld of classical mythology classical allusion to tartarus/mythological hell I WOULD PLAY LORD PANDARUS OF PHRYGIA, SIR, TO BRING A CRESSIDA TO THIS TROILUS Cressida was the daughter of a greek priest a beggar, Troilus, a Trojan prince. They were lovers during the Trojan war. Cressida’s unchle, pandarus, had introduced them. 3 coins classical allusion to Troilus and Cressida AN’T BE ANY WAY, IT MUST BE WITH VALOUR, FOR POLICY I HATE, I HAD AS LIFE BE A BROWNIST AS A POLITICIAN Sir andrew • Follower of Robert brown, who advocated the complete separation of church and sate, puritan. : regular allusion to the brownists MADMAN, THOU ERREST. I SAY THERE IS NO DARKNESS BUT IGNORANCE, IN WHICH THOU ARE MORE PUZZLED THAN EGYPTIANS IN THEIR FOG. Reference to the plage of darkness that moses inflicted. : biblical allusion to the Egyptians “in their fog” refers to the plague THAT FACE OF HIS I DO REMEMBER WELL, YET WHEN I SAW IT LAST IT WAS BESMEAR’D AS A BLACK VULCAN IN THE SMOKE OF WAR. Roman god of fire and blacksmiths classical allusion to Vulcan / hephaestus (215) fire and blacksmiths TITLE TWELFTH NIGHT allusion to the 12 days after Christmas because everything is turned upside down/ROLL REVERSAL AND CROSS DRESSING.