Uploaded by RAHUL KAKI


A Minor Project Report
Being Submitted by :STUDENT NAME
(regd. No.)
Centurion University of Technology and Management
Andhra Pradesh
I hereby declare that the project entitled “SMART IRRIGATION” is submitted for
the B. Tech. (ECE) degree is my original work and the project has not formed the
basis for the award of any other degree, diploma, fellowship or any other similar
Signature of the Student
Place: Gidijala
Date: 07-05-2019
This is to certify that the project titled “SMART IRRIGATION” is the bona fide
work carried out by STUDENT NAME, a student of B Tech (ECE) of Centurion
University of Technology and Management , Andhra Pradesh (India) during the
academic year 2018-19, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of
the degree of Bachelor of Technology (Electronics and Communication
Engineering ) and that the project has not formed the basis for the award previously
of any other degree, diploma, fellowship or any other similar title.
Signature of the Guide
Place: Gidijala
Date: 07-05-2019
On the very outset of this report, I would like to extend my sincere &
heartfelt obligation towards all the personages who have helped me in this
endeavor. Without their active guidance, help, cooperation &
encouragement, I would not have made headway in the project.
First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to
my guide, DR.M.VAMSHI KRISHNA I was privileged to experience
a sustained enthusiastic and involved interest from his side. This
fuelled my enthusiasm even further and encouraged me to boldly
step into what was a totally dark and unexplored expanse before
me. He always fuelled my thoughts to think broad and out of the
box. I would also like to thank HOD(ECE) who, instead of his busy
schedule, always guided me in right direction. I would like to thank
all the staff member for motivation guidance and Support
The motivation for this project came from the countries where economy is based on agriculture and
the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains & scarcity of water. The farmers working in the farm lands
are solely dependent on the rains and bore wells for irrigation of the land. Even if the farm land has a
water-pump, manual intervention by farmers is required to turn the pump on/off whenever needed.
The aim of our project is to minimize this manual intervention by the farmer. Automated Irrigation
system will serve the following purposes:
1) As there is no un-planned usage of water, a lot of water is saved from being wasted.
2) The irrigation is the only when there is not enough moisture in the soil and the sensors decides
when should the pump be turned on/off, saves a lot time for the farmers. This also gives much needed
rest to the farmers, as they don’t have to go and turn the pump on/off manually.
The increasing demand of the food supplies requires a rapid improvement in food
production technology. In many countries where agriculture plays an important
part in shaping up the economy and the climatic conditions are isotropic, but still
we are not able to make full use of agricultural resources. One of the main reasons
is the lack of rains & scarcity of land reservoir water. Extraction of water at regular
intervals from earth is reducing the water level as a result of which the zones of
un-irrigated land are gradually increasing.
Also, the unplanned use of water inadvertently results in wastage of water. In an
Automated Irrigation System, the most significant advantage is that water is
supplied only when the moisture in soil goes below a pre-set threshold value. This
saves us a lot of water. In recent times, the farmers have been using irrigation
technique through the manual control in which the farmers irrigate the land at
regular intervals by turning the water-pump on/off when required. This process
sometimes consumes more water and sometimes the water supply to the land is
delayed due to which the crops dry out. Water deficiency deteriorates plants
growth before visible wilting occurs. In addition to this slowed growth rate, lighter
weight fruit follows water deficiency.
This problem can be perfectly rectified if we use Automated Irrigation System in
which the irrigation will take place only when there will be intense requirement of
water, as suggested by the moisture in the soil
Table of Contents
Title Page
Declaration Certificate by Candidate
Title of the project : Intelligent Automatic Plant Irrigation System with
water pump control based on soil moister condition System.
Power Supply : +5V, 500mA Regulated Power Supply
Sensors : Dry wet sensor ,Submersible mini pump
Load : Step down transformer, source board and relay board
IC : LM324,ULN2003
Applications : Agriculture fields and House Hold Applications
Irrigation is the key to a successful garden. Long gone are the days of
manual watering or relying on a friend to water when you are on
vacation or away on business. The Project presented here waters your
plants regularly when you are out for vocation. The circuit comprises
sensor parts built using op-amp IC LM324. Op-amp is configured here
as a comparator. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense
the whether the Soil is wet or dry.
The comparator monitors the sensors and when sensors sense the dry
condition then the project will switch on the motor and it will switch off
the motor when the sensors are in wet. The comparator does the
above job it receives the signals from the sensors.
A transistor is used to drive the relay during the soil wet condition. 5V
double pole – double through relay is used to control the water pump.
LED indication is provided for visual identification of the relay / load
status. A switching diode is connected across the relay to neutralize the
reverse EMF. This project works with 5V regulated power supply. Power
on LED is connected for visual identification of power status. This
project uses regulated 5V, 750mA power supply. 7805 three terminal
voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave
rectifier is used to rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/18V step
down transformer
Block Digram
Timer Based Industrial Liquid Pump Controller with different time slots
A submersible pump (or sub pump, electric submersible pump (ESP)) is a device which has
a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. The whole assembly is submerged in
the fluid to be pumped. The main advantage of this type of pump is that it prevents pump cavitation,
a problem associated with a high elevation difference between pump and the fluid surface.
Submersible pumps push fluid to the surface as opposed to jet pumps having to pull fluids.
Submersibles are more efficient than jet pumps.
APPLICATIONS:Submersible pumps are found in many applications. Single stage pumps are used for
drainage, sewage pumping, general industrial pumping and slurry pumping. They are also popular
with pond filters. Multiple stage submersible pumps are typically lowered down a borehole and most
typically used for residential, commercial, municipal and industrial water extraction
(abstraction), water wells and in oil wells.
Other uses for submersible pumps include sewage treatment plants, seawater handling, fire
fighting (since it is flame retardant cable), water well and deep well drilling, offshore drilling
rigs, artificial lifts, mine dewatering, and irrigation systems.
Pumps in electrical hazardous locations used for combustible liquids or for water that may be
contaminated with combustible liquids must be designed not to ignite the liquid or vapors.
Mini Submersible Pump Motor:
This is a low cost, small size Submersible Pump Motor which can be operated from a 2.5 ~ 6V power supply. It can
take up to 120 liters per hour with very low current consumption of 220mA. Just connect tube pipe to the motor
outlet, submerge it in water and power it. Make sure that the water level is always higher than the motor. Dry run
may damage the motor due to heating and it will also produce noise.
Operating Voltage : 2.5 ~ 6V
Operating Current : 130 ~ 220mA
Flow Rate : 80 ~ 120 L/H
Maximum Lift : 40 ~ 110 mm
Continuous Working Life : 500 hours
Driving Mode : DC, Magnetic Driving
Material : Engineering Plastic
Outlet Outside Diameter : 7.5 mm
Outlet Inside Diameter : 5 mm
The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power
supply. The a.c. input i.e., 230V from the mains supply is step
down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a rectifier. The
output obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d.c voltage. So
in order to get a pure d.c voltage, the output voltage from the
rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a.c components present
even after rectification. Now, this voltage is given to a voltage
regulator to obtain a pure constant
Usually, DC voltages are required to operate various electronic
equipment and these voltages are 5V, 9V or 12V. But these
voltages cannot be obtained directly. Thus the a.c input
available at the mains supply i.e., 230V is to be brought down
to the required voltage level. This is done by a transformer.
Thus, a step down transformer is employed to decrease the
voltage to a required level.
The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C.
into pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave
rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits
like good stability and full wave rectification
The Bridge rectifier is a circuit, which converts an ac voltage to dc
voltage using both half cycles of the input ac voltage. The Bridge
rectifier circuit is shown in the figure. The circuit has four diodes
connected to form a bridge. The ac input voltage is applied to the
diagonally opposite ends of the bridge. The load resistance is connected
between the other two ends of the bridge.
For the positive half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes D1 and D3
conduct, whereas diodes D2 and D4 remain in the OFF state. The
conducting diodes will be in series with the load resistance RL and
hence the load current flows through RL. For the negative half cycle of
the input ac voltage, diodes D2 and D4 conduct whereas, D1 and D3
remain OFF. The conducting diodes D2 and D4 will be in series with the
load resistance RL and hence the current flows through RL in the same
direction as in the previous half cycle. Thus a bi-directional wave is
converted into a unidirectional wave.
As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to it. A voltage
regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a
constant voltage level. In this project, power supply of 5V and 12V are
required. In order to obtain these voltage levels, 7805 and 7812 voltage
regulators are to be used. The first number 78 represents positive
supply and the numbers 05, 12 represent the required output voltage
levels. The L78xx series of three-terminal positive regulators is available
in TO-220, TO-220FP, TO-3, D2PAK and DPAK packages and several
fixed output voltages, making it useful in a wide range of applications.
These regulators can provide local on-card regulation, eliminating the
distribution problems associated with single point regulation. Each type
employs internal current limiting, thermal shut-down and safe area
protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking
is provided, they can deliver over 1 A output current. Although
designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be
used with external components to obtain adjustable voltage and
“ A relay is a n electrically controllable switch widely used in industrial c
ontrols, automobiles and appliances .”
The relay allows the isolation of two separate sections of a system with
two different voltage sources i.e., a small amount of voltage/current on
one side can handle a large amount of voltage/current on the other
side but there is no chance that these two voltages mix up.
HOW ITS HELPS :In the United States, outdoor water use alone averages more than 9
billion gallons of water each day, mainly for landscape irrigation. As
much as 50% of this water is wasted due to overwatering caused by
inefficiencies in traditional irrigation methods and systems. Smart
irrigation technology is the answer.
Smart irrigation systems tailor watering schedules and run times
automatically to meet specific landscape needs. These controllers
significantly improve outdoor water use efficiencies.
Unlike traditional irrigation controllers that operate on a preset
programmed schedule and timers, smart irrigation controllers monitor
weather, soil conditions, evaporation and plant water use to
automatically adjust the watering schedule to actual conditions of the
For example, as outdoor temperatures increase or rainfall decreases,
smart irrigation controllers consider on site-specific variables, such as
soil type, sprinklers’ application rate, etc. to adjust the watering run
times or schedules. There are several options for smart irrigation
SMART IRRIGATION :Simply in words, the wet dry sensor sense whether the soil conditions is wet or dry and about its
specifications of soil 24/7 hours it checks the soil conditions. if the soil is in dry condition then the
sensor activates passes information to delay board and source board that soil should be wet and how
much water should be released to do wet the land these will passes the information between the
boards and then the mini submersible water pump get activate and released water according to the
need of the land so that the land can be wet and no wastage of water according to the climate
conditions the soil may changes to about its conditions like dry, wet, rough…. Then according to it’s
the sensor works and carries information to board and there is release of an water. And this sensor
works 24/7 so there is no need of farmer in agriculture field
The power supply consists of a step-down transformer, which steps down the voltage to 12VAC.
By using a bridge rectifier this AC is converted to DC, then it is regulated to 5v using a voltage
regulator which is used for the operation of the microcontroller.
The block diagram of this automatic plant irrigation system comprises three main components
namely a microcontroller, a motor-driver circuit and a sensor circuit. When the sensor circuit
senses the condition of soil, it compares it with the reference voltage 5v. This process is done by
a ULN2003.
When the soil condition is less than the reference voltage, i.e., 5v, then the soil is considered as
dry and instantly the ULN2003 sends the logic signal 1 to the microcontroller. The microcontroller
then turns on the motor driver circuit and prompts the motor to pump water to the plants. When
the soil condition is greater than the reference voltage, the soil becomes dry. Then the timer sends
the logic signal 0 to the microcontroller, this turns off the motor driver circuit and prompts motor
to pump water to the fields. Finally, the condition of the motor and soil are displayed
The main component used in this automatic plant irrigation system is 7404 Hex Inverter. The main
function of the inverter output is proportional to input. It means, if the input of the inverter is low,
then the output of the inverter will be high, and the inverter will give low output if the input is
high. The Hex inverter 7404 IC includes six independent inverters and the range of operating
voltage is around 4.75V to 5.5V, and the Supply voltage is 5V. They are used in many applications
such as drivers, inverting buffers, etc. This IC is available in different packages like quad-flat
package and dual-inline package. The pin configuration of the 7404 IC
The circuit diagram of the plant-irrigation system is shown below. To make the circuit work and
to water the pants, we use this simple logic: when the soil is dry, it has high resistance and when
the soil is wet it has low resistance. This circuit consists of two probes that are placed into the
earth. These probes perform the work only when the soil resistance is low and they cannot perform
when the resistance of the soil is high.
To conduct the probes, the voltage supply is provided from a battery, which is connected to the
circuit. When the soil becomes dry, it produces large voltage drop due to high resistance, and this
is sensed by the hex inverter and makes the first NE555 timer. This timer is arranged as a
monostable multivibrator with the help of an electrical signal.
When the first ULN2003 is activated at pin2, it generates the output at pin3; and, this output is
given to the input of the second timer. This second LM358 timer is configured with astable
multivibrator and generates the output to make the relay which is connected to the electrically
operated value through the SK100 transistor. The output of the second timer switches on the
transistor that drives the relay. This relay is connected to the input of an electrical value and the
output of the electrical value is given to the plants through the pipe.
When the relay is turned on, the valve opens and water through the pipes rushes to the crops. When
the water content in the soil increases, the soil resistance gets decreases and the transmission of
the probes gets starts to make the inverter stop the triggering of the first timer. Finally the valve
which is connected to the relay is stopped.
Applications :