Research Methods and Thesis Writing I. Second edition Laurentia P. Calmorin Melchor A. Calmorin 2007 Rex Bookstore, Inc. Meaning and Characteristics of Research A. Research- the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that links an individual’s speculation with reality. - Systematic study of event/trend which involves careful collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that relates man’s thinking with reality. B. Characteristics of Research 1. Logical- based on valid procedures and principles. Systematic examination of the procedures used in the research enables the investigator to draw valid conclusion. 2. Empirical- based on direct experience or observation by the researcher. 3. Cyclical- cyclical process in a way that it starts with a problem and ends with a problem. 4. Critical- exhibits careful and precise judgement. 5. Methodical- conducted in methodical process without bias using systematic method and procedure. 6. Analytical- utilizes proven analytical procedure in gathering the data. 7. Replicability- research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results. Replicability of the study means using of the same instruments, method, and procedure but to different subjects and venue. C. Qualities of a Good Researcher 1. Research-oriented 2. Efficient 3. Scientific 4. Effective 5. Active 6. Resourceful 7. Creative 8. Honest 9. Economical 10. Religious D. Characteristics of the Researcher 1. Intellectual curiosity- undertakes deep thinking and inquiry of the things problems, and situations around him. 2. Prudence- careful to conduct the research and uses the 7Ms (manpower, money, materials, method, machinery, moment of time, and marketing) to avoid danger. 3. Healthy criticism- the researcher is always doubtful as to the veracity of the results. 4. Intellectual honesty- honest to collect facts to arrive at honest results. 5. Intellectual creativity- productive and resourceful investigator always creates new research. E. Values of Research to Man 1. Improves the quality of life 2. Improves instructions 3. Research improves students’ achievement 4. Research improves teachers’ competence 5. Research satisfies man’s needs 6. Research reduces the burden of work 7. Research has deep-seated psychological aspects 8. Research improves the exportation of food products 9. Research responds to the economic recovery and austerity measure of the country 10. Research trains graduates to become responsible to the economic development of the country and compete globally. - Four mandated functions of SUCs: instruction, research, extension, and production. F. Types of Research 1. Basic research- A.K.A fundamental research/ pure research, it seeks to discover basic truths or principles. The results of basic research in theoretical knowledge have no immediate usefulness or value to man. 2. Applied research- type of research involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem such as the development of new system/procedure/ device/ method in order to solve problem. Applied research produces knowledge of practical use to man. 3. Developmental research- this is a decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing practices. G. Classification of Research 1. Library research- done in the library where answers to specific questions or problems of the study are available. 2. Field research- research is conducted in a natural setting. 3. Laboratory research- research is conducted in artificial or controlled conditions by isolating the study in a thoroughly specified and equipped area. - The purposes are: (1) to test hypotheses derived from theory, (2) to control variance under research conditions, and (3) to discover the relations between the dependent and independent variables. H. Variable - Quantity susceptible of fluctuation or change in value or magnitude under different conditions. 1. 5 Types of Variables a. Independent variable- the stimulus variable which chosen by the researcher to determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon (the one being manipulated). b. Dependent variable- response variable which is observed and measured to determine the effect of the independent variable. It changes when the independent variable varies. c. Moderator variable- secondary/ special type of independent variable chosen by the researcher to determine if it changes or modify the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. d. Control variable- variable that is controlled by the investigator in which the effects can be neutralized by eliminating or removing the variable (Quantities that a scientist wants to remain constant). e. Intervening variable- variable which interferes with the independent and dependent variables, but its effects can either strengthen or weaken the independent and dependent variables. Illustration (experimental) Independent variables Intervening Variables Pelletes (Feed) 5% 10% 15% Oxygen Salinity Temperature pH Dependent variables Survival rate Illustration (Descriptive) Independent variables Academic Rank I. II. Intervening Variables Age, gende, civil status, experiences, values Dependent variables Research performance Components of Research Process Problem/ objectives Hypothesis Theoretical/ conceptual framework Assumptions Review of related literature Research design Data collection Data processing and statistical treatment Analysis and interpretation Summary, conclusion, and recommendations Research Problem and Objectives A. Five Factors to consider if the problem is researchable or not: 1. The problem is existing in the locality or country but no known solution to the problem; 2. The solution can be answered by statistical methods and techniques; 3. There are probable solutions but not yet tested; B. C. D. E. F. G. H. 4. The occurrence of phenomena requires scientific investigation to arrive at precise solution; 5. Serious need of the people. Characteristics of a Research problem 1. Specific 2. Measurable 3. Achievable 4. Realistic 5. Time-bound Sources of Research Problem 1. Specialization of the researcher 2. Current and past researches 3. Recommendations from theses, dissertations, and research journals 4. Original and creative ideas of the researcher based on the problems met in the locality and country. Criteria of a Good Research Problem 1. Interesting 2. Innovative 3. Cost-effective 4. Relevant to the needs and problems of the people 5. Relevant to government’s thrusts 6. Measurable and time-bound Research Objectives - “statement of purpose for which the investigation is to be conducted” (Ardales, 1992) - Guide to be accomplished by the researcher. Statement of Research problem/objectives - Both have the same characteristics (SMART) but differ in form. The former is stated in interrogative/ question form and the latter is in declarative form. Hypothesis - Defines as wise guess that is formulated and temporarily adopted to explain the observed facts covered by the study. - A hypothesis guides the researcher that it describe the procedure to follow in conducting the study. 1. Types of Hypothesis a. Null Hypothesis (𝐻𝑜 ) is denial of an existence of a trait, characteristic, quality, value, correlation, difference of the result. - Always treated in negative form. 2. Alternative Hypothesis (𝐻1 ) is an affirmative of the existence of phenomena. Theoretical and conceptual Framework - Some uses both, but it is advisable to use only one. - Both provide clear explanation regarding the relationship of variables. 1. Theoretical framework-shapes the justification of the research to provide legal basis for defining parameters. - It is required to identify the key concepts that are used in the study/ formulate existing theories which link the study. - Uses abstract concepts, facts, laws, variables and their relations to explain. 2. Conceptual Framework- presents specific and well defined concepts which are called constructs. Example (Experimental Research) Level Independent Variables Theoretical Lantay and Hanging Methods Conceptual Lantay and Hanging Methods Example (Descrptive Research) Level Independent Variables Theoretical Academic rank Conceptual Col./Univ. professor Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Instructor I. III. IV. Intervening Variables Ecological Parameters Dependent Variables Yield of Eucheuma Temperature, Oxygen, pH, and salinity 900 kg 700 kg Intervening Variables Dependent Variables Value Values, Attitude toward works, socioeconomic status, age, civil status, gender Performance Outsatnding, Very satisfactory,Satisfactory, Fair, Unsatisfactory Assumptions – presumed to be true statements or facts related to the research problem. J. Significance of the Study-presented to convince the screening committee the importance of the study. a. Inductive perspective- states the importance of the study from particular to general. From target beneficiary, researcher, people, community, province, region and nation. b. Deductive perspective- from general to particular. K. Scope and Limitations of the Study - Includes the coverage of the study area, subject, apparatus, instrument, concern, duration, and constraints. L. Definition of Terms - Two ways of defining the key terms used: a. Conceptual definition- based on concepts which are dictionary, encyclopedia, and journals. b. Operational definition- based on observable characteristics and how it is used in the study. Review of related Literature - Related means the legal base, literature, and studies which have direct bearing or relation to the present study. A. Related Legal Bases- are laws and department directives such as circulars, orders, memoranda, and others which are related to the present study. B. Related literature- any materials published in book, journal, magazine, novel, poetry, yearbook, and encyclopedia. C. Related Studies- published and unpublished research studies segregated into foreign and local study. Qualities of a Good Research Instrument - 3 Qualities of Good research instruments are: Validity, reliability, and usability. V. A. Validity- the degree to which a test or measuring instruments measures what it intend to measure. Validity is always specific in relation. 1. 4 Types of Validity a. Content validity- means the extent to which the content or topic of the test is truly representative of the course content. Content validity is particularly appropriate for the criterion-referenced measure. b. Concurrent Validity- degree to which the test agrees/ correlates with a criterion set up as an acceptable measure. c. Predictive Validity- determined by showing how well predictions made from the test are confirmed by evidence gathered at some subsequent time. d. Construct validity- extent to which the test measures a theoretical construct or traits. B. Reliability- extent to which a research instrument is dependable, consistent, and stable (Meriam, 1975). However, a reliable test may not always be valid. 1. Testing the reliability of a Good Research Instrument. a. Test-retest method- this method use same instrument and administered twice to the same group of subjects and the correlation coefficient is determined. - Spearman rank correlation of coefficient of Spearman rho is the statistical used to measure the relationship between paired ranks assigned to individual scores on two variables of test-retest. 2. Parallel-forms method- Parallel or equivalent forms of a test may be administered to the group of subjects and the paired observation correlated. 3. Split-half method- administered once, but the test items are divided into two halves. - The reliability coefficient of a whole test is estimated by Spearman-Brown formula. 4. Internal-consistency method- this method used psychological test which consist dichotomously scored items. - The method of obtaining reliability coefficient is determined by KuderRichardson Formula 20. This formula measure internal consistency of research instrument. C. Usability- degree to which the research instrument can be satisfactorily used without undue expenditure (practicality). 1. Factors to Determine Usability a. Ease of administration b. Ease of Scoring c. Ease of interpretation and application d. Low cost e. Proper mechanical make-up Research Designs A. Four Kinds of Research Designs: 1. Historical Design- scientific critical inquiry of the whole truth of past events using critical method in understanding and interpretation of facts which are applicable to current issues. a. Major Steps of Historical Research (Good and Scates, 1972) Collection of data, with consideration of documents and remains of primary and secondary sources, bibliographical procedure, and organization of materials; Criticism of the data collected; and Presentation of facts. b. Sources of Historical Research Primary sources o Documents o Remains Secondary Sources 2. Descriptive Design- focuses at the present condition.