Acquiring Language: Life with 1st and 2nd Language Introduction First language acquisition is remarkable for the speed with which it takes place. Long before a child starts school, he or she has become an extremely sophisticated language user,operating system for self expression, and communication that no other creature, computer, comes close to matching. During the first two or three years of development, a child requires interaction with other language-users in order to bring this general language capacity into operation with a particular language such as English. Caregiver Speech Under normal circumstances, human infants are certainly helped in their language acquisition by the typical behavior of older children and adults in the home environment. The characteristically simplified speech style adopted by someone who spends a lot of time interacting with a young child is called caregiver speech. Salient features of this type of speech are also called ‘motherese’ or ‘child directed speech’. The 1st Steps of Language Acquisition in Childhood For the most part, children are not taught by their native language. They learn it by exposure to people who talk to them. The child samples that adult provide to their children are called input. During the first eight or ten weeks, only reflexive(basic biological) noises such as burping,crying, and coughing are produced Cooing ( 4-6 months) The first step of the infant is to find some way to learn the phonological system or speech-like sounds and it was described as cooing. Babies can produce sounds similar to velar sounds which is [k] and [g] and syllables. The child also gradually becomes capable of producing sequences of vowel-like sounds, particularly high vowels similar to [i] and [u]. Speech perception studies have shown that by the time they are five months old, babies can already hear the difference between the vowels [i] and [a] and discriminate between syllables like [ba] and [ga]. Babbling 6-12 months) The second half of an infant’s first year is characterized by babbling. The child is sitting up and producing a number of different vowels and consonants. In this stage, babies make combinations like mamama,dadada and gagaga. As children begin to pull themselves into a standing position during the tenth and eleventh months, they become capable of using their vocalizations to express emotions and emphasis. This late babbling stage is characterized by more complex syllable combinations (ma-da-ga-ba), a lot of sound play and attempted imitations. * Deaf babies babble with their hands The one-word stage (12-18 months) This is characterized by speech in which single terms are uttered for everyday objects such as ‘milk’, ‘cookie’, ‘cat’, ‘cup’ and ‘spoon’ (usually pronounced[pun]). These are just few words but no sentence structure. We sometimes use the term holophrastic (meaning a single form functioning as a phrase or sentence) to describe an utterance that could be analyzed as a word, a phrase, or a sentence. The two-word stage (18-20 months) The child’s vocabulary moves beyond ﬁfty (50) words.This is an occurrence of two distinct words used together. By the time the child is two years old ,a variety of combinations, similar to baby chair, mommy eat, cat bad, will usually have appeared.Moreover,by the age of two,whether the child is producing 200 or 300 distinct ‘words’, he or she will be capable of understanding ﬁve times as many, and will typically be treated as an entertaining conversational partner by the principal caregiver. Telegraphic Speech (2 - 2 1/2 years) In this stage, the child begins producing a large number of utterances that could be classiﬁed as ‘multiple-word’ speech. This is characterized by strings of words (lexical morphemes) in phrases or sentences such as this shoe all wet, cat drink milk and daddy go bye-bye. The child has clearly developed some sentence-building capacity by this stage and can get the word order correct. Also in this stage, the child adds 10 words in their vocabulary a day. Other Process Overgeneralization - The child takes a grammatical rule and it applies to every case. Ex. Walk- walked See - seed Overextension - The child takes the name of person or object and names of all things. Ex. Circles - ball, earth Trivias A three day old infant are able to distinguish their mother’s voice. On 30 months of the child, 900 words are already in their vocabulary Cryptophasia is the language phenomenon that only twins can understand. Theories of Language Acquisition Behaviorist Psychology Theory Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our actions. According to this school of thought, behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner regardless of internal mental states. Basically, only observable behavior should be considered—cognitions, emotions, and moods are far too subjective. Types of Conditioning There are two major types of conditioning: Classical conditioning is a technique frequently used in behavioral training in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a naturally occurring stimulus. Eventually, the neutral stimulus comes to evoke the same response as the naturally occurring stimulus, even without the naturally occurring stimulus presenting itself. The associated stimulus is now known as the conditioned stimulus and the learned behavior is known as the conditioned response.4 Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through reinforcements and punishments. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. When a desirable result follows an action, the behavior becomes more likely to occur again in the future. Responses followed by adverse outcomes, on the other hand, become less likely to happen again in the future. Ivan Pavlov- Father of Behaviorism B.F Skinner - Father of Operant Conditioning Innatist Theory The best known and most influential proponent of the innatist position is Noam Chomsky. In his famous review of Skinner's book Verbal Behavior*, he pointed out that imitation and SR-theories (SR= stimulus-response) of learning fail to explain how people come to produce sentences which they never heard before. He argues that cognition plays the decisive part in creating the ability to produce an unlimited number of sentences with the knowledge of a limited number of grammatical rules. Chomsky’s theory came shortly after Skinner's theory of Behaviorism. He argued that if children learn language by imitation, why do they say things have never heard before? The innatist theory states that learning is natural for human beings. They believe that babies enter the world with a biological propensity, an inborn device, to learn language (Cooter & Reutzel, 2004). This human built in device for learning language has been coined the – LAD - language acquisition device. The innatist theory does somewhat explain how children can generate or invent language they have never heard. Researcher, N. Chomsky backed this theory stating that children use the LAD to generate and invent complex speech. In later versions of Chomskyan theories the LAD is renamed Universal Grammar (UG)**. Chomsky hypothesizes that infants must be born with some special built-in ability to learn language. He called this biological ability as the Language Acquisition Device (LAD). This device contains the main rules for all possible human languages. Chomsky called this set of common rules Universal Grammar (UG). Infants universally possess an innate 'grammar template' or universal grammar that allows them to select out the many grammatical rules of the language they hear spoken around them, they gradually construct the grammar of their own native language. It suggests the children construct grammar through a process of hypothesis test. For example, the past tense of verbs are formed by adding –ed, so a child says "goed". Eventually children revise their hypothesis to accommodate exception of the past tense of irregular verbs. Children create sentences by using rules rather than by merely repeating what they have heard. To sum up, the innatist theory proposes that the ability to learn language is inborn, that the nature is more important than nurture and that experience using language is only necessary in order to activate the LAD. However, one problem with Chomsky's theory is that it does not take enough account of the influence that thought (cognition) and language have on each other's development. Although this theory provides what some claim is a reasonable explanation about acquiring language, this theory lack sufficient evidence. Some of the cases against this theory include, “timing of language learning varies greatly within cultures, environment shapes how much and what language is learned, and feedback from other language users affects language acquisition” (Cooter & Reutzel, 2004). Critical or Sensitive Period Hypothesis Language is acquired with remarkable ease during maturation. This time,brain has reached it’s full potential in acquiring language. Socio-cultural Theory Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of human learning describes learning as a social process and the origination of human intelligence in society or culture. The major theme of Vygotsky’s theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Vygotsky believed everything is learned on two levels. First, through interaction with others, and then integrated into the individual’s mental structure. A second aspect of Vygotsky’s theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development is limited to a "zone of proximal development" (ZPD). This "zone" is the area of exploration for which the student is cognitively prepared, but requires help and social interaction to fully develop (Briner, 1999). THE LANGUAGE AND THE HUMAN BRAIN The human brain is divided into two hemispheres. The left hemisphere is the "logical brain" and is involved in language and analysis and the right hemisphere is the "creative brain," involved in daydreaming and imagination. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body while the right hemisphere controls the left side. The earliest research on speech and language centers of the brain dates back to the early nineteenth century. Physicians noted that brain-injured patients with damage to the left hemisphere would lose power of speech and language abilities, while those with injuries to the right hemisphere did not lose this ability. Prediction of Language Outcome It could be argued that neither the Wada test nor cortical stimulation mapping constitute an ideal ‘gold standard’ against which to judge fMRI language maps. Both these tests have recognized limitations, and both differ sufficiently from fMRI in terms of methodology and level of spatial detail that it is probably unreasonable to expect strong concordance with fMRI maps. A more meaningful measure of the validity of fMRI language maps is how well they predict postoperative language deficits. The purpose of preoperative language mapping, after all, is to assess the risk of such deficits and (in the case of cortical stimulation mapping) to minimize their severity. If fMRI can predict postoperative language deficits as well as, or better than, the Wada test, then what need is there to compare fMRI directly with the Wada? (Functional magnetic resonance imaging) The Wada test will tell the doctors which side controls language in your brain. Memory can be controlled by both sides of the brain. The Wada test tells doctors which side of your brain has better memory function. The Wada test looks at language and memory function on each side of the brain, one side at a time. The auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and many other vertebrates. It is a part of the auditorysystem, performing basic and higher functions in hearing, such as possible relations to language switching. The primary visual cortex is sometimes also called the striate cortex due to the presence of a large band of myelinated axons( It is electrically insulating, the long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells.) that runs along the eges of the calcarine sulcus. Wernicke's area is the region of the brain that is important for language development. It is located in the temporal lobe on the left side of the brain and is responsible for the comprehension of speech, while Broca's area is related to the production of speech. Wernicke's area is an area in the cerebral cortex related to speech and is involved in both spoken and written language. This area was named after Carl Wernicke, a German neurologist who discovered that the area is related to how words and syllables are pronounced. Wernicke's area is the region of the brain that is important for language development. It is located in the temporal lobe on the left side of the brain and is responsible for the comprehension of speech Broca's area is an area in the frontal lobe of the brain that is related to the production of speech. The area is named after Pierre Paul Broca who noticed an impaired ability to produce speech in two patients who had sustained injury to the region. Broca's area is found in the forebrain division of the brain. In directional terms, Broca's area is located in the lower portion of the left frontal lobe, and it controls motor functions involved with speech production and language comprehension. Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the angular gyrus of the brain are all connected and work together in speech and language comprehension. The angular gyrus is a region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus; it is involved in a number of processes related to language. THE BIGINGUAL BRAIN It may be helpful to say at the outset that we are talking about the human brain, bilingual or not, which is the only brain that can learn and use complex natural languages for communication. No brain of any other species on our planet has language like ours, despite claims that other animals may also have sophisticated communication systems. Defining bilingualism in just a few words is not easy, as each individual has different bilingual characteristics. There may be distinctions between ability and use of a language, or differences in proficiency between the two languages. Let’s define bilingualism simply as the ability to express oneself with ease in two languages. People usually become bilingual because they need it in their day-to-day lives. As a result the degree of bilingualism may vary from one individual to another. Bilinguals are not necessarily perfectly fluent in their languages; it is in fact quite common to have a dominant language. It is to be noted that being able to express yourself in two languages takes time. It is not after studying a language for six months that one can become bilingual. Most of the world is actually bilingual. With more and more marriages between people from different countries, it is very common to have two or more languages spoken within a relationship or home. Mixing languages is often used by bilinguals when they speak to each other. Most of the time they stick to one language if speaking to monolinguals but sometimes the word just sounds better in one language or cannot be expressed the same way in the other language. This often happens to me when I speak to someone close to me who understands both the languages I speak. Some people might use foreign words to “show off” but most bilinguals actually try to avoid mixing languages. If they do, it is usually because a word has a stronger meaning in a particular language. Bilingualism can be attained at any stage in your life. However, it is easier if you have acquired your second language growing up as the brain is more flexible but anyone can become bilingual. The difference in bilinguals who acquired the language later in life is that they often have an accent. MULTILINGUAL BRAIN According to recent studies, it’s difficult to know exactly how many people are multilingual, but it’s estimated that over half the world’s population is multilingual to some extent. When a person is multilingual, they obviously reap the social benefits of communicating with a whole new set of people, as well a numerous career benefits. But what else to they get? The cognitive benefits of being multilingual reach farther than most people realize. Your memory and learning abilities change over time. Your brain itself even becomes more efficient and actually physically restructures itself. Read on to discover some of the many cognitive benefits of being multilingual. 8 Demonstrated Cognitive Benefits of Being Multilingual 1. A better innate understanding of how language works Because learning a second (or third, or fourth) language brings your attention to the mechanics of the two languages, (including how they differ), multilingual people tend to understand things like grammar, conjugations, and sentence structure better than monolinguals. These people can more quickly pick up on the structure of any language and clearly understand how it can be used. Multilingual people tend to be more effective communicators, more exact editors, and more compelling writers, because they better understand how languages function, including in their native language. 2. Less mental decline in old age Many studies have demonstrated that the more cognitive energy that elderly people expend every day, the less cognitive decline they experience overall. It turns out that this is especially true when they expend that energy using multiple languages. In fact, several studies have demonstrated that bilingualism can delay the onset of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease by an average of five years! Even better, bilingual patients who do develop Alzheimer’s tend to display less decay in cognitive abilities than monolingual patients with even less brain degeneration. 3. A more efficient and better developed executive control system in the brain When you are multilingual, you constantly switch between languages without thinking about it. Perhaps this is why multilingual people have more efficient and better developed executive control systems. This is the part of the brain that controls your ability to switch your attention and exercise working memory. A more developed executive control system allows multilingual people to better perform on tasks that require high-level thought, multitasking, and sustained attention. Perhaps this is why multilingual people are often seen as more intelligent than peers with similar innate intelligence, education, and background. 4. Greater cognitive flexibility (and thus more creative problem-solving skills) Because in part that learning a new language requires the brain to learn that the same exact thought can be expressed in multiple ways, multilingual people demonstrate more cognitive flexibility. This makes them more creative when solving problems, as they can more easily perceive situations in different ways and maintain or manipulate these perceptions to suit the task at hand. Multilingual people tend to solve complex problems in more creative ways than their monolingual peers, no matter what kind of problem is being solved. 5. Improvements in learning abilities As mentioned earlier, multilingual people have more developed executive functions. One important executive function is inhibition, the ability to discard irrelevant or unimportant stimuli and focus on the key stimuli. Inhibition is key to learning new information and skills, as it allows you to focus on new information while reducing interference from the information that you already know, as well as similar concepts. Since multilingual people have better-developed inhibition, studies demonstrate that they not only learn a third or fourth language more quickly, but also even develop any learned skill faster. 6. Changes in neurological processing and structure that fine tune cognitive control Brain imaging techniques, such as fMRIs, have shown that multilingual brains tend to activate the linguistic portion of their brains even when not engaged in linguistic tasks. This leads researchers to believe that the brain’s ability to connect skills tends to enhance cognitive function over time. Bilingual brains tend to show higher level of activation to auditory stimuli overall, which gives them an advantage in sensory processing. Even the actual structure of the brain is affected. Studies show that multilingual people have a higher density of grey matter in their brains, and older bilingual people usually have better-maintained white matter, even late in life. The cognitive control required to manage multiple languages seems to broadly impact neurological function and structure, fine-tuning cognitive control mechanisms and sensory processes. 7. More rational decision-making skills A study done at the University of Chicago demonstrated that bilinguals tend to make more rational decisions. As language contains nuance and subtle implications in its vocabulary that can subconsciously influence your judgment, thinking in your native language tends to be fraught with emotional biases. Interestingly, though, multilingual people tend to be less affected by such biases, especially in their second language. Bilinguals are able to draw from their understanding of a problem using both languages, which allows them to rely more on analytic processes than emotional linguistic cues. 8. A more perceptive understanding of the world Multilingual people tend to be better at observing their environment and spotting misleading information. Perhaps this is because of their enhanced inhibition skills that allow them to focus on relevant information and edit out the rest. Due to this, multilingual people have been shown to be keen observers of the world around them, as well as more skilled at identifying and correctly analyzing the sub-context of a situation and interpreting the social environment. This makes multilingual people highly perceptive, a skill sometimes additionally necessitated when interacting in the unfamiliar social or cultural context of a second language. The social aspect of Multilingualism A particular people is as a rule linked with a particular language, and this language more than anything else serves as the people’s badge of ethnic identity and uniqueness. As an example, the plains Indians societies were similar in culture but quite distinct by virtue of the languages they spoke, some of which were as different from each other as English is from Russian or Japanese. And it used to be assumed that peoples who speak different languages have different cultures therefore the boundaries between different societies coincide with lines separating mutually unintelligible languages. It was also widely accepted that any given language is the medium of communication for members of the corresponding society and that relationship among language, culture, and communication tends to persist in time. If members of different ethnic groups live side by side and interact frequently, at least some of them learn to speak a language or languages other than their own mother tongue and thereby become multilingual. The most common instance of multilingualism is bilingualism, characterized by the ability to speak two languages. Not everyone agrees on the definition of this term. Strictly speaking, bilinguals are individuals who have complete and equal command of two languages in all situations, in other words, those who pass for native speakers in either language. In practice, however, term is applied more loosely, extending to those who can spontaneously produce meaningful utterances in a language other than their first. In Canada, which in 1969 granted official status of both French and English, most bilingual Canadians live in the province of Quebec, where a large majority (about 38 percent) speak both languages. A particularly interesting example of multilingualism exist among the Native Americans of northwestern Brazil and the adjacent part of Columbia (Sorensen 1967). Almost every member of at least twenty different tribes in a culturally homogeneous area is fluent in three, four, or more regional languages. The source of this phenomenon is called exogamy, a custom requiring marriage partners to be from different tribes, making multilingualism the cultural norm rather than the exception. Children first learn their parent’s languages, acquire two or more additional ones during adolescence, and often learn still others in adulthood. The demand on bilinguals to use two different linguistic system may result in various forms of simplification for one of the two languages. The Filipino language incorporated Spanish loanwords as a result of 333 years of contact with the Spanish language. In their review of a Pilipino-English dictionary, Llamzon and Thorpe (1972) point out that 33% of word roots are of Spanish origin. An example is the sentence below in which Spanish–derived words are in italics (original in parentheses): Tagalog: "Puwede (Puede) ba akóng umupô sa silya (silla) sa tabi ng bintana (ventana) hábang nása biyahe (viaje) táyo sa eroplano (aeroplano)?" Translation in English: ("May I sit on the chair near the window during our voyage in the aeroplane?") Bilingualism generally refers to the existence of more than one language in an individual or a community. Bilingualism in a broad meaning constitutes the most common condition on both the personal level and the society level: the real exception is rather monolinguals. More specifically, bilingualism refers to both the broader and more general concept of the knowledge and usage of two languages, and the more specific concept of linguistic inventory (better defined as social bilingualism) formed by two languages, which stands opposite to diglossia. Diglossia is therefore a particular form of bilingualism in which the two available languages are related in a hierarchical and complementary way. Multilingualism is the use of two or more language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. Multilingual speakers out number monolingual speakers in the world's population. Multilingualism is becoming a social phenomenon governed by the needs of globalization and cultural openness. Code–Switching, Code–Mixing, and Diglossia Code-switching is the concurrent use of more than one language, or language variety, in conversation. Code-switching is the use of more than one linguistic variety in a manner consistent with the syntax and phonology of each variety. In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation. Multi-linguals, speakers of more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages when conversing with each other. Thus, code-switching is the use of more than one linguistic variety in a manner consistent with the syntax and phonology of each variety. In code-switching one language is dominant Matrix Language The Matrix language lays out the basis for the communication. The additional language Embedded Language Utterances from the additional language are embedded. There are various reason why people switch the Matrix Language into Embedded Language 1. Directive function – people switch languages to either include or exclude other people from the conversation. 2. Expressive function- people include the embedded language in other to express some part of their identity. 3. Referential function- someone is unable to express an idea easily in one language, switches to another language in order to express it more easily. This seems to be very common among bilinguals and immigrant families. 4. Phatic function- sometimes a speaker switches languages or repeats something in both languages in order to emphasize it. 5. Metalinguistic function- reporting something in the other language, or commenting on something said in the other language. 6. Poetic function- the speaker says certain words or make jokes in the embedded language for amusement or for some kind of artistic purpose. Code-Switching takes few different forms. Here are some of the main ones: 1. Intersentential switching- the language switches for entire sentences or clauses. 2. Intra-sentential switching- the speaker switches language within a clause or sentence boundary. 3. Extra-sentential switching or Tag-Switching- a tag from one language is inserted into another language. ( In this kind of code-switching using basically fifty percent English and fifty percent Tagalog is quite common in Philippines especially among middle-class and upper-class people.) Code mixing is a thematically related term, but the usage of the terms code-switching and code-mixing varies. Some scholars use either term to denote the same practice, while others apply code-mixing to denote the formal linguistic properties of said language-contact phenomena, and code-switching to denote the actual, spoken usages by multilingual persons. Diglossia happens when children are taught in a language they do not speak at home, as is happening in the Philippines where children are taught in Tagalog and English from the first day of school in grade one up to fourth year of high school. The dialect that is used in a daily communication LOW VARIETY Not formal Its speakers don’t formally learn grammar or writing Its learned as a spoken language Language used in a formal situation HIGH VARIETY It is learned at school Its speakers learn how to write and learn grammar rules The high variety is often considered “correct” variety and is prevented from changing a lot. The low variety is more flexible and is more likely to change over time because it’s not restricted by the rules of the high variety. For instance Ours is an elitist system benefiting only the Tagalog children in the Tagalog regions for those subjects taught in Tagalog and English-speaking children of the middle and upper classes for those subjects taught in English. The rest of Filipino children are left behind, labeled laggards and dull as they can't express themselves well in Tagalog or English, and not even in their mother tongue because they have not matured with their own mother tongue which is not taught in school. And even Tagalog children have a problem in those subjects where English is medium and English-speaking children have a problem with those subjects where Tagalog is the medium. (Incidentally, I say Tagalog rather than Filipino because the reality is, the medium used is Tagalog as used in television, radio, and the print media - not the Filipino being developed by the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino which, like the Katharevousa language which was discarded by the socialist government of Greece in 1976, has no native speakers. ). A solution to Bisglish is to give the child, first of all, a firm foundation in Binisaya in the early years. The mother tongue has to be used as the medium of teaching. The mother tongue also has to be taught as a subject. Later Binisaya is used as a bridge to learning other languages. This is what my organization, 170+Talaytayan MLE promotes. It supports DepEd's D.O. 74, s. 2009 on mother tonguebased multilingual education. It is also the most efficient and effective use of the "auxiliary language of instruction" provision of Art. XIV of the 1987 Constitution. The provincial and city governments should require that television and radio stick to the language used in the program. If it is a Cebuano language program, it should not be interspersed with Tagalog or English words except for English words which the Bisaya have been using since 1945 and have now been incorporated into the language and even Bisayanized, like bakwit for evacuate, parakyut for parachute, and many more. And of course no Tagalog borrowings. I might add that Singapore and Malaysia have these policies. These countries have Malay, Chinese, Tamil and English TV channels. Each channel is required to stick to its language, no switching from one language to another. Bisglish and Taglish are both symptoms of diglossia, They are nothing to be proud of. Some educators in Manila brag about Taglish. Evaluation Directions: Encircle the correct letter of the answer on the following questions. 1. This type of speech are also called ‘motherese’ or ‘child directed speech’. a) Caregiver speech c) Informative speech b) Persuasive speech d) Explanatory speech 2. It was described as the first step of the infant is to find some way to learn the phonological system or speech-like sounds. a) Babbling b) One-word stage c) Cooing d) Telegraphic Speech 3. He is the Father of Behaviorism a) Noam Chomsky b) Ivan Pavlov c) B.F. Skinner d) Lev Vygotsky 4.) The language phenomenon that only twins can understand is called a) Chrypthophasia c) Cryptophasia b) Crypthopasia d) Chryptophasia 5. On the stage of telegraphic speech, the child adds in their vocabulary for how many words a day? a) 10 b) 14 c) 20 d) 24 6. It is a theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. a) Innatist Theory c) Socio-cultural Theory b) Behavioral Psychology Theory d) Pooh-pooh Theory 7. A technique frequently used in behavioral training in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a naturally occurring stimulus. a) Classical Conditioning b) Behavioral Conditioning c) Socio-Cultural Conditioning d) Operant Conditioning 8. This device contains the main rules for all possible human languages a) Access point device b) Language acquisition device c) Acquisition Language device d) Point Access Device 9. It describes learning as a social process and the origination of human intelligence in society or culture. a) Socio-anthropological Theory c.) Socio-cultural Theory b) Cultural-sociological Theory d) Anthropological-Sociocultural Theory 10.In this process,the child takes the name of person or object and names of all things. a) Overextension b) Over-vocabulary c) Overgeneralization d) Generalization 11. The earliest research on speech and language centers of the brain dates? A. B. C. D. Early 20th century Early 18th century Early 19th century Early 90th century 12 . It is an area in the frontal lobe of the brain that is related to the production of speech. The area is named after Pierre Paul_________? A. Wernicke's area B. angular gyrus C. auditory cortex D. Broca's area 13. what do you call when your brain may have developed some distinct advantages over your monolingual peers? A. speech and communication B. bilingual brain C. multilingual brain D. monolingual brain 14. _________ Is divided into two hemispheres. A. The human brain B. the logical brain C. the creative brain D. the nonsense brain 15. is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and many other vertebrates. A. Visual cortex B. Auditory cortex C. Angular gyrus D. Wernicke's area 16. What do you call a custom requiring marriage partners to be from different tribes, making multilingualism the cultural norm rather than the exception? a. exogamy b. Monogamy c. Ultragamy d. Esogamy 17.It is generally refers to the existence of more than one language in an individual or a community. a. Multilinguism b. Bilingualism c. Monolingual d. Polygot 18. It is the use of two or more language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. a. Monolingual b. Polygot c. Multilinguism d. Bilingualism 19. These speakers of more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages when conversing with each other. a. Polygot b. Exogamy c. Code-switching d. Multi-lingual 20.It is the concurrent use of more than one language, or language variety, in conversation. a. Code-switching b. Diglossia c. Multilinguism d. Bilinguism II. Explain the following questions comprehensively. (5pts.each) 1. On you own opinion as a Filipino, what is the advantage of being a multilingual and how does it affects your intellectual growth? 2. What is the best theory for you in the different theories of language acquisition device? ANSWER KEY: 1.A 11.C 2.C 12. D 3.B 13.B 4.C 14.A 5.A 15.B 6.B 16. A 7.A 17.B 8.B 18.C 9.C 19.D 10.A 20. A References https://www.verywellmind.com/behavioral-psychology-4157183 http://soda.ustadistancia.edu.co/enlinea/MAURICIO_BUITRAGO_ingles_PSYCHOLIN GUISTICS_PRIMER_MOMENTO/Innatism.pdf http://www.ceebl.manchester.ac.uk/events/archive/aligningcollaborativelearning/Vygotsk y.pdf http://sarikusumaberbagiilmu.blogspot.com/2016/06/code-diglossia-bilingual-multilingua l.html https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324529.php pandora.cii.wwu.edu › vajda › ling201 › language_and_the_brain The Bilingual Brain - BrainFacts https://www.brainfacts.org › archives › the-bilingual-brain https://www.merriam-webster.com › dictionary › multilingual Yule, G. (2006). The study of language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Salzmann, Stanlaw, J.M. and Adachi, (2011) Language, Culture and Society: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. Fifth Edition. New York: Westview Press.