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Lyceum of the Philippines University – Cavite Campus
Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presents a review of related literature both foreign and local. This also presents the
different variables relative to the study.
2.1 Related Literature
2.1 Related Literature
Barnes (2012) indicates that Social Network Theory views social relationships in terms of nodes and
ties. Social Network is a social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) called “nodes”, which
are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship,
common interest, financial exchange, likes/dislikes, or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige.
Moreover Abhyankar (2012) pointed out that from the very beginning; human beings always
associated themselves to some form of social structure as they evolved across generations. All human
beings crave social life, but not all can have time and resources to enjoy social circle where they can
communicate, collaborate and freely express themselves with like-minded peers for satisfying their
different needs like security, assets, skills, relationships, science and technology, events, politics, history,
literature, art, etc. There is no end to the list of fundamental principles that can drive people to create
platforms for communication and interaction, mutually beneficial for the whole community.
According to Abhyankar (2013), “Social Network” is an online community where people across the
globe (irrespective of demographic and geographical differences) can develop network with different
organizations or individuals for a specific purpose. It creates a chain of linked/connected entities
(individuals/organizations, communities, forums, groups etc.) like a tree with multiple branches and
nodes. These branches are the various groups, communities, forums etc. that an individual intends to
join. Hence, a social network represents relationships between nodes (people) and flows between the
branches (groups, communities, forums, organizations etc.)
DiMicco and Millen (2014) adds that Social network sites have been widely studied from a consumer
perspective despite huge investment by many organizations in social technology, and a number of high
profile failures and embarrassments stemming from their use. Of the few existing studies of social
network site use in organisations, there are a couple looking at the uses of public social network sites
(such as Facebook and LinkedIn) in an organizational context. Skeels and Grudin 2013), and a handful
more looking at uses of private, internal sites (Brzozowski, 2015)
A social networking service is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on building and
reflecting of social networks or social relations among people, who, for example, share interests and/or
activities. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her
social links, and a variety of additional services. Most social network services are webbased and provide
means for users to interact over the Internet, such as email and instant messaging. Online community
services are sometimes considered as a social network service, though in a broader sense, social
network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services are
group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests
within their individual networks
Social media are becoming increasingly popular among politicians and their organizations as a means
to disseminate political messages, learn about the interests and needs of constituents and the broader
public, raise funds, and build networks of support. These activities often take place on privately run
social networking sites that allow political figures and institutions to communicate with the public in
unmediated, high-profile fora. In Canada, many parliamentarians have created accounts on popular sites
such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace and Flickr. The content posted on these sites may relate to policy
issues and the official work of politicians or to aspects of their personal lives (Clark, 2012)
Some people argue that social media remove barriers to collective action and empower citizens to
influence and monitor the work of policy-makers by offering a low-cost and, in some cases, more
personal and compelling means of raising funds, spreading information and recruiting supporters from a
broad range of backgrounds. In addition, some note that, by enabling people to connect across long
distances, new information and communication technologies, including social media, have been
instrumental in the growth of transnational political movements.
However, results of a recent Nanos poll suggests that social media–based political activism remains at
the fringes in Canada (Clark, 2013). According to these findings, approximately 50% of Canadians believe
that Facebook groups should have minimal to no impact on government, and approximately 30% have a
negative to somewhat negative view of the use of Facebook groups to share ideas and mobilize activity.
At the same time, others argue that these numbers are promising, given that the culture of social media
activism is still at an early stage in its development; they emphasize that, according to the same poll,
approximately 30% of Canadians held a positive or somewhat positive view of Facebook-based
campaigns.
Young people in Canada demonstrate low levels of trust and interest in political institutions and
representatives, and are less likely to vote and join political parties than previous cohorts of young
Canadians. Because young people are avid users of social media, these technologies are often discussed
as one possible means by which young people may become more engaged in the democratic process.
Proponents of this argument also note that young people expect immediacy and interactivity when
communicating, an assumption that might be better accommodated by social media tools than by the
complex, bureaucratic communication channels of many governing institutions.
The use of social networking as a public relations tool is certainly a hot things among organizations.
The velocity and accessibility brought by these sites when it comes to information is truly impeccable. A
lot of things may still come up in the future, but as for now, if you want your business to get noticed,
you may want to use social media.
The dawn of the Internet as an innovation in itself has probably propelled a lot of changes and
advancements in a lot of sectors. Through the websites that they put up, they are able to inform people
about their products and services in a more efficient way. The use of electronic mail has also helped
them gauge their audience’s needs and wants as well as addressing to them in a quick way. The most
recent innovation in online business would be the usage of social media as a marketing tool. Social
networking sites, in particular have helped organizations in terms of their public relations with their
target audiences. The invasion of various businesses in these sites have been rampant, mainly because
of its advantages that has proven to be very effective in increasing visibility, revenue, and influence.
Read on to learn more about the power of social media marketing.
2.1.2 Local Literature
In this Digital Age, everyone seems to make his or her presence felt in the virtual world to validate
his or her existence. Getting connected through social networks and blog sites seems to be the norm,
not just among individuals, but also among companies and businesses. With this, the Honor Award
Program (HAP) of the Civil Service Commission (CSC) has ventured into social media to strengthen its
promotional strategies of the Program.
Commission on Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Chairman Ivan John E. Uy said
that social networking sites can be a useful tool in public service delivery. “The use of Facebook and
Twitter in government offices provides better access to the public,” he said in an interview aired over
DZRB.
There are 24 million Internet users in the Philippines, 51% of which use social networking sites. Social
media is an effective platform for information dissemination and engagement.“It’s about time to engage
with our stakeholders. There are 1.4 million government workers all over the country. Filipinos should
hear of the inspiring stories of our outstanding public servants. Being on Facebook is one way to reach
out to the public that we serve,” said CSC Chairman Francisco T. Duque III.
The Pangasinan provincial government is vigorously pushing people empowerment, including
generating greater public awareness on various government programs through the use of social
networking sites. Pursuing this thrust, the provincial government led by Gov. Amado Espino Jr.
conducted a multi-sector bloggers’ orientation seminar last June 1 at the Pangasinan Development and
Training Center here. The participants included provincial department heads, chiefs of hospitals,
administrative officers and staff, and IT personnel of different departments of the provincial
government.
Vangie Padilla, a social media specialist and resource speaker, said Espino wanted to raise the level of
quality of public service given to the 2.6 million Pangasinenses. Since there are now some 300,000
Pangasinenses who are on Facebook, Padilla said Espino thought of coping with the times by “switching
from the traditional to cyberspace.”
“Since Pangasinan is now dubbed as No. 1 province in many aspects, Gov. Espino opts to explore
greater heights of bringing government service closer to the people, having seen the intense impact of
social media like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube among Pangasinenses,” Padilla said. Coinciding with
the half-day orientation was the launching of Espino’s social networking sites –
www.twitter.com/governorespino, www.youtube.com/governorespino and
www.facebook.com/governorespino
The public is invited to get in touch with the governor, learn more about the province and the
various programs and projects of the provincial government using these social networking sites in just
few clicks. Provincial employees lauded the project, expressing their full support to the cause by putting
their own group page so they can post their regular activities and enable the public to keep track of the
efforts of the provincial government.
A series of orientation seminars is underway for all provincial employees, high school and college
students, Sangguniang Kabataan officials, and various sectors in the province. Tutorial for government
employees on social networking is also set to fully realize the project.
The Philippines has been on the World Wide Web since the early 90s. MozCom was the first
commercially available Internet provider in the Philippines, starting in 1994.
In early 2000, via the Electronic Commerce Act or Republic Act 8792, the Philippine government
mandated that every department should have a presence on the web. This was to allow the public
access to information as well as a means to communicate with their duly elected politicians.
There are different levels of web presence required of the government. The hierarchy, from the most
basic to the highest, is:
o Emerging Web Presence level could be just a simple static website with details of the respective
agency and contact information.
o Enhanced Web Presence includes regularly updated data, a portal to other departments or
government agencies, and a section where users can download documents.
o Interactive Web Presence means more dynamic websites. Information must be updated on a daily or
weekly basis. Documents and forms can be downloaded before submitting them to the agency. Search
features should also be available. Transactional Web Presence means the user can perform secure
transactions completely on the site, without the need for filling out paper forms and documents.
o The fifth and most important level is Fully Integrated Web Presence. Here the government agency
should be able to provide all requirements through two-way communication such email or instant
messaging. There should be social networking information, and documents and forms should be
available from a single website. This gives the public a direct means of sending feedback, and increases
opportunities for almost instantaneous responses from the agency in question.
At this point, many departments just barely qualify for the third level, while a few are already exploring
the fourth level. Very few governments around the world have the equivalent of the fifth level of web
presence.
All government websites operate under guidelines set by the Office of the President to standardize the
quality of government web presence. This is implemented and monitored by the Department of Trade
and Industry (http://dti.gov.ph). These are followed according to the different types of service provided
by the department, which include the agency working with the public, another government agency or a
business. Some departments already allow applications online, filing or permits and payment. Ecommerce services are also in place for the convenience of businesses and corporations. The
standardization allows the agencies to scale their deployment on the web in phases, which ensures that
they are able to bring the best service without unnecessary expense or inconvenience to the public.
In recent months, certain government agencies have proven to be valuable in providing information
to the public. Such services are useful particularly in
times of crisis, both natural and man-made, such as war in countries where there are many Filipinos, or
random natural calamities. Part of the government’s job is to make information available to the public.
In the past, this was done through TV, radio or printed newspapers. However this means that the
information is at least a few hours old. The Internet makes all information available almost in real time,
making it the ideal tool in reporting news as it happens, not as it happened hours ago.
Any Filipino citizen should know where to look for information regarding our government. You need
look no further than The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines (http://www.gov.ph). This
site is a portal to other government websites and is managed at the Office of the President of the
Philippines. It includes news reports, official press releases and a directory of other government
websites. The government website directory includes the Office of the President
(http://president.gov.ph) and the Office of the Vice President (http://ovp.gov.ph)
But due to the recent earthquake in Japan, many citizens are questioning the capability of our
government to react to a natural calamity of that magnitude. The official website of the Philippine
Institute of Volcanology and Seismology or PHIVOLCS (http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph) provides
information on disasters arising from volcanic eruptions, earthquake and tsunami. PHIVOLCS,
meanwhile, operates under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) (http://dost.gov.ph).
Since the civil war in Libya started in February, thousands of Overseas Filipino Workers have been
clamoring to return to the Philippines. The unstable political climate in the Middle East highlights the
need for a single source of information for OFWs and their families. There are a number of government
agencies working together to help these displaced workers evacuate quickly and safely. The first is the
Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) (http://dfa.gov.ph), which has been in negotiations with the
governments on nations in turmoil and the neighboring countries where our countrymen can seek
refuge. Another invaluable resource is the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)
(http://www.owwa.gov.ph).
As we move into the 21st century, more and more government agencies are working to improve
their web presence to include social networking, which is now more than just a new buzzword thrown
around in meetings. The information that was disseminated across various demographics at Edsa II
shows that it’s not just the youth you can reach with technology. Older generations will not be left
behind. The sites are becoming increasingly easy to use and the convenience is starting to outweigh the
alternatives. Waiting in line at the Land Transportation Office (LTO) (http://www.lto.gov.ph) for your
driver’s license will soon be part of the past.
The Internet is information, it is convenience, it is here. You had best embrace it, or you’ll be the only
one who’ll be waiting in line.
2.2 Related Studies
2.2.1 Foreign Studies
Online social networking presents both opportunities and risks to young people. According to
Davies and Cranston (2012), Online social networking presents many opportunities to young people by
making it easier for them to, amongst other things: publish creative works to local and global audiences;
stay in touch and communicate with peers; find and interact with people with shared interests; organize
and co-ordinate political engagement and action; for virtual volunteering; and to engage in self
expression. However, online social networking can also expose young people to new risks. Risks from:
inappropriate content; commercialism and unsuitable advertising; inappropriate or offensive conduct on
SNS; criminal activities such as identity theft; and inappropriate contact (online and offline) from
strangers – which may include grooming and in the most serious cases, sexual abuse.
For many young people, online social networking is not a distinct activity, but is part of day-to-day
life, communication and interaction with peers. This can lead to some 'risks' crossing over into, and
potentially being amplified by, SNS. Both young people and youth workers identify bullying on SNS as
one of the most significant negative issues linked to online social networking (Davies and Cranston,2008)
Moreover, Davies and Cranston (2014) said that group and communication tools on social
networking sites can provide ways to keep young people in touch with services and with each other, to
build bridges between different groups, and to promote ongoing collaboration on projects between
faceto-face sessions. Social network sites can provide a platform for sharing young people’s creative
efforts, or for enabling young people to have a public voice on issues that affect them. Online social
networking also offers the potential for new forms of online outreach work or for working with groups
with shared interests from across a wide geographical area (e.g. online work with socially excluded
young people, young people from rural areas)
Young people can be seen as valued stakeholders within the greater society. Youth participation
opens the door, not only for the meaningful inclusion of young people in decision-making processes that
affect their lives, but also in the planning, design and delivery of related goods and services.
There is a strong argument in favor of youth participation from a human rights perspective. The
internationally recognized UN Convention on the Rights of the Child outlines the rights of children and
young people to participate in decision-making processes that affect their lives. The mere presence of a
youth delegate at a high level
meeting or conference may challenge a greater consciousness of youth issues and concerns during
deliberations. UNESCO has developed the concept of youth mainstreaming, which goes beyond the
dimension of youth specific themes and looks at the importance of a youth perspective on all aspects of
social, political and economic life.
It “denotes a process for a meaningful engagement and broad integration of young people into
structures and activities of social development on a daily basis. It requires consistent, committed youthadult cooperation at every level, where young people are recognized as equal and valuable partners. A
youth mainstreaming approach aims to support young people to fulfil their roles effectively and to take
their right place in the society”.