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Finding evidence assignment Evidence based practice

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1. Identify a problem or question relating to antibiotic treatment and briefly summarise
the clinical situation and problem:
2. Formulate a well built, patient oriented clinical (PICO) question
QUESTION COMPONENTS
Patient, Population or Problem
 Who are the patient?
 Their gender, age, ethnicity?
 What is the health concern?
Intervention
 What intervention are you
considering for the patient?
 What factor may influence the
prognosis of the patient?
 What was the patient exposed to?
Comparison
 Is there a comparison to be
evaluated against this intervention?
 What is the main alternative
method?
Outcome
 What do you hope to accomplish,
measure, improve or affect?
The Clinical Question
YOUR QUESTION
3. Identify the type of literature that could best be used to answer the question.
Type of question
Ideal type of study
□ Therapy
RCT
□ Prevention
RCT > Cohort Study > Case Control
□ Diagnosis
Prospective, blind controlled trial comparison to gold standard
□ Prognosis
Cohort Study > Case Control > Case Series/Case Report
□ Aetiology/harm
RCT > Cohort Study > Case Control
□ Cost analysis
Economic analysis
Note: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews, when available, are the best evidence to use
4. Develop a search strategy to use as a basis for answering your question.
SEARCH STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT
Primary search term
Synonym 1
Synonym 2
P
I
C
O
5. Provide details of a suitable piece of evidence located.
Reference of one piece of suitable evidence: (attach a copy of the article abstract)
6. Read and critically appraise the evidence
Write a brief critical appraisal of the evidence identified – using the questions provided in
class.
QUESTIONS TO ASK IN CRITICALLY APPRAISING A PAPER
TO BE USED AS EVIDENCE
1. Who wrote the paper?
2. Did they come from what seems like a reputable research organisation? (university,
health service, national research institute)
3. Who funded the research? (eg was it a drug company?)
4. If it was, what does this mean?
5. Is it of interest?
6. Why was it done?
7. How was it done?
8. Were acceptable methods used?
9. How many people were involved in the research? (what was the sample size)
10. Was the sample appropriate?
11. What country or context did the study sample come from? Can this context be
transferred to your context?
12. Did they draw the correct conclusions from their data?
13. What has been found?
14. What are the implications?
15. How old is the research study?
16. Has there been any other research in this area?
17. Is one study enough to base your decision on?
6. Answer your clinical question.
Answer your clinical question using the evidence identified: